M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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them to meet ?

Gregory replies, That fince Aujlin was now the only
Bilhop in England, he might conjecrate others without any
Affiftance. But in order to avoid the like Inconvenience for
the future, he would have him place Bifhops fo, as that they
might not be at too great a Diftance from one another.

VII. Qite/lion. How ought I to manage with the Bi-
fhops of Gaul ?

The Pope tells him, That he allows him no manner of
Jurifdiclion over them, becaufe he had no defign to deprive
the Archbifhop of Aries of the Authority he was in poflef-
fion of.

VIII. Shijlion. Whether a Woman with Child ought
to be baptized ?

The Pope anfwers, He faw no Inconvenience attending
it.



IX. QueJIion. How long after her lying in, ought a
Woman to come into the Church ?

Anfwer. If fhe comes into the Church the minute after
her Delivery, fhe fins not.

. X - ^i/lion. How long after the Birth, ought the bap-
tizing ot an Infant to be deferr'd ?

Anfwer. A Child may be baptiz'd the Moment he is
born.

XI. Queftion. How long, after a lying-in, muft it be
before a Man and his Wife come together again ?

Gregory is very large in his Anfwer, and takes occafion to
blame Mothers for not (tickling their own Children attri-
buting the Rife of fo ill a Cuftom to their Incontinence
And therefore he decides, that the Husband ou-ht not to
have to do with his Wife till the Child is wean'd (2)
. XI1 - $uJHon. May a Woman, during fome certain
times, come into the Church ?

The Pope fays a great deal on this head, and concludes
Womens Infirmities ought to be no Obftacle to their going
to Churcli and praying to God.

XIII. ghicjlion. May a Man that has lain with his Wife
come into the Church or receive the Sacrament, before he
has wafh'd himfelf?

The Pope here, as ufual, makes a great many Diftinc-
tions, and concludes, fuch a Man had better abftain from
both for fome time.

XIV. ^uejlion. May a Man after an Impure Dream
receive the Communion, or if he be a Prieft, adminifter

The Pope's Anfwer is full of Diftindlions about what is
and what is not Sin : And concludes at laft, a Man in the
Cafe mention'd ought not to communicate. He gives leave
however, for a Piieft in the fame Cafe, to adminifter the
Sacrament, if there is no other in the way to officiate for
him.

Thefe are the Difficulties Aujlin wanted the Pope to re-
folve, which don't ferve to give us any great Idea of the
Abilities of this famous Apoftle. However, Gregory thought
fit to anfwer them fully and diftindtly, as if they had been
of the utmoft Importance. He had the Converfion of the
tnglijh fo much at heart, that inftead of giving Aujlin the
leaft Discouragement, he extoll'd him mightily. '

Aujiin's Care was not confin'd to the Converfion of the Bede, 1.
Saxons only. He undertook alfo, what feem'd to him no c ' *
lefs worthy of his Zeal, the bringing the Britijh Bifhops to
a conformity with the Roman Church (3), and the making
them acknowledge the Pope's Jurifdidtion. As this is a re-
markable Circumftance of Aujiin's Life, it will be neceffary
to enlarge upon it a little. This Defign of his was not eafy
to be executed. The Britons thought they could juftify
their adhering to the fame Rites and Cuftoms they had pra-
ftis'd ever fince the Converfion of Britain. Befides, they
could not conceive, upon what grounds they were oblig'd
to conform to a Church fo remote, or what Advantage the
owning the Pope's Authority would be to them. Thefe
Difficulties did not difcourage Aujlin. He had, befides his
Zeal for the See of Rome, another, and perhaps no lefs pow-
erful Motive, to induce him to this Undertaking, which
was his Claim to the Primacy of all Britain, by virtue of the
Pope's Grant. Now, this he could never hope to attain,
whilft the Britijh Churches were independent of the Pope.
He applied therefore all his Endeavours to accomplifh this
Enterprize, which coft him more Pains and Trouble than
the Converfion of the Saxons, without having after all the
Satisfaction of reaping the Fruits of his Labour.

The Gofpel, as I before obferv'd, was preach'd in Bri-
tain, either by the Apoftles themfelves, or by fome of their
Difciples. From thofe early Days, the Britons had con-
ftantly adher'd to the Cuftoms and Rules prefcrib'd to them
by their firft Teachers. But the Church of Rome had made
feveral Innovations in the Divine Service, to which they
pretended all other Churches ought to conform. The op-
pofition the Bifhops of Rome every where met with, was
not capable to make them drop their Pretenfions. Altho'
this Difference was of no great confequence, it caus'd how-
ever, towards the end of the fecond Century, a moft fcan-
dalous Quarrel between Pope Victor I, and the Churches
of Afia ; which rofe to that Height, that the Pope for
no other reafon excommunicated them All. This Affair
had never been judicially decided : yet for all that the Bi-
fhops of Rome ftuck to their Claims, and did all that lay
in their power to compafs their Ends. The Wejlern
Churches, as neareft Rome, were leaft difficult to be pre-
vailed with. Almoft All, except the Churches of Gaul
and Milan, conform'd at length to the Roman Ritual.



67



Clergymen that cannot contain, may marry •



(1) Here in f>me Books is the fecond Qucftion inferted, which runs thus: / dejire to knoiu, ivhctbc
ana ij tbey marry, whether they muft return to a fecu/ar Life? See iSfelman Cone, Vol. I. p. 96,

(2) However, he allows thole that do not fuckle their Children, to come together after the ufual time of Purgation.

(3) Pix. about the Celebration of E after, Bede, 1.2. c. 2. Huntingd. p. 325. The Britons ufed, for rinding Eafter, the Cycle of eighty-four years,
which was called the Roman Account. But about eighty yeais after the renting of the Roman Empire, the Romans left oft" the ufe of that Cycle, and took up
another ot nineteen years \ and when they had ufed this about eighteen years, coming then to have to do with thefe northern Nations, they would needs have
imputed the ufe of it upon them, as a Condition ot their Communion ; and this was what Auflin attempted to do. Sec Bp Lloyd'' 't Hi jior . Account , p. 67, &c.

* But



63



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol: I.



Bat Britain, being ftill as it were out of the World, had,
fir.ee the Eir.baffv of Lucius to Pope Eleutherius, held very
little Communication with the Bifhops of Rome. 1 he
Britons confider'd them only as Bifhops of a particular
Diocefe, or at moft but as Patriarchs, on whom the Britijh
Church had not the leaft Dependence. So far were they
from owning the Pope's Authority, that they did not lo
much as know, he pretended to have any over them. But
Aujiin, out of the abundance of his Zeal for the S,
Rome, took upon him to bring them to acknowledge
Pope as Head of the Church in general. It is a difficult
matter to know how far Auftiris Defigns reach'd, fince it
docs not appear he had any Injlruclions from Gregory I. who
afpir'd not to that exorbitant Power attributed afterwards to
his Succeffors. It rauft however be own'd, that Gregory
laid claim to a Superiority over the Britijh Churches, fince
in his Letter to Aujiin, he put the whole Mand entirely
under the Jurifdiftion of the new Archbifhop. Indeed it
is not to be fuppos'd Aujiin would have infifted fo much
upon that Point, had he not been fure of being fupported
in it. However this be, he left no Stone unturn'd to at-
tain his Ends. .

The beft way, as he thought, of proceeding in this
Affair, was to get the Britijh Bifhops to meet him in a
Synod, in order to debate upon what he had to propofe^o



a long
refufe



them. This being agreed to, he omi



tted nothing that



602.

I'lhcr dc
Prim.
Bede, I. 1,



Rog. de
Hov.



G. Monm,
M. Weft.



might win them to dcTas he defired. But neither Promi-
fes nor Threats could prevail with the Britijh Prelates, to
admit of the leaft Change in their antient Cuftoms. Bede
tells us that Aujiin, finding no good was to be done by Ar-
guments, caufed a Saxon blind Man to be brought into the
Affembly, and when the Britons had tried in vain to cure
him, he reftor'd him to his Sight by his Prayers. But,
whether the Miracle admitted of fome Difpute, becaule
the blind Man was a Saxon ; or Bede, who lived long af-
ter the Fact, was wrong informed ; the Britons flood out
againft this Evidence. All Aujiin could obtain, was, that
they would meet again and determine the Matter in a
more numerous Synod ( 1 ). At this fecond Council were
prefent feven Britijh Bifhops (z), accompanied with Di-
noth Abbot of Bangor, who brought feveral of his Monks
along with him. Before they came to the Synod, they
advifed with a Hermit of great Repute among them, how
they fhould behave in this Affair. The good old Man
told them, he faw no reafon to admit of any Alterations in
their Divine Service upon the bare Requeft of a Man to
them entirely unknown : But however, as the Effence of
Religion confifted in Union and Charity, it would not
be amifs to comply in fome meafure with Aujiin, provi-
vided he was a Holy Man, and one fent from God.
Whereupon the Bifhops defired to be informed, how they
fhould know whether he was fuch a Perfon or not. He
replied, they fhould know it by his Humility, the moft un-
queftionable Mark of a true Chriftian : and they would
fee whether he was endued with this Virtue, by his refpect-
ful rifing up to falute them at their coming into the Coun-
cil-Room; for if he paid them not that Civility, it was a
fure Token of his Pride. Purfuant to this Advice, they
took care to come laft upon the Place. And upon Au-
Jiin's not ftirring from his Seat to falute them, they concei-
ved an invincible Prejudice againft him. Thus for a De-



Jlin defpairing to overcome their Obftinacy, after

Difpute, cried out, full of Indignation, Since you

Peace from your Brethren, you Jha/l have War front your

Enemies ; and fince you will not join with us in preaching

the IVord of eternal Life to tour Neighbours, you jhall receive

Death at their Hands. Hence it appears, that Aujiin had

not only prefled the Britons to a Conformity with the

Church of Rome, and Obedience to the Papal Authority,

of but alfo had reproached them for their Negligence and

the want of Zeal, in not promoting the Converfion of the

Saxons. Perhaps he defigncd to intimate to them, that

the Converfion of all England ftuck only at the Union he

propofed to them. However this be, thefe Words of

Aujiin were looked upon as a Prediction of the Majfacre

of the Monks of Bangor, mentioned in the Hiftory of

Northumberland. 1 lea\ e the Reader to judge whether tile

Non-compliance of the Abbot of Bangor to Aujiin % Pro-

pofal, was a Crime of fuch a Nature as to deferve fo fe-

vere a Punifhment.

Aujiin not having the Succefs he expec/fed in this Affair,
confined himfelf within the true Bounds of his Miffion,
and caufed the Gofpel to be preached to the Eajl-Saxons
by Mcllitus, one of the Mijfionaries fent him by the Pope,
of whom I fhall fpeak more fully, when I come to the
Converfion of that Nation.

Thefe, in fhort, are the TranfacYions of Aujiin, com-
monly called the Apojlle of the Englijh, during the eight
Years he lived in England. He arrived in 597, and
died in 605, according to the generally-received Opinion.
Some affirm he died fooner, and others, though without
grounds, bring his Death down to 61 3 (4). He was bu-
ried at Canterbury near the Cathedral, which was not then
finifhed, with this Infcription on his Tomb (5):



604.



Here lies Auguftin, the fitjl Archbijhop of Dorobern, Bede, 1. 2.
•who having been fent hither by Gregory Pontiff of Rome, c ' 3 "
and fupported by the Co-operation of God with Miracles,
converted King Ethelbert and his Nation to the Faith ; and
having accomplijhed the Days of his Minijlry, departed this
Life the ~tb of the Calends of June, in the Reign of the faid
King.

Aujiin was fucceeded by Laurentius (6), who was as Malmfb.
follicitous to reduce the Britons to the Obedience of the G- Pontlf "
Pope, and a Conformity to the Roman Church in the cervas.
Celebration of Eajler. He wrote very preffing Letters to Bede, 1. 2.
them, wherein he upbraided them for their Obftinacy, Ci +•
bitterly complaining, that a Scotch Bifhop, Dagham by
name, paffing through Canterbury, had refufed to eat with
him, on account of their difference of Opinion concerning
Eajlcr-Day. But his Letters proved of no EffecL

Gregory I. pretended not to a Jurifdidtfon over the
Britijl) Churches, as Univerfal Bijhop ; a Title he was fo
far from affuming, that he had declaimed againft it with
great Diflike. However, in all appearance, he believed
he might as Patriarch of the Weft, claim the Obedience
of the Britijl) as well as Englijh Bifhops, to his fpiritual
Jurifdicfion. But Boniface IV, who not long after Gre-
gory I, was promoted to the See of Rome, feeing fupported
by the Emperor Phocas, took upon him the Title of
Univerfal Bijlwp. This was a frefh Motive for the Mif-



fault in point of Civility, his whole Scheme that had coft fonaries in England to renew their Endeavours to bring the



Dinoth'r
Speech to
Auftin.
Spelman
Conc.VoI.
p. 108.



Bede, 1.
c.8.



him fo much Pains and Trouble, fell to the Ground

As Aujiin in the Synod was earneftly preffing the Britons
to fubmit to the Pope, and carrying the Papal Prerogatives
to a great height, Diuoth, Abbot of Bangor, made him
this Anfwcr : " You propofe to us Obedience to the
" Church of Rome ; are you ignorant that we already owe
" a Deference to the Church of God, to the Bifhop of
" Rome, and to all Chriftians, of Love and Charity,
" which obliges us to endeavour by all poffible means to
" affift and do them all the good we can r Other Obe-
" dience than this to him you call Pope, we know not
" of, and this we are always ready to pay. But for a
" Superior, what need have we to go fo far as Romty
" when we are governed, under God, by the Bifhop of
" Cacrleov, who hath Authority to take care of our
" Churches and Spiritual Affairs? (3)." It is faid, Au-



Britons to own his Authority; but they could not prevail
with them. And therefore Mcllitus was fent to Rome
for bjlruclions from the Pope upon this Head. But the
Death of Ethelbert (7), which happened in the mean
time, caufed them to lay afide all Thoughts of this Mat-
ter, and reduced the Chriftians to a deplorable Condition.
Edbald Son and Succeffor of Ethelbert, being turned Pagan
again, the Millenaries loft that powerful Protection thev
had till then fo profperoully enjoyed. To compleat their
Misfortunes, Sebert King of Ejfx, who had been conver-
ted by Mcllitus, dying alio a little after (8), his three Sons
who jointly fucceeded him, apoftatiz'd from Chriftianity,
and forbad Mcllitus, who was come back from Rome, to
remain in their Dominions. He fled to Laurentius Arch-
bifhop of Canterbury, as did alfo Jujlus Bifhop of Ro-
chejhr, the Inhabitants of that Place having in all appear-



606.



61 J.



(1) This Synod was held at Auguflin %- Ac or Oah, on the Frontiers of the tVefl-Saxons, very likely in Worcejlctjkirt. Beds, 1.2. c. 2. Sfcl-
tian fuppofes it m : ar Aiefric, (contracted tor Aujlm's ric) en the Borders of WorajUrjbin, towards Htrefbrd/birc. Cmcil. Vol. I. p. 107.

(2) Thofc of Hereford, Landaff, St. Patents, Bangor, Chiyd, Worceftcr, Morgan. See Sfelman Cone. Vol. I. p. 106 ; mi Camden.

(3) Eman. Schcljlratc, and other Rmujb Writers, pretend, that this Speech was forg'd fmce the Reformation. Set Bifinp I\ icolftm's Hijhr. titrar.
p. Cjl. and Spelman Cone. Vol. 1. p. 108, 109. *,*,„., r. •

(4) Bede fays he died in 604, 1. 2. c. 3. M. tVtfl. in 608. Hcjeden in 610. Trivet and Pcljd. Vtrg. <n 61 1. Malrlh. in 6lZ. See Spelman C.-:.

Vol. I. p- 93-

(5) The Infcription put upon his Tomb at firit, was,

Inclytus Anglorum praeful, piu', Se decus altum.
Hie Auguftinus recjuielcit corpore fandtus.

His Body wis after the finilhing of the Cathedral, rcmov'd by his SuccclTor Laurentius, into the North Porch of it; and the other Infcription
put upon his Monument. Bede, 1. 2. c. 3. Spelman Cone. Vol. I. p. 93.

(6) Whom he had confecrated Archbilhop before his Death. Bede, 1. 2. c. 3.

(7) Jtapin places Etbtlbcrt'z Death feveral Years fooner here than he did betcre in the Hiltcry of Kent. He died in 613, fays Beat, 1. 2. c. 5.
fow place! it ' k 'ivc in 616. Sq,ji»th Brompton, p. 737, 738.

if.) Brampton lays, that he did about the fame time as King Etlclbert; which, according to him, KisAnmOm. 5:6. p. -31, 738

1 ance



Book IN.



The Church of NORTHUMBERLAND.



69



Bcde, I. :

c 7 .



619.



624.

Eedc, 1. 2
c.S. iS.
Sax. Ann.



602.



fete, 1.4.



Bcde, !. 1
€.29.
6G9.



BM-. 1.



Journ. des
Sav.
J6 7 3.



ance abandoned the Faith. Thefe three Prelates, having
confultcd together, refolved upon going into Frame, and
leaving the reprobate Saxons to themfelves. This fhows
citlier that the people of Kent and Ejfex went all back to
Paganifm, or that there were not fo many converts as
Gregory was made to believe. Mellitus and jfu/hu went
oft', according to their Refolution ; but Laurentlus ftaid be-
hind, though with intent to follow them in a fhort time.
; , When he was ready to depart, it is affirm'd, that lying
one night in his Church, St. Peter appeared to him, and
fcourged him feverely, as a punifhment for ottering to
abandon his Miffion. The day after he went to Edbald,
and having fhewn him the marks of the fcourge, he con-
verted him, and perfuaded him to difengage himfelf from
his unlawful marriage ; he having taken his Father's wi-
dow to wife. So far is certain, Edbald was converted :
AH Hiftorians are unanimous in That : but I cannot war-
rant the truth of St. Peter's apparition. Edbald being
thus returned to the Faith, recalled 'Ju/ius and Mellitus,
and reftored them to their refpeftive Diocefes of Roehejier
and London. But the Eaji-Saxons at London refufing to
admit Mellitus, he returned to Kent, where he foon after
fucceeded Laurent 7 it s in the Archbiflioprick of Canter-
bury (1). He is faid by his prayers to have put a flop to
a great fire, that in all probability would have reduced
the City to allies, and to have wrought feveral other
miracles, with which I intend not to fwell this abridg-
ment.

Mellitus was fucceeded by Jujlus Bifhopof Rcchejler{i),
to whom the Pope fent the Pall. After him came Hono-
rlus, whole fucceffor was Denfdedit. After his death,
there was a vacancy for four years (3). Egbert and Of-
wy, Kings of Kent and Northumberland, having held a
conference together about the affairs of the Church, re-
folved to fend IVighard a Kenti/li Prieft to be confecrated
Archbifhop of Canterbury at Rome. IVighard dying there,
Vitalian the Pope caff, his eyes upon Adrian and Andrew,
two Monks, who both refuled the Archbifhoprick, as too
great a burden for them. Theodoras a Greek, Native of
Tarfus in Clllela, to whom it was alio offered, not having
the fame fcruples, was confecrated at Rome, and departed
for England. The Pope ordered Adrian to go with him,
left, fays a Hiltorian, Theodorus, being a Greek, might
introduce cuftoms in Britain contrary to thofe of the
Church of Rome. As this Prelate was the moft famous
that in thofe early times filled the See of Canterbury, it
will not be amifs to take a fuller view of him.

Theodoras was a Prelate of diftinguifhed worth, as well
for learning, as greatnefs of mind, and folidity of Judg-
ment. But he was of a warm and imperious temper,
a lover of power, and could ill brook any oppofition to
his Will. Whilft he was Archbifhop of Canterbury, he
had frequent opportunities of extending his jurifdievtion,
over all England, which he never neglected, as we fhall
fee hereafter in the account of the ecclefiaftical affairs of
the other kingdoms, particularly of Northumberland. I
mail only oblerve here, that during his Life, he alone ex-
crcifed the archiepifcopal functions, which gave him an op-
portunity of incroaching upon the rights of the See of Tori;
though Gregory I. had ordered, that after the death of Au-
ftin, the two Archbifhopricks mould be independent of
each other. As foon as he came into England, he made a
Vlfttation of all the Churches in hisjurifdiction, and brought
the People to a thorough conformity in the divine Service,
to the ufage of the Church of Rome.

As the Englijh were yet very ignorant, Theodorus en-
deavoured to the utmoft of his power to inftrucl: them,
by erecting a School or Seminary at Crecklade (4), where he
and Adrian, befides Divinity, taught Arithmetick, Mufuk,
Ajlronomy, Greek and Latin. Bede affures us, he knew
feveral of their Scholars, that could exprefs themfelves as
readily in Greek and Latin as in their own Language.
Theodorus was not fatisfied with promoting the love of
learning among the Englijh, by Exhortations and Inftruc-
tions only, but alfo by the Books he brought, and fent
for, into England; fome of which are (till extant in
Manufcript, as David's Pfalms, St. Chryfojlom's Homilies,
and Homer, all written in a beautiful Hand. He com-
pofed himfelf a large work called Pwnitcntiale, which re-
mained not long fince entire at Cambridge (5), but is not
to be found there now. In 1677, extracts of it, with fome
other of his treatifes, were publifhed at Paris, with notes
by Jacobus Petitus (6).



Theoelorus died in 690 ; but the See was not filled till two C92.
years after, by Berthwald Abbot of Reculver (7), who, Be<k > J - 5>
having been Archbifhop thirty eight years (8), gave place c- 9 ' * 4 "
by his death to Tatwine a perfon of great Learning and
probity. He exercifed his arcbiepifcopal functions near
two years before he received the Pall ; which is a clear
evidence it was not yet thought an abfolutely neceliary
qualification for an Archbifhop. Tatwine dying in 735, 73J,
Nothelm, a prieft of the Diocefe of London, fucceeded him,
and went and received the Pall at Rome, where he was con-
fecrated by Gregory III. He died in 741, and the year 74 2 *
following, Cuthbert Bifhop of Hereford, was chofen in his
room. To him fucceeded Bregwin of a noble family in 759*
Germany. This Prelate was exemplary for his religious Gerv "*
and holy life, during the two years he held the See. fam-
bert [or Lambert] Abbot of St. Aujlin's, was his fucceffor.
He had the mortification to fee the Churches of Mercia
and Eajl-Anglia wrcfted from his jurifdiction, by the _
erecting Lichfield into an Archbifhop's See, in the reign of
Ojfa. Notwithffanding all his endeavours, he could nei-
ther prevent it, nor recover his rights. Athelard his fuc-
ceffor was more fortunate, for he obtained what his prcde-
ceffor had fued for in vain. So the Churches of Mercia
and Eajl-Anglia were again fubject to the jurisdiction of
the See of Canterbury. JVulfrid who fucceeded him in
804, was living at the time the Heptarchy was reduced to
a Monarchy.

Before we leave the Church of Kent, it will be proper
to obferve, that Gregory's fcheme, who had ordered Can-
terbury and York fhould be both Archbifhops Sees, and in-
dependent of one another, remained unexecuted, upon fe-
veral accounts. In the firft place, the Northumbrians did
not receive the Gofpel fo foon as that Pope expected.
Again, They all deferted the Faith, after the retreat of
Paullnus, who had received the Pall. Laftly, the trou-
bles Northumberland was continually difturbed with, pre-
vented the firft Bifhops of York, from taking advantage of
the Pope's regulation, which befides they did not much re-
gard. This was the reafon Theodorus became poffeflcd of
all the Authority, as well over the northern, as fouthem
Churches, and tiiat his fuccefibrs making him their prece-
dent, laid claim to the Primacy of all England, exclufive
of the Archbifhop of York. This proved, in procefs of
time, the ground of great difputes between the two Arch- Stubb ''
bifhops.

The Church of Northumberland.

TTAving already given an account of Edwin's marriage
■■■ x with Ethelburga of Kent, I fhall only add, that P an-
imus, who accompanied her into Northumberland as Bi-
fhop of the Northumbrians, fpeni a whole year at Edwin's
court, without making any great progrefs among people
not yet difpofed to receive his Inftruclions. But at length
feveral accidents concurred to encourage his zeal and pro-
mote his defigns, of which I fhall give a particular rela-
tion.

§>uicelm, one of the Kings of IVeJfex, bore the yoke of
Edwin with that impatience, that he refolved to free him- Bedl ;' '" ~'
felf from it, by means of an Affaflin, whom he fent to sax.' Ann.
him on fome pretence, privately armed with a poifoned
dagger. The Ruffian being introduced into the prefence-



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