M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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It is needleis to repeat any more of their courfes.
Thefe I have mentioned are fufficient to (how, that Men
of this character fcrupled not to commit the moft enor-
mous Jniuflices, provided it was for the King's advan-
tage. Herein lefs blameable than the King himfelf, who
fuffered them to abufe thus his Name and Authority.
RmiAab!, We do not & n d ' n the Life of this Monarch, that he
;-.,^r... if ever exercifed one act of Grace in point of Fines or Con-
i *"*"' fifcations. On the contrary, he was always inflexible,
gj^ even with regard to his moft faithful Servants. His Hifto-
rian relates a very remarkable particular, which ferves to
difcover plainly the Character of this Prince. Of all the
Lords of the Kingdom, he had the moft confidence in the
Earl of Oxford, who had indeed done him the greateft
Services, as well in war as in peace. One day, the King
went to vifit him at his Caftle [ at Henninghajn ] and was
entertained with all poffible Magnificence. When the
King was ready to depart, he faw a great number of men
dreiled in rich Liveries, and ranged on both Sides to make
him a lane. The Earl it feems had forgot, that it was
forbid by feveral Acts of Parliament, to give Liveries, as
was obferved, to any but menial Servants, but the King
remembred it. Wherefore turning to the Earl, he faid,
My Lord, I have heard much of your Alagnificence and
Hofpitality ; but I find they exceed all report. Thefe hand-
jome Gentlemen and Teamen I fee on both Sides of me, are
jure your menial Servants. The Earl, not perceiving the
King's aim, fmiled and anfwered, he did not keep fo
many Domefticks, but thefe people were only his Retai-
ners, come to do him Service on fuch extraordinary occa-
fions. The King ftartled a little, and faid, By my Faith,
my Lord, I thank you for your good Cheer ; but I mujl
■ A fuffer to have my Laws broken before my face. My At-
urney mufil talk with you. The Hiltorian adds, this Tsef-
pafs coft the Earl fifteen thoufand Marks (4).

The fame Hiltorian fays, he had feen a Book of Ac-
counts of Empfon's, with the King's hand almoft to every
leaf, by way of Signing, and was in fome places poftilled
in the margin with the King's hand hkewife, where a-
mong many others was this Memorandum :

Item, Received of fuch a one, five Marks for the Pardon 1503.
to be procured, and if ike Pardon do not pafs, the ATeney
to be repaid ; except the party be fome other ways fatisf.ed.
And over againft this memorandum of the King's own
hand, was written bv him in the Margin, Otheiways Sa-
tisfied. He was unwilling to pardon the Man, and yet
could not refolve to reftore the five Marks. Hence it is
plain he did not neglett fmall profits.

It is eafy to guefs, the King's and the Miniftry's Con- j le EvUf
duct bred great difcontent and murmurs among the peo- S'lft'ulk'r
pie. The great Men themfelves meeting with no better Sf ""■*'
quarter than the meaneft, groaned under the eppreffion of Bacon.
Empfon and Dudley, two Leaches, who fpared neither
friend nor foe. The Earl of Suffolk whom the King had
lately pardoned, fancied, thefe difcontents would raife in
the end fome violent ftorm againft the King, if the peo-
ple could find a perfon of diftinction to head them. As
he was of the Houfe of Tork by hi.-. Mother, he imagined,
the time was come to profecute his Rights, and the peo-
ple would not fail to declare for him. In this belief he & „#*-
perfwaded feveral Lords and Gentlemen to promife to <iv,mi i«»
fupport him at a proper Seafon, and then retired into Flan- Fland " s -
ders, from whence he made his Friends expert a power-
ful aid bv means of the Duchefs of" Burgundy (5).

The King, furprized at the Earl of Suffolk's retreat, Henry Atf-
did not quellion that he had contrived fome plot in Etig- ***"* *"'
land before his departure, and had his Accomplices. To j'' c " n ;
be fullv informed, he believed the Left way was to recur
to the fame arts, he had ufed with refpect to Pcrkin War-
beck. To that end, he lent orders lo Sir Robert Curfon
Governor of the Caftle of Hammes near Calais, whom
he knew to be fit for his.purpofe, and entirely at his de-
votion. Purfuant to his Instructions, Curfon relinquishing
his Government, under colour of fome affront defignedh/
put upon him by the King, came to the Earl ot Suffolk
with offers of his Service. He played his part fo well,
that the Earl imparted to him all his Secrets. By this HnAcew.-
means the King came to know, that William Courtney t hc " °"
Earl of Devonjhire (6), married to Catherine, Edward the"^^ '
Fourth's Daughter, William de la Pole, Brother of the Sow.
Earl of Suffolk, Sir James Tyrrel, Sir John Windham, Bicon -
and feveral other meaner perfons, were concerned in the
plot. They were all apprehended in one day (7). But
as probably, there was not fufficient Evidence agajnft the
two firft, the King was contented with detaining them in
prifon. This gave occafion to think they were not guil-
ty, but that the King ufed this pretence to fecure them,
becaufe their relation to the Houfe of Tork made him un-
eafy. As for Tyrrel, againft whom the Blood of Ed-
ward V, and the Duke of Tork cried for vengeance, lie
was beheaded (8) with Windham his Accomplice. The
reft of inferior rank fuffered the punifhment of Trai-

Meanwhile, Henry defiring to be better informed of Tie a - .-*?
the Earl of Suffolk's Secrets, took care to prefervc Curjin's "J" "" '"'
credit, by an extraordinary method. He caufed Innocent ^.T.j"' 5 '
VIII's Bull ot Excommunication, to be published 3X. decent Urn.
Paul's-Crofs, againft all perfons that fhould diiturb him H ' 1
in the poileffion of the Throne, and particularly againft
the Eari of Suffolk and Sir Robert Curfon. But when he
had drawn from the Earl all his Secrets, he returned into
England, where he was gracioufly received by the King,
but the people looking upon him with horror, loaded
him with curies. The Earl of Suffolk being confounded Half,
by Curfon's flight, roved about for fome time in Germany, Stow.
and at length returned into Flanders, where the Arch-
duke, notwithstanding his Treaties with Henry, took him
into his protection.

The King knowing; the Earl had not in England z''^ '-'

° " mar rttipc

party capable to fuppcrt him, fhowed no fartiier uneafi- beiviK*
nef>. Another aftair troubled him much more. He had ttifn tcefi
now received a hundred thoufand Crowns of Gold, in part c> } f iy

' 1 a 1: 1 r • 1 •- . e

of the portion of the Frincefs of Wales his Daughter-in- Henry,
law, Arthur 's Widow. As that Prince died without Blue,
he mull either fend back the Widow to Spain, and con-
fequentlv return the hundred thoufand Crowns, or if he
kept her in England, give her the third part of the Prin-
cipality of Walrs (9), which was fettled upon her. Both
were equally grievous to a Prince of Henry's Temper.
Howexer, he could not difpenfe with one or other, with-
out breaking with Ferdinand, which did not agree with

(ll And filing them for Waidlhips, Liveries, Primier Seifines, Alienaricns, &i. Baccr. p. 630.

(2) They vexed Men 2II0 with lntrmatiros of Intrufion upon farce cokurable Titles. Ibid.

(3) The Lord Bac.n oblerves, that their principal working was up n penal Laws, wherein they ipared neither great r.< r 'mi.l, r. r conncVrcd
whether the Law was pciBble or impofiible, in ule, or oblblete : Ana had ever a Rabbic of Promoters and leading Jurors .t con.mar.c, :u ^s they
could have any thing found as they pleafcd. See Hall, foi. 57.

,4- It ii faid in the Original firteen hundred, but I fuppofe it it an error of the Printer, for the Lord Bacy. fays, fifteen tii< j land.
;; Hail leys, that the Earl having made a very great appearance at Prince Artcur't Marriage- Solemnity, hid thereby run himlelf cxiremel) it
~-b:. which was the occafion of his retiring now intu Flandert. fol. 54.

-i: was not ycz Earl of Devmjbire, for Jiis Father lived till 1510. See Dugdale'i Barzn, Vol. I. p. 640.
-] At the fame time were taken up Gesrg* Lcrd Abergavenny, and Sir Tb.mji Green, but upon lei's fui'picion, and therefore were loon lit a: U-
berry. Baun, p. 630 Hall, fol. 59.

On May the 6th. Hall, fol. 55. Stcr.v, p. 483.
^ •* And iikewife of the Dukedom of Ccn.wat, and Earldom of Cbeller, for a third of ail three was fettled up:n her. Ba.sn. fym '1 7u?'.
Tj». 11, p. 6S^ ; awl Tom. 13. p. 84.

4 his

Book XIV.

19. HENRY VI t



his prcfer.t circumftances. For indeed, the deference paid
him by all the other Princes, and particularly by the King
of France, was properly owing to his Strict Alliance with
the Spanijh Monarch. In this perplexity, he thought of a
very proper expedient to prefcrve the friendship of Ferdi-
nand, with the Sum already received, and procure him
the other hundred thoufand Crowns which remained to
be paid. And that was to marry Catherine to his Son
Henry, now Prince of JVales, by the death of his elder
Brother. The propofal being made to the King and
Queen of Spain, thev agreed to it, on condition the Pope's
Airumint Difpenfation was firft obtained. This was the Subject of
an agreement between the two Crowns, the 23d of June,
without a particular mention of the Articles of the in-
tended Marriage. It muft be obferved, that in this agree-
ment, it was alledged, as a neceflary reafon for demand-
in: the Difpenfation, not only that Arthur and Henry
were Brothers, but moreover that Arthur's Marriage with
Catherine was duly folemnized and confummated.

Alexander VI dying in the mean time, Pius III fucceed-
ed him. But as he out-lived not the 1 8th of October,


Henry and
j <r1J.11 Hid.
June 23.
Aft- Tub.
Xlil. p. 76

Pope In -
Jius'r Dij-

Dec 26.
p. 89.

fenfiti" fir it was to 'Julius II, elected the 1 ft of November,
the two Kings applied for the difpenfation. The
Pope granted a Bull for that purpofe, where he faid, that
in the petition lately prefented to him, Henry and Cathe-
rine declared , that Catherine was married per verba de
Prafenti, to the late Prince Arthur, and that the mar-
riage was folemnized in form, and perhaps confumma-
ted (1). Upon the word perhaps, it muft be remarked,
that, on this occafion, it cannot be a Term denoting a
Doubt, fince it is not the Pope that fpeaks in the Petition,
but Catherine, who muft know whether the Marriage was
confummated or not. It is only a term which gives more
ftrength to the difpenfation, as obviating all the objections

shat might be made. This evidently appears in the Sequel of a very considerable gainer.

five was to demand a Subfidy for Ins eldeft Daughter's 1 . |
Dowry. The Cuftom of demanding money on fuch oc-
cafnns was too advantageous to the King to fuffer it to
be abolished. The Queen of Scotland's portion was but
thirty thoufand Nobles (4), but this Subfidy granted by the
Parliament may well be thought to be much more confide-
rable, befides a handfome prefent made him by the Clergy
on the fame account. So, inftead of emptying his Coffers
by the marriage of his Daughter, he filled them the ful-
ler. Nothing Shows more the almoft abfolute power of r.icor..
the King, than the choice of Dudley (or Speaker of the l ^ r
Houfe of Commons (5). He was the moft generally ha- '.!.,
ted perfon in the Kingdom, except Empfon his affociatc, c -
who was as odious as himSclf. Wherefore it muft be'' ""
that the fear of difpleafing the King, by rejecting the Per-
fon he recommended, led the Commons to that choice.

The Subfidy was not the only thing, the King poiiti- Mattiip-
cally turned to his advantage in this Parliament. He T '.
found means to obtain Acts which feemed to aim wholly Bmoo.
at the good of the publick, but in reality tended only to
procure him monev. For inftance, all Patents of Leafe
or Grant were difannulled to fuch as came not [ upon
lawful Summons] to ferve the King againft the Re-
bels (6). As the number of Delinquents in this refpect
was very great, this act was a fertile fource of treafure
to the King, by reafon they were obliged to renew their
Leafes and Grants, which could be done only upon very
hard terms.

Another Statute made all forts of clipped or impaired
Coins of Silver not to be current in payments, without
Suffering them even to pafs for the value of their weight.
As there were fcarce any other in the Kingdom, every
one was forced to bring in his ready money to the
A lint, in order to be new coined, by which the King was

the Bull, where the Pope permits Henry and Catherine
to remain in the ftate of matrimony, thoush they were
married before, publickly or privately, and had perhaps
confummated their marriage by carnal copulation. It is
eafv to fee, the word perhaps, is inferred only to give
the more force to the difpenfation, by preventing all cafes
that might render it invalid. It was neceflary to make
thefe obfervations, by reafon of the important confe-
quences of this affair in the following: reign.

The King of Scotland's marriage was confummated in
tmd*atd-n September (z) according to agreement, Henrv having con-


Marjprat ••

The Arch.
duke returns
U fie Low -

duited the Queen his Daughter to York, from whence
(he purfued her journey into Scotland (3).

The Archduke Philip returned thi? year into Flanders,
having ftaied about a year in Spain. As he palTed through
France, he endeavoured to adjuft a difference between
King Ferdinand his Father-in-law, and Lewis XII, con-
cerning the Kingdom of Naples. He even took upon him
to conclude in Ferdinand's name, a Treaty which was
afterwards difclaimed. Had he been concerned with a
Prince of lefs goodnefs and equity than Letvis XII, that
difclaiming might have thrown him into great trouble.
But Lewis was fo generous as not to take the advantage.
The occafion, in Short, of the rupture between the two
Monarchs was this :

They had, as I have obferved, divided the Kingdcm of
Napln after conquering it. It was hardly poffible that
thefe two Princes Should long poffeh, the portion fallen
to each, without fome occafion of quarrel. Accordingly
a dilpute arofe concerning the Province of Capitanata,
which each would have to be in his divifion. Where-
Ibe French upon the French and Spaniards came to blows. At firft
""'cTn l ' le ^ rmc ^ had tne advantage, but afterwards loft two
p"«. * Battles, one near St. Scverina in Calabria the 21ft of
April, the other on the 28 th of the fame month at Ce-
rigndes, where the Duke of Nemours their General was
Slain. Alter thefe two victories Gonzolvo, who comman-
ded Ferdinand's Troops, became mafter of the whole
Kingdom of Naples. Lewis defirous to repair his loSTes,
fent a powerful Army into Italy, which was by fundry
unexpected accidents rendered unierviceable.
t cox. The 1 6th of January 1504, the King alfembled the

Subfidjn- Parliament on pretence of the neceffity of reviving certain
■ve-. the King Statutes, and making fome new ones. But the real mo-

j.r.'ve Mar* ^

'!?•** V " i 1 ) Cum alias Tn Catbenna. & tunc in Hnmanis agens quondam Artburus, -

Daughter. ;H u Jq ue Carnali Copula forfan c-nfumavilietis Rymer't Ford. Tom. 15. p. So.

" 5 "' (i) Stvw fays, -it was the 8th of" Augu/I, at Edinburgh, p. 4S4.

Rupture l-s
Lewis XII
and Ferdi-

The Statute againft giving Liveries to any but meni-
al Servants, was alfo revived, from whence Empjon and
Dudley had an opportunity to attack many PerSbns (7).

Thus the King continually amafling without being o-
bliged to any extraordinary charge, at a time when his
ordinary expences were very moderate, and husbanded in
the beft manner po.fible, could not but be extremly rich
in ready money. But then he doubly ruined his Subjects ;
firft by draining their purfes; and Secondly bv hindering
the coin, of which he had great quantities in his Coffers,
from circulating in Trade. On the other hand, Empjon
and Dudley continued their extortions without an)' re-
ferve, and with a rigor unexperienced by the Englijh, un-
der any of their former Kings.

About this time Henry had thoughts of canonizing jt. ^
Henry VI, the laft King of the Houfe of Lancajler. But tbimhtfc**
there were two grand obstacles. The firft, that the Mi- JT"%,
racles afcribed to that Prince fince his death were not fafsft 'it.
well attefted, and the actions of his life, which were of- Bacon,
tentatioufly displayed, Showed rather his weaknefs than
Sanctity. But the fecond difficulty, that is the necefiarv
charges of this canonization quite frustrated the project.
As this is an act of grace and favour, the Pope generally
proportions the expences not to the Perfon of the Saint
himfelf, but to the riches of him that follicites the cano-
nization. The King even perceived, that the Court of
Rome's questioning Henry the Sixth's Sanctity, tended only
to magnify the favour, and inhance the price accordingly.
This was fufficient to caufe him to defift from his inten-
tion. So avaricious a Prince could hardly rcfolve to emp-
ty his Coffers for fo needlefs a thing, and which, at molt,
would have procured him only the praifes of the Lancaf-
trians. He was contented therefore to obtain a Bull for
the removal of Henry Vl's Body to Wejhninjler among l'.\.'..,"
his Ancestors (8). He was obfeurely buried at firft in C
Chertfcy Monaftery near London, from whence he was re- ^A"'
moved to IVindfor. xn:

The 19th ot Auguft, Henry iifued out a Proclamation, May ze.
giving notice that he had appointed Commiifioners to T ^ y^~' :n f
whom his creditors, and fuch as had any demands upon t b{ SatjeSi,
him, might apply for the fpace of two years, to commence Aug. 19.
the 19th of Auguft, and to continue till Michaeltnafs come p ' -
two years. It is hard to judge whether he did this from
a principle of equity, and with intent to Satisfy thole he

Marrimonium per Verba legitime de Pra*:;n:i -

(3) Being attended by Thomas Hrwjrd Earl of Surrey, and Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland. Ha;!. Haflngih p 791.

(4) Rap;n calls them Crowns. But Rymer, Tom- 13. p. 11$, lays, thirty thousand Angel Nobles, the value of each Noble being Vighti Cr J.i.
See above, p. 6S z..

■ H:H:-.tjh:cd 1 ,ys, that there wis a Parliament in 1503, in which a Subfidy was granted by the Lords and Clergy ; and another en Jan. ;;.
I504, of which latter Dudley was cho.'en Speaker, p. 791. "

(6 i The like Aft had been made before ; in the nth if this King's ) for Offices, and by this Statute it was extended to Lands. Saoon, p. 631.

(7) The other Statutes made in th s Parliament were thefe : 1. That no Pewterers and Brafiers fell, or change, any Pewter cr Bn>&, new or
old, at any place w:thin the Realm, but in open Fairs or Markets, or in their dwelling Houfes- What give occalion to this Law, was, that miny
Peii .ns went about the Kingdom privately, btiyng PetKel and Bra]';, which encouraged wicked People to fteal Dines, Plates, fife- knowing they had
Receivers for them. 2. It was ordained. That no Bodies corporate make auy Acts or Ordinances, but what are examined and approved bv the Cr.??-
cellor, Trealurer of Er.-!xnd, chief Juftices of either Benches, or Juftices Dt Am e, upon pain of forfeiting forty Pounds. 3- That Pe.-.ons r- .
in a Riot, fhall forfeit twenty Pounas, and be impri.med. 4. That no Perfon bring, or caufe to be brought into the Realm, to be fold, anyaijn-
n.r of iiik wrought bj itfelf, or with any other Staff, apon pun (if forfeiting the fame. See Statut. 10 Hen. VI[.

'S; At the lame time the Pope fent a Bull, wherein he ordered, That Triytors and Robbers, &:■ who had taken Sar.ftuary, lh oU be cr:::". •
watched, lo as not to be luiiered »a elcape ; and if they d.i, they faould be then delivered to julfcce. P.yners Fatd. Iom. 13. (




7%e HISTORY of ENGLA ND. Vol. I.

had injured, or dcfigned only to blind People's eyes by jetf of marri^e between Ferdinand and Germaimjc Foix, , 3 e

this a£t of iuftice. The firft would be moft probable, which would be certainly accomphfhed, in cafe 1 hiltp mo-

,e he had put a flop to the exaftions of lefted the King his i ather-in-law. They informed him

Emfifon and Dudlev But it is difficult to believe that, moreover, that Ferdinand's, Secretary had difcovered to

whilft he fuffered' his Subjects to be oppreffed by thefc them, as a great fecret, that the marriage of Prince Chan's,

Minifters he really intended to dojuftice to all the of Aujlria with Claude of France would not take effect,

w , i ' becaufe Lewis XII, was refolved to give his Daughter

Death, f tie I/hbella Queen of CaJlUe dying the 26th of November, to Francis Duke of Angouleme his prcfumptive Heir, that

nsa, if pjdinand her Spoufe writ the fame day to Henry to give then, on fuppofition that Philip would remain in the

him notice thereof. He told him in his Letter, that the Low-Countries with his Queen, berdinand intended to de-

deceafed Queen had appointed him in her Will Admini- mand Mary the King's (econd Daughter for the young

ftrator of the Kingdom of Caftile, for Jane their Daugh- Prince of Aujlria. 1 heie informations containing nothing

ter, Wife of the Archduke of Aujhia, and who by the certain, Henry could take no meafures, till he faw the

dea'th of the Queen her Mother was become Queen of courfe of the Spanijh afta

p. 112.




Difpute bt
iiueen Fer-


When the Archduke received the news of Ifabella's
death, he was employed in making War upon the Duke
dinand and of Gueldres. This War preventing him from repairing
'j\ Ar y' into Spain fo foon as he could have wifhed, he was obliged
StM.it bin. to leave to King Ferdinand his Father-in-law the Govern-
ment of Ca/lile, fully bent however to take it from him
as foon as poffible. On the other hand, Ferdinand im-
proving Ifabella's Will, pretended to keep the Admin


Whilft Ferdinand and Philip were in Treaty concer- phi! 'P " rd
ning their difference, Philip and Jane were proclaimed ,"77,//^
King and Queen of Cajiile at Brujfels ; which fhowed, King and
they intended not to refign for ever the Adminiftration ^S"° °f
of Cajiile to Ferdinand, as he had flattered himfelf. Mean
while, the War of Gueldres, and Queen Jane's being near
her time, hindered them from executing their refolution
of going to Cajiile. They knew, the Cajlilians were
not pleafed with Ferdinand, and did not doubt that as

ftration of that Kingdom during his life, probably, becaufe foon as they appeared, all would declare for them. For
the deceafed Oueen had not limited the continuance. the fame reafon, Ferdinand uled all lorts of artifices to dd-

Henrv-. u » This difpute "bred fome uncafinefs in Henry, whofe cafe fuade them from this Voyage,

„/?«/.<""■ was the fame with Ferdinand's, in the opinion of many In the mean while, Margaret of Aujlria, Philip's Sif- Dutbtf
Bacon. le _ He was not ig noran t that moft of his Subjects ter, loft her Spoufe the Duke ot Savoy, who died the '^ k "f

were perfwaded, Elizabeth his Spoufe had been of right the i°th of September. Some days after the new Queen of
true Queen of England, and confequently the Crown was Caftile was delivered of a Princels who was called Mary,
fallen after her deceafe to Henry her Son and lawful Sue- and was afterwards Queen ot Hungary.

ceffor. Though he affected to hold for certain, that the This year was very barren of remarkable events with Bfcnry*«
Houfe of York had never any right to the Crown, he regard to England. Befides what has been related, we *'«[>»«
was however very uneafy, becaufe in general the Englijh find only a Treaty of Alliance between Henry and George Duit „/
were of another opinion. It is true, that befides his de- Duke of Saxony, Hereditary Governour of Frije, to Saxony,
fcent from the Houfe of Lancajler, he founded his right whom Henry had fent Ambaffadors (2) ever fince Febru- ^ [ Fu I b '
upon two other titles; namely, Conqueft, and the appro- ary. This Treaty was concluded the 30th of Decern- I20 / p- ' 4 '
bation of Parliament. But he perceived how weak thefe bcr.

two foundations would prove, fhould the Houfe of York, The War of Gueldres being ended, and Queen Jane , ;o 6.
1-0; by fome revolution come to gain ground. Upon this ac- able to travel, Philip refolved to carry her into Caftile, Philip and
count, he was very attentive to what palled in Spain, knowing it to be the only way to fecure the Govern- £"-(?""
looking upon the decifion of this conteft as a precedent for ment of that Kingdom. Though they intended to go y H ' alJ pal "
or againft him. On the other hand, he was afraid that by Sea, they chofe the Winter, it feems, to furprife Fer-

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