M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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P hi lip, who had appeared for fome time clofely united dinand, who probably, would not expect them at that
with Idiili XII, would join in a League with that Mo- Seafon. They departed the 10th of January under a
narch and the Emperour, to oblige Ferdinand to refign ftrong Convoy prepared for that purpofe. But before a Storm
him Cajiile. In that cafe he forefaw, he fhould be forced they got out of the Channel, a terrible ftorm (3) difperfed *'"''*<«
either to abandon Ferdinand to thefe three potent enemies, their Fleet, and the Ship on which they were, with much ,' a "; EnE "

difficulty ran into JVeymouth (4) in England, having been Theylandat
in great danger. The King and Queen were fo fatigued Weymouth,
and fick, that contrary to the opinion of their Council s '"
they would land to refrelh their Spirits. Bacon.

Mean while the People of the Country feeing a mime- H^Uinjih.
rows Fleet, were very much alarmed. They immediate-
pire of the "differences between Lewis XII and Ferdinand, ly ran to their Arms, and Sir Thomas Trenchard at the
concerning the Kingdom of Naples. head of fome Troops marched to JVeymouth (5), to con-

To be fully informed therefore of the difpofition of cert meafures with the Inhabitants in cafe of an Invafion.
the Cajlilians, and the qualities of the Queen of Naples, When he heard, the King and Queen of Cajiile were
he fent three Perfons into Italy and Spain, not as Am- landed, he waited upon them, humbly inviting them to
baffadors, but as travellers for their pleafure(i). How- his Houfe, till the King was informed of their arrival,
ever, to procure them accefs to the Queen of Naples and Philip would have gladly re-imbarked, but perceived he
Ferdinand, he fo ordered, that the Princefs of Wales fhould not be fuffered till the King's orders were receiv-
gave them Letters both for the King her Father and the ed, to whom an exprefs was difpatched. So, without
young Queen. Thefe Gentlemen's private inftructions, much intreaty he confented to ftay till that time,
with'refpect to the Queen, were very particular. The As foon as Henry had notice of the King and Queen J 1 " Xj*g
King wanted to be exaftly informed of her age, com- of Caftile's arrival, he fent the Earl of Arundel (6) withg^™^
plexion, ftature, health, temper, inclinations, behaviour his Compliments, and to tell them, he would make all to them.
and eftate. This mows he was not willing lightly to poffible hafte to come and embrace them. The Earl Hall,
refolve. But the project vaniihed when the King heard withal affured them from the King, that they were as
from his Envoys, that indeed the Queen's jointure was much mafter in his Dominions as himfelf. Philip finding
very confiderable ; but had been changed by Ferdinand, there was no avoiding the King's vifit, believed he fhould
fince he was poffeffed of the Kingdom of Naples into a gain time by going to him. To that end, he ported to Ttey got,

llindjor (7), whilft his Queen followed by eafy Journeys. tl " King at]

or enter into a War with them to fupport him. Both
Hff'jtS> were equally oppofite to his interefts. In fine, he had
%Z1'n y ' b ' cz ^ nis e y« upon the Queen Dowager of Naples, Wi-
ol'iujgcrof dow of King Ferdinand, for a Wife, in order to enjoy
Naples. the large Dower affigned her in that Kingdom. Perhaps

he hoped by marrying that Queen, to render himfelf um


Affairs of

end Philip.

pennon for life.

When the Gentlemen arrived in Spain, the conteft
between Ferdinand and Philip his Son-in-law was ftill
in the fame ftate. They therefore acquainted the King,
that Ferdinand continued to govern Cajiile as Admini-
flrator ; and even hoped to perfuade Philip to leave him
the Adminiftration freely during life, both by means of

Henry received them both with all imaginable marks of H '" dlor-

Friendfhip, but however, ruminating all the while, how
to reap fome advantage from the accident which had
thrown them into his Dominions (8).

Some days after, he infinuated to Philip, that as his TreJl ,/■
condition was altered, it would be proper to renew their Comma*
fome of his Council whom he had gained, and by threa- Treaty of Conr-merce, to which Philip agreed, though T™' d J
tening him to marry again, and fo give an Heir to the the reafon alledged by Henry was of no force. For Phi- ,h,°z^\fk.
Kingdom of Arragon : That therefore, there was a pre- lip, by being King of Cajiile, was not lefs Sovereign of Aci. Pub

b . XIlI.p.123,


(1) They were Franctl Mar/in, James Braybrook, and John Style. Bacon, p. 632. _

(2) Richard JVanfin Deputy ot Calais, I\ictlas Weft Doflor of Laws, and Hugh Cor.taiy Trcafuter of Calais. Pymer s Fad. T\,m. 13. p. 114.
{3) This Storm Jalhd from the 15th to the 26th of January. Stew, p. 484.

(4) Falmouth, fays St:w, ibid

(5) And foon alter was joined by Sir John Carew, with a choice Body ot Men. Hall, fol. 58. Hcllmgfb. p. 791.

(6) Tb'.mas Fitx-Alan. The Earl came to King Philip in great magnificence, with a brave Troop of three hundred Horfc, and (for the mere
State) by Torch-light. Bacon, p. 633. Hall, fol. 58.

(7) He was received five miles from Windjor, in a very fplcndid manner by the Prince of Wales, who was accompanied with five Earls, and le-
veral Lords, Knights, and others, to the number of live hundred Perfons ; and about a mile from Winifor, he ..as met by the King himfelf, and
moft of the Nobility of the Reaim, who went out to welcome him. Hall, fol. 58.

(S) rh:l:p at thtir firft meeting told the King, Thar he ti»i r.:~.v fmsijhed fir his refufing to come within his walled Teton of Calais tubas they
■■■■! loft, Tha King levied, That Walls Mid tens mrt tubing, iiheie Htam wire open; and that it was here only to he /cried. Bacon, p. 633.


Book XIV.


i;o6. the Low-Countries, the firfr Dignity caufing nn alteration faw plainly, through all the CarefTcs he received that it

in the laft. But Henry had his aim, and Philip plainly was not in his power to depart when he pleafed. Elfe,

perceived, that being in his power, he ought carefully to it is not likely, as he intended to fail into Spain in January,

avoid all occafions of offending him, left he fhould find he would have willingly ftaid in England till the end of

fome pretence to detain him in England. He was not April, or the beginning of May,


1 506.

ignorant of the finer Union between Henry and Ferdi-
muul, and was under fome apprehcnlions, that Henry
would think of obltructing his Voyage, to oblige his Fa-
ther-in-law. However this be, the Treaty was renewed,
but with fome alterations to the advantage of the Englijh.
Amongft other things, an Article of the old Treaty was could take place only in the Queen his Daughter's ab

When Philip and 'Jane were in Cajlile, the people Ferfimiii
(hewed fo great afltoftion for them, that Ferdinand f.;
could eafily fee, his endeavours to keep the Government p«t \
of the Kingdom would be vain. Accordingly, without
infilling any more upon his Adminiftratorfhip, which


Marl r'i . /

IV! 'tb [L-
Ditlhefi of

Savoy agreed


AG. Pi.b.
*5'. '55-

fuppreffed, which permitted Philip's Subjects to fiih on
the Coafts of England. This made the Inhabitants of
the Low-Countries call it [Intci curj'us Alalia, orj the bad

This affair being finifhed, Henry opened his mind to
Philip concerning his deilgtl to marry Margaret his Sifter,
Widow of the Duke of Savoy (1). Philip feemed very
well pleafed with the propofal. And indeed, nothing could

fence, he withdrew into his own Realm of Arragon. Af-
terwards, he made a Voyage to Naples, where Gonzoho
his General began to make him uneafy, and thereby
Philip and Jane remained, though not long, in poffeffion
of Cajlile. Within a few months, Philip was feized with Philip'i
a Difiemper, of which hedied the 25th (A September. He "'• '
left the Guardianfhip of his Son Charles to Leiuis XII,
who appointed the Loid de Chievres for his Governor.

be more for his advantage than to make Henry his friend This choice, which was generally approved, and was a

by this Alliance, left he fhould openly efpoufe the King
of Arragon's quarrel. So, the Marriage was concluded at
II indfor, the 20th of March (z). By the Articles figned
by both, Philip promifed to give the Duchcfs his Silter,
three hundred thoufand Crowns [of French Gold] (3),

lb. p. 146-


Henry do-
marutt t.f
Philip the
Earl of
Philip denies

///■ complirt
on condition
".could not
put him to

clear evidence of Leivis's Sincerity and Difintcreftedncfs,
proved fatal to France, as the Governor made his Pupil
more able than was neceffary for the good of the King-

The death of Philip fo affected his Queen, that (he loft
with a yearly penfion of three thoufand eight hundred and her reafon, and became entirely uncapable of governin
fifty. Mean while, Henry fearing Philip would go from the State. Whereupon Ferdinand her Father re'fumed the return" n
his word, when he was out of his power, caufed to be adminiftration of affairs, which he had been deprived of L,,!t '" -
inferted in the Treaty, that the principal Lords of the but five months. He is faid to take no "Teat care of the
Low-Countries fhould fwear, they would ufe their utmoft Queen's cure, left recovering her Senfes, fhe fnould fend
endeavours to procure the accomplishment of this MaV- him back again to Arragon.

The dilintereftednefs (hewn by Lewis XII, with re- '•"••; XII
fpea to the young Archduke Prince of Spain, did not ^Zllf'Aa-
hold long. He had promifed to give him Claude hi/'
eldeft Daughter in Marriage, but thought it more proper Oaugbt ..
to marry her to Francis Duke of Angouleme his prcfumptive chTria ./
Succeflbr. Moreover, being apprehenfive of a League AuftrU.
againft him, between the Emperor, the Archduke, and 111 -
Flanders. But at the fir ft overture, Philip told him Ferdinand, and that the King of England might come P ' Djnid '
plainly, he could not comply with his requeft, being into it alfo, he endeavoured to embroil young Charles's
bound in honour not to facrifice a Lord whom he had affairs, by exciting the Duke of Gucldres to renew the
taken under his protection ; that beiides, it would be war.

difhonorable to himfelf, fince the World would not fail The Archduke being too young to govern, the Fltm- i>o,-.

to fay, he was ufed as a prifoner. Henry, who little re- ings prayed the Emperor his Grandfather to take the Ad- M"g««
garded what the World faid, provided he obtained his miniffration in his Grandfon's name. Maximilian grant- D """i"t
ends, replied, he would take all the difhonour upon him- ed their requeft, and till he could come himfelf, fent mi the

them Margaret his Daughter, Widow of the Duke of Low " C6un "
Savoy. "'"■

Upon that Princefs's arrival at Bruffcls, (he concluded r ' " y °f
with Henry a provifional Treaty of Commerce, till fou, •
differences caufed by the late Treaty between the Mer- Low-Coun.

This Treaty '

nage. The Oaths of feveral of the Lords, in purfuance
of this Article, are to be feen in the ColiccTion of the Publick

Henry had one thing more to obtain of Philip, with-
out which he could not think of letting him go, though
outwardly he continued to carefs him. And that was,
to deliver to him the Earl of Suffolk, who was then in

1 1 -

Aft. Pub.



Tit Ear! of

Suffolk a

fent to the

Philip and
hn !thifen
fet out fir

felf. Thisanfwer threw Philip into great Perplexity. He
was unwilling to betray the Earl of Suffolk, after promife
to protect, him. But on the other hand, he perceived
Henry was bent upon having that Lord at any rate, and
had in his hands an infallible means to obtain him. Be-

fides, in the prefent pofture ot his affairs, not being yet chants of both Nations could be adjufted.
certain, whether he ihould not be forced to go to war was figned at Bruges, the 5th of June.
with his Father-in-law, it was eafy to forefee, he might The fame Ambaffadors that were affemblcd at Calais Marriage
(land in need of the King of England, and confequently fpent there the reft of the year, in treating of the Mar- 2' '-''' '"'"'
it would be very wrong to difobligc him. Wherefore, riage of Charles Archduke of Aujhia, Sovereicn. of the Mary the
he fuddenly came to a refolution, and with an air of Low-Countries, and Prince of Cajlile, vrithJlfary, Henry's K ' a S''
Confidence fpoke in this manner: Sir, fmce you are pleafed fecond Daughter (6). At length, on the 21$ of Decern- °'™& l " r
to give Lazu to me, permit me to do the fame by you. her, they figned a Treaty, that Charles fhould marry the Charles of
I will deliver the Earl, but you /hall give me your honour Princefs Mary, as foon as he was fourteen years old, and Auftria.
not to touch his Life. Henry agreeing to this condition, that her portion fhould be two hundred and fifty thoufand ^ I 7 , -" l 3 0,
Philip defired the thing might be done in a manner ho- Crowns of Gold (7). The young Prince ran the hazard
norable for both. I will Jo order it, added he, that the oflofing the Kingdom of Arragon, Valencia, Granada,
Earljhall come to England of his own accord, by which it and the Principality of Catalonia, his Grandfather Ferdi-
will appear that I have foil/cited and obtained his Pardon, nand having married Germs.ine de Foix. But happily for

him, they had no Children,

Though Henry's, Coffers were full, he was not weary Henry
of heaping up Money. We have feen, that in the yeai ',;" }'f
1504, the Parliament gave him a Subfidy for the Mar- HoUirnfli.
departure, continued his entertainments and diverfions, on riage of the Queen of Scotland his Daughter. But the Bacon.
pretence of doing honour to the King and Queen of Cajlile, year was not expired before he iffued out a Proclamation
but in reality, to gain time till the Earl's arrival. He to levy a Benevolence, by his own Authority, and with-
admitted Philip to the Order of the Garter, and Philip • out any apparent neceffity ; fo that this Conduct could be
made the Prince of Wales, Knight of the Golden-Fleece, afcribed only to his infatiable defire of hoarding up Mo-
After that, Henry carried his Guefts to London, where ney(8). He was grown fo abfolute in his Kingdom,

that no Man durft oppofe his will, or even (hew the leaft
difcontent. Meanwhile, Empfon and Dudley continued Empfon
their Extortions and Oppreffions with all imaginable ri- ^„;°" ,^
gour. This very year 1507, they (harply profecuted the Exaaim.

and that you were very ready to grant it. Henry ap-
proving the expedient, the Earl of Suffolk willingly ac-
cepted the offer made him (4). Mean while, Henry be-
ing defirous to have the Earl in his power before Philip's

they were magnificently entertained. Shortly after, the
Earl of Suffolk came from Flanders, and was conveyed to
the Tower. Thus, Henry under colour of doing him ho-
nour, kept Philip in England above three months, till he

had obtained his defires(5). In all appearance, Philip Mayor of London (a), for neglecting to bring to juftice a Ha ' 1-

r Bacon.

(1) The famous Thomas }Voljey, being then the King's Chaplain, was employed in managing this affair. Bacon, p. 634. Hol'.ingi'h,

(2) This Treaty of Marriage is not found in the Fadcra, but is fuppoled and referred to by the Acts which follow the Treaty of Alliance or Commerce,
ditcd Feh. 9. See Tom. XIII, p. 117, 129, 151, &c.

(3) Each Crown worth tuur Shillings Sterling. Ibid. p. 130.

(4) The two Rings fent feverally for him. He landed aT Dover, and with a fumcient Guard was conveyed to the Tower of London. Baton, p. 633,

(5) K'mgPhilip went by land to Falmouth, where he embarked Apnl 23. Hall, fol. 58. Haraeui.
(b) She was his third Daughter. See SanJford and Speed.

(7) At the fame time the Treaty of perpetual Peace, Amity, and Alliance was renewed between the Emperor Maximilian, and Kfcg Henry. Ryrner's Fad,
Tom. XIII. p. 189 212.

(8) Befides what he got by the Recoinage of Groats and half Groats, now Shillings and Six-pences ; and the five thoufand Marks which he made the City
of London pay tor the Confirmation of their Liberties in 1504, Sff, Bacon, p. 631.

(91 Sir IViiiiam Cupel. He was not Mayor this year j but was now fined two thoufand Pounds, for having, in the time of his Mayoralty (which was in
the year 1503,) received falfe Money, and not indicted due Punifhmcnt upon the Perfon that was accufed of having coined it. Stno, p. 485.

No. 35. Vol I,

8 M




Vol. I.


Tie King h

Ttixed it' lb

r ■ C ■■'.

, ■ ■>

to 11 Itijick.




1,800 000 /.

Coiner of falfe Money, and bccaufe he would not, or
could not pay an exorbitant Fine, fent him to the Tower.
The Sheriffs, Aldermen, and all that had borne any of-
fice ia the City, were queftioned and profecuted with the
fame rigour, and compelled to pay to the King fines,
proportioned not to their Abilities, but to the King's and
his Minifters rapacioufnefs ( 1 ).

Whilft the King was wholly intent upon heaping up
riches, he found himfelf frequently feized with the Gout.
At firft he difregarded it, as not believing it dangerous.
But by degrees the humour falling upon his Lungs, it
turned to a Ptifuk, which made him perceive he had not
Jon^ to live. He fuffered however his two Minifters to
continue their exactions without any refpedt of perfons.
He was fo charmed to fee his Coffers full of Gold and
Silver, that he could not refolve to put a ftop to the
fhameful proceedings which daily brought him in frefh
Sums. He is faid to have amaffed eighteen hundred
thoufand pounds Sterling. This Sum wili appear prodigi-
ous, if 'tis confidercd that Money was then much fcarcer
in Europe than at prefent. He laid up his Treafures un-
der his own key and keeping, in fecret places at Rich-
mond (z).
1 508. As the Marriage of the Princcfs Mary with the Arch-

M<"ria& >f d u k e wis then the only conhdeiable affair Henry was em-
\[ ployed in, he fpent the whole year 1 50S in taking mea-
tj !y lures to fecure its accompliftiment. The A£ts of this year,
in the Collection, fcarce regard any other affair. At length,
on the 17th of December, the Marriage was accomplilhed
per verba de Pr<zjenti, the Lord de Bergbes being the young
Prince's Proxy. As fuch, he efpoufed the Princefs, gave
her a Ring, and faluted her publickly in the name of the
Prince her Spoufe (3).

About the fame time, the Archduke pawned to the King
a Jewel called the rich Flower-de-luce (4), for the Sum of
fifty thoufand Crowns. The Emperor as Grandfather
and Guardian of Charles, approved of the Marriage and
Loan. In all likelihood, the Money was borrowed for him.
He had occafion for it to make a figure in the League of
Cambray, which he had concluded this year, with the
Pope and the King of France, againft the Venetians, who
were become formidable to all Italy.

Henry tbhh As to Henrys Marriage with Margaret oi Aujlria, tho'
-'" it was concluded in 1 506, it was no more thought of, af-
ter that Monarch, fallen into a Ptiftck, perceived he was
fitter to think of death than a wife.

The King finding he daily grew worfe was pleafed to
prepare for death, by granting a general Pardon. He dif-
charged likewife, with his own Money, all Prifoners about
London that lay for Fees or Debts, under forty Shillings.
Then he made his Will, ordering that his Heir fhould make
ie Rcftitution of whatever his Officers and Minifters had un-
juftly taken from his Subjects. But this remorfe came too
late. As he could not refolve to make this reftitution in
his Life-time, the Prince his Son thought not proper to
part with the Money amaffed by the King his Father.
He died at Richmond the zzd of April 1509, having lived
two and fifty years, and reigned three and twenty and
eight months. His death is faid to happen very feafon-
ably, for had he lived much longer, the Prince his Son,
now in his feventeenth year, might not have had patience
to wait till his Father's death put him in poffeffion of the
Throne. In that cafe, he might have fupported himfelf
with the Queen his Mother's Title, Heirefs of the Houfe
of York, and pretended that the King his Father reigned
only in r^ht of his Queen. This pretenfion would have
been capable of reviving the old quarrel, and rekindling a
Civil War in the Kingdom. But the King's death re-
moved the fears of the EngliJJj.

Henry VII had three Sons (5) and four Daughters. Ar-
thur his eldeft, as was obferved, died in his feventeenth
vear. Henry his fecond, fuccceded him, and Edmund his
third died at the age of five years. Of his four Daughters,
two died in their childhood (6), and the other two, Mar-
garet and Mary, are fufficiently known by what has been

If the Hiftory of this reign be read with never fo little
attention, it will eaiily be perceived, that Henry's views
were but two. The firft was to keep the Crown, ac-
quired by extraordinary good fortune, and perhaps un-

P, y.
Aft. Pub.


■ 2 3°-



Aft. Pub.
XIII. p. 1? 1


p. 236.
Charles bor-
i.ivs of
Crrnvm upon
a Jewel.
Ad. Pub.
XIII. p. 13+

C7l'fl Alt


A Get eral
He ordtrs h


VtiHh of

I lenry




// 1 Tfue.

Ilii Ciarat-


thought of, before he was invited into England by the
Duke of Buckingham. The other was, to accumulate
riches. As he never fuffered himfelf to be diverted by
other thoughts, his whole application centered upon one
fingle object, namely, upon thoroughly examining every
thing that could have any relation to the two ends he had
propofed. Ambition, Honour, Glory, Love, Pleafures,
and all the other paffions which generally difquiet the
hearts of Princes, made but little Impreilion upon his.
Content with enjoving his Crown, he thought neither ot
new acquilitions, nor of rendering his rfiame iliultrious
by great actions. All his thoughts were confined to
prevent or defeat the dehgns of his domeftick Ene-
mies, or to well fill his Coffers. He had a wonderful
Sagacity, to difcover in the affairs that occurred, the fide
from whence fome advantage could be drawn. This is
what he plainly (hewed in the affair of Bretagne, in his
pretended wars with France and Scotland, and even in his
domeftick troubles, which by his addrefs, turned all to his
profit (7).

Though he was fometimes forced to take arms, never
Prince loved peace more than he(S). As he had no
ambition, he law no advantage for him in War. On
the contrary, he confidered that all the events of a War,
whether foreign or domeftick, were againft him. The
former could at moft but procure him fome glory and ac-
quilitions abroad, of which he was not very fond ; and
by the latter he might be a great lofer. Befides, a time
of commotions afforded no opportunities to accumulate
fiches. So, laying down this fixed principle of his po-
vicy, not to engage in any War without an abfolute ne-
ceffity, he never fwerved from it. It is this that made
him unconcernedly behold the lofs of Bretagne, and with-
out refentment fuft'er the infults of the King of Scotland,
becaufe it was not from the War that he intended to reap
any advantage, but only from the preparations that were
to be made to fupport it. However, this policy would
have been unfeafonable when he was attacked by domeftick
enemies, whofe aim was to rob him of his Crown. As
his all was then at ftake, he chearfully faced the danger,
though with all the precautions poffible not to run any
hazard. , He won two Battles upon the Rebels, one at
Stoke, the other at Black-Heath. But in both he was very
fuperior in number of Troops, and fought againft Per-
fons ill-armed and unskilled in the art of War. So, it
cannot be faid what he would have done, had he been
oppofed with equal Forces. It is no lefs difficult to know,
whether it was owing to his courage that he headed his
Armies in Perfon, or to his diftruft of thofe that ferved
him. However this be, he was always fortunate in his
domeftick Wars, and thereby gained fo great a reputa-
tion, that all the Princes of Europe earneftly courted his
Alliance. On the other hand, the efteem Foreigners
expreffed for him, did not a little contribute to render him
formidable to his Subjects. I fay, . formidable, for it is
certain, he was never beloved. In a word, his method
of governing, which approached to arbitrary power, efpe-

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