M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Pope Troops. Whereupon '/''-'" Bcntivoglio, head of
that Houfe, feeing himfelf forfiken by the King of France,
quitted Bologna with all his Family, and retired to Milan,
leaving the City to the Pope.

The Duchy of Ferrara (2) was a Fief of the Church,
long poll'tlltd by the Family of F//e, who were inverted
by the Pope, and paid an yearly relief in Money. This
pettv State bordering upon the Pope and the Venetians,
and being very convenient for both, preferved itfelf by
their mutual jealoufy ; but however, the Venetians had
taken I rum them Rovigo, and the P olefin. But 'Julius II
had greater views, and thought ferioufly of annexing the
whole Duchy to the Church.

Modena and Reggio were likewife under the Dominion
of the Family of Ejle, not as belonging to the Duchy of
Ferrara, but as a diftinct State acquired by that Family
alter being poiieHed of Ferrara. 'Julius II, had alfo preten-
fions to thefe two Cities, as having been formerly given
to the Church by Charlemain, and perhaps on the fole pre-
tence, that they belonged to the Duke of Ferrara his Vallal.

Urbino (3) had formerly been of the Church's demean.
But the Popes had not for many years challenged more
than the right of Sovereignty. Ctefar Borgia had feized this
City, and expelled Duke Guidobaldi Uba/dini, who re-
covered it alter the death of Alexander VI. As Guido-
baldi had no Children, 'Julius II perlwaded him to adopt
Francis Maria de la Rovere, Nephew to both, Son of the
Pope's Brother and the Duke's Sifter. Shortly after, la
Rovere became Duke of Urbino, by the death of Guido-
baldi his adoptive Father.

Parma and Placentia had been under the dominion of
feveral Lords or Tyrants, till at laft they became fubjecf.
to the Dukes of Milan. Lewis XII took pofTeiTion of
them after his Conqueft of the Milanefe.

Florence, a very potent City, and the chief of Tufcany,
was fallen at length under the Dominion of the Family
of Midicis. But afterwards an oppolite Faction prevail-
ing, they were driven from thence, and were now in
exile, attempting however from time to time to be reftored
to their Country.

Pifa had been formerly a very confiderable City by rea-
fon of her naval Forces ; but at length becoming fubject
to the Dukes of Milan, a Baftard of that Family, to



whom it was given, fold it to the Florentines. The Pifani
were againft the Sale, and would have recovered their Li-
berty, but were overcome. After that, Charles VIII, in
his way to Naples, reftored Pifa to her Liberty ; but as
foon as the Florentines had nothing more to fear from him,
they befieged Pifa, though affifted by the Venetians, and
the Siege was ftill carrying on at the time of the League
of Cambray.

The City of Genoa, after fundry Revolutions caufed by
the Factions of the Fregoffd's, and the Adorno's, was at
length fallen into the hands of the French, in the reign of
Charles VII. After that, Lewis XI refigned it to the
Duke of Milan, and Lewis XII feized it after his Con-
queft of the Milanefe.

This Survey of the States of Italy fhows, that it was
then divided between fix Powers, namely, Pope Julius II,
Leivis XII Kins; of France and Duke of Milan, Ferdi-
nand King of Arragon and Naples, the Republicks of Ve-
nice and Florence, and the Duke of Ferrara. To thefe
fix may be added, the Emperor Maximilian, who with-
out polTefling a foot of land in Italy, had however preten-
fions to whatever was formerly enjoyed by the Emperors,
and particularly to the firm Land State of the J'enctians,
whofe ruin the other fix were equally concerned to pro-
cure. The Emperor pretended, that all the Venetian Do-
minions belonged to the Empire ; he paffionately defired
to wreft fome place from them that would give him en-
trance into Italy, and an opportunity to re-eftablifh the
Imperial power in that Country. Julius II, as I faid,
had formed a project to annex to the Church, whatever
had been alienated, and efpecially the Duchy of Ferrara,
and the Towns of la Romagna. This defign could be
effected only by the deftruciion of the Venetians, ever at-
tentive to oppofe the growth of their Neighbours. Be-
fides, the Pope had a mind to begin with them, and wreft
from them Ravenna, Faenza, and Rimini. Leivis XII
repented of yielding to them Cremona and Gierradadda.
He wanted to difpoflefs them, and under that pretence,
to get poffeffion alfo of Crema, Bergamo, and Brefcia,
and in general of whatever had belonged to the Dukes of
Milan. Ferdinand was defirous to recover without Mo-
ney, the five maritime Towns of the Kingdom of Naples
which had been mortgaged 10 them. Moreover, his In-
tereft required, that there fhould be always troubles in
Italy, to hinder Lewis XII from thinking of the Conqueft
of Naples. The Duke of Ferrara wifhed to recover Ro-
vigo, and the Polefin. Laftly, the Florentines, obftinately
bent upon the Siege of Pifa, protected and defended by
the Venetians, could defire nothing more advantagious than
to fee that Republick unable to aflift the Pifani.

Such were the motives of the League formed againft
Venice, of which the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of
France were the chief promoters. For the greater Se-
crecy, they fpread a report, that the Emperor, as Guar-
dian to Charles of Aujlria his Grandfon, had agreed, that
his differences with the Duke of Gueldres fhould be ami-
cably adjufted. To that purpofe, the City of Cambray
was appointed for the place of Congrefs, thereby to inti-
mate, that the affairs only of Flanders would be confi-
dered. Here the famous League againft the Republick of
Venice was concluded ; and the better to deceive the Spies,
was figned at firft a Treaty of perpetual Peace between
the Pope, the Emperor, Lewis XII, and Ferdinand,
which was indeed made publick. But a fecond Treaty,
which care was taken not to divulge, contained a League
ofteniive and defenfive againft the Venetians, the principal
Articles whereof were as follows :

In the firft ?lace it was fet forth in the Preamble, that
the Turks having begun to make great progrefs in Europe,
it was abfolutely neceftary for the Chriftian Princes to join
their Forces againft them, but that the Venetians, by their
continual Incroachments, greatly obftrufted this Union.
From thence it was concluded, that they were to be dif-
poftefled of what they had ufurped. This was the pious
motive of the League. And therefore it was agreed, that
of their fpoils, the Pope fhould have Ravenna, Fit aza
and Rimini ; the Emperor, as fuch, Verona, Vicenza, and
Padua, and as Duke of Auflria, Trevifo, and Friuli :
Lewis XII, as Duke of Milan, Cremona, Gierradadda,
Brefcia, Crema, and Bergamo : The King of Arrag >:,
Alanfredonia, Trani, Monopoli, Brindifi, and Otranto in
the Kingdom of Naples ; that the Dukes of Ferrara and
Savoy, and the Marquifs ol Mantua mould he admitted
into the League if they defired it ; the firft to recovei
Rovigo, and the Pole/in ; the fecond, to get the Kingdom
of Cyprus out of the hands of tin- i inn cms ; and the third,
to obtain fatisfa£Hon concerning certain Pretenfions he had



1505.



Cenoa.
Pizarco.



Motives of
the League
of Cambray
againji the

Venetians.



Hill. de!U
Legha di
Cambr3\ .



League cf-
Cambray.



Hilt, della
Legha di
Cambray.



Ireaty of
the Altai
againji
Venice.
Bembo.



1 The fecond City of the Ecclefiaftical State, and the third of the four mod confiierable Uni> rC
Salamanca, fays la I oreff.

z Tii'- Birth-PIace of the Poet Ariofio, who has 1 X.mh and Epitaph in the BetudicliBtt Cnj ch.
■:3. Toe Birth Place cf the famous Painter Raphael, and Pol)d rt Pirgit, who wrote an Bngl'/h H-'i ry



thj V.,



■ ■', 1 ? '.



j 'a, jn.



1 II



Book XV.



20. HENRY VIII.



707



1 509. upon Venice. Laftly, that all who had any claim upon probably, had not Men enough to fupply his Garrifons, 1 509



Projects of
the Allies.
Ouircia'rd.
Megerai.



the Venetians, fhould bo received into the League as prin
cipals, if they declared themfelves within three months.
Thus, in order to wage war againft the Turks, no other
means were found, than to ftrip the Venetians of all their
firm Land State, and leave them only the fingle City of
Venlee.

To accomplish this defign, it was agreed, that the King
of France in perlbn fhould enter the Territories of the
Venetians, the firft of April, in the year 1 509, with an
army of forty thouland Men : That the Pope fhould fend



and to'keep an army in the Field againft the Venetians,
who were drawing together again. Upon the King of n e Vene-
Irance's departure, affairs began to have a new face. The ''"'« f«h
Venetians took Padua by I'm prize, and kept it ever after. \
Moreover they found means to fcnd into Friuli an army
which employed the great;fr part of the Emperor's
Troops. In ftiort, they appeafeti'fte Pope by their hum- aM ,
ble Submiffion, and obtained his pofitive promife tO give •■■'
them Abfolution, and take off the Interdict upon certain
Conditions whicii the) could not refufe him. On the



an army into la Romagna ; and Ferdinand have one in other hand, Ferdinand, who had not yet reaped any be-
Lombardy, with a Fleet in the Gulf ; and the Emperor nefit by the League, was i Illy . in d by the r.flci of



Campain of
[be year
1509.
Mezcrai.
Bembo.



attack the Venetians from the fide of Germany. But as he
had lately made a three years Truce with them, an ad-
mirable expedient was devifed to furnifh him with a pre-
tence to break it, which was, that the Pope fliould fum-
mon him as the Church's Advocate, to come and defend
the Patrimony. In fine, 'Julius II engaged to thunder
out all the Ecclefiaftical Cenfures againft Venice. This
League was figned at Cambray, December 10th, 1508.

The time of executing the proje&s of the League be-
ing come, Lewis XII departed from Milan the beginning



«"



the five Cities held by the Venetians in the Kingdom of

Naples.

Whilft the Senate was labouring to draw off the Pope 7 '" Em P>
and King of Arrngon from the League, Maximilian with ..
his own and la Paliffe'i Forces, laid Siege to Padua, but ■'
after an unfuccefiful Afliuilt, raifed it, and retired into
Germany. At the fame time the French General alio re-
turned to Milan. By which means the Venetians had
time to breathe a little, and continue v/ith the Pope
Negotiations, which made them hope the ifliie of the war



the Pope's army entered la Romagna under the Conduct
of Franeis Maria dc la Rivere Duke of Urbino, and Ray-
mond of Cardona threw himfelf into Lombardy with the
King of Arragon's Troops. At the fame time, the Duke
of Ferrara took the Field in the Polefin. But the Em-
peror contented himfelf with keeping at Trent, and feeing
the reft of the Allies ac/t, in order to be ready to reap the
fruit of their labours. Mean while, the Venetians, having
firft provided, their Towns with Ammunition, raifed an



Battle of
Agnadcl.
Bembo.



Venetians
hje alt tbetr
State of
Terra-riima



Sardi.



Piiafurren-

tiers Co .'be

Florentines,

Guiiciard.



Lewis XII
returm tj
France.
Menetai.

ttuicc.aid.



of April 1509, at the head of forty thouland Men, whilft would not be fo fatal as they had hitherto apprehended.

The Union of the King of France with the Emperor, ™f
made Julius II extremely uneafv. He beheld the French Mnmu
King fo firmly fettled in the Duchy of Milan, that it Gukciaid.
feemed impoiTible to diftodge him. On the other hand,
the Emperor could not but be formidable to him, lince he
had an entrance into Italy, by means of Verona and /',■'-
cenza. He did not know what to think of the powerful
aid lent that Prince by Lewis XII, to compleat the ruin
ot the Venetians, and he was not without fear, that thefe
army, under the command of Count Pitigliano their Ge- two Monarchs had made a private Treaty together to fliare
neral, whofe Lieutenant was Bartbolomeiv d' Alviano. all Italy. Mean while, he hardly faw how thefe two formi-

The Van of the French army commanded by Chau- dable Potentates could well be withftood. Venice was
mont, paffed the Adda the 15th of April, and at the fame come to nothing. The Florentines were drained by the
time the Pope excommunicated the Venetians, and put the long Pifan War. As for the King of Arragsn it was al-
City of Venice under an Interdict. On the 14th of May moll impoffible to treat with him, without being liable to
was fought the Battle of Gierradadda or Agnadel (1), be deceived. He knew how to improve all the Treaties
between the French and Venetians, contrary to the opi- and fcrupled not to forfake his Allies, when it was for
nion of Count Pitigliano, though General in chief of his Intereft. Notwithstanding all thefe difficulties, the \u forms
the Venetians, and to all reafon. For the Venetians hav- Pope formed the projec-1 of putting the affairs of Italy up- »<w FryeSi
ing no refuge but their army, it was by no means pro- on another foot, in order to execute his firft deligns.
per to hazard a Battle. But the heat of Bartholomew d' He refolved therefore to agree and league with the Vene-
Alviano prevailed over his General's Prudence. The Ve- tians ; to take off Ferdinand from the league of Cambray
netian army was entirely routed, and Alviano taken Pri- by inverting him with Naples ; to ufe his endeavours to
foner. Whereupon the Venetians being no longer able to fet the Emperor and King of France at variance ; to bring
relift their Enemies, Lewis in lefs than a Fortnight be- a Sivifs Army into the Milanefe ; in a word, to perfwade
came mafter of Cremona, Pefchiera, Crema, Brefcia, Ber- the new King of England to make a diverfion in France,
gamo, and of all the places in general, formerly belonging Thefe were the Pope's projecT, the Succefs whereof we
to the Afilanefe. Moreover Vicenza, Verona, and Padua, fhall fee hereafter. He began with making peace with the He makes
lent him their Keys. But as by the Treaty of Cambray, Venetians, upon three Conditions. Firft, that they fliould P""ewnB
thefe places were in the Emperor's divifion, he fent their defift from all their pretenfions to the Cities of la Ro- '* Ven= "
Deputies to him. Maximilian was then at Trent expecf- magna, lately taken from them. Secondly, that they Bembo.
ing the Succefs of the confederate Arms. Upon the ar- fhould renounce the right of placing in Ferrara a certain
rival of the Deputies, he ordered his Troops to advance Magiftrate called Bifdomina. Thirdly, that thev fhould
towards the State of Venice, and as thele Cities freely leave the Navigation of the Gulf free to all the Subjects
opened their Gates, had only to garrifon them. Trevifo of the Church. In the prefent circumftances of Venice
alone relufed him admittance, and remained firm to the there were no other Conditions to be impofed upon her.
Venetians, though reduced to the laft extremity. Friuli After fo long a digreffion concerning the affairs of Italy,
and the Towns of Ijfria followed the ftream, and fub- wiiich however is not ufelefs, as will appear in the Sequel,
mitted to the Emperor. On the other hand, the Duke we muft return to the affairs of England.

of Urbino, with the Pope's army, took Ravenna, Cervia, The Parliament being nffembled the 21ft of January i^ro.
Faenza, Rimini, whilft the Duke of Ferrara became maf- '510, the Commons reprefented to the Kino-, that cer- Tte'ParKa-
ter of Rovigo, and the Marquifs of Mantua of fome tain Statutes made in the former Parliaments, had given £'"' ""'"'
Caftles which were convenient for him. Thus, in a mo- occafion to the King his Father's Minifters, to opprefs the st't'te's'
ment, the Venetians faw all their Dominions reduced to people, by putting forced Interpretations upon them, con- fflnuU
the fingle City of Venice, with five places in the King- trary to the natural meaning of the words : That there-
dom of Naples, which could not be of great Service to fore it was neceffary to foften, or fo explain them, as to
them. Mean while, they were not entirely difcouraged prevent fuch abufes for the future (2). Henry readily a-
amidft fo many Calamities, though the Senate and People greed to what was propofed bv the Commons, not onlv
were under the greateft Confternation. Their chief care becaufe the thing was juft in itielf, but chiefly becaufe it
was to draw together their fcattered Troops, and ufe their naturally led to his defign of having Empjln and Dudley

attainted by the Parliament. Though thefe Men had
been already condemned by their proper Judges, the Kino-
had deferred the execution of the Sentence. He could not
help having fome fcruple, for cauling them to be accufed of
a Crime of which he knew them not to be guilty. Ne-
verthelefs he wanted to Sacrifice them to ch; people,
without incurring the Imputation of a falfe Accufation,
and withal to vindicate his Father's memory, by inti-
mating, that they had exceeded his orders. ' To recon- ah of At.

tair.der a-
gainjl Emp-

(2; Tn-_ benefit of Forfeitures for pena! Laws was alfo reduced to the Term of three years next preceding. There was likewife a Sump'uary Law l^ n °

againft excefs in Apparel repealed, and a more decent one lubrogared- Herbert, p. 6. It having been enactei in the 3d of Hettry Vil, That a ^"' e **

Coroner fhould h.ve trr his Fee, upun every Inquilition taken upon view or th: body train and muithered, thirteen Shillings and Four p.-n'ce of the »
Goods and Chattels of the Murdeier ; fir.ee the enabling of which, Coroners would not perform their Office without receiving the laid Sum of thir- ™"
teen Shillings and Fr or-pence ; which was contrary to the common Law, and the intent sf the fame Statute of He - , VII. It was therefore n-w e-
ir.fled, That up^n a Resell made t<. a Coroner, to come and inquire upon the view of my Perlon fain, drowned, or otherwife dead by mi&dven
tt re, the faid Coroner diligently (hail do his Oifice upon the view ot the body of every fuch Perfoa or Perfons, without raking any ininj for it
upon pain, to ev^iy Corrner that will not rndeavjur riimfelt to da nis O.fic.:, or that take:h any thing far the doing or it,, hj.- everv tisie* to fori
Kit forty Shillings. StMtut, 1 lie.-.. 8. c. 7.



endeavours to break fo dertructive a League.

The misfortune befallen the Venetians occafioned the
lofs ofPifa. This City defpairing of being relieved by
Venice, or the King of France, who had deferted her at
laft, furrendered to the Florentines, after having endured a
long Siege.

Lewis XII having comparted his ends, returned into
France, after he had detached a Body of his Troops, un-
der the Command of la Paliffe to join the Emperor, who

(1) ClIeH alio the Battle of Rivolta.



7o8 Me HISTORY of ENGLAND. Vol. I.

4

I -to cile tliefe two things, he fo managed it, that the Parlia- fador at London, to treat with Henry VIII about a ftric- 15 ig.

ment parted an A£t of Attainder againft them ; that is, ter Alliance than had yet been concluded between the

they were condemned to dye by the Authority of the Crowns of England and Spain.

Kin"- and Parliament, without any particular mention of Whether Henry could not fo foon refolve to conclude NnaTruiy

the crimes they had incurred, or of the proofs upon this new Alliance with Ferdinand, or was willing firft 'f' /tu "" ,a

which their Sentence was founded. This method, which to finifh his affairs with Lewis XII, it was not till the Hairy and

till then had been feldom practifed, was but too frequently 24th of May that the new Treaty was figned. It was Ferdinand.

ufed in the Sequel of this Reign; fo dangerous is it to only a defenilve Alliance between the two Kings, with a £^',p U 2 b 34

eftablifh fuch Precedents. Mean while, Henry having promife of mutual aid upon occafion. But Ferdinand, who

itill fome difficulty to overcome his fcruplcs, delayed their had his views, caufed thefe words to be inferted : That

execution till the following Augu/l ( 1 ). in cafe one of the two Kings was attacked by any Prince

f Whilft the Parliament was thus employed, Lewis XII, whatfoever, the other fhould be obliged to proclaim and

o/lilhaZ? font Ambafladors to England to renew with the King the wage War againft the aggreflbr, though he fhould be his

Treaties made with Henry VJi. As by the Peace of Ally : That if one was attacked by the King of France,

E/laplcs, after the death of one of the two Kings of the other fhould be obliged to go againft him in perfon



between
Lewis Xil
and Henry
VIII.
Art. Pub.
Xlll.p.270
March 23.
Pu Tillet.
Herbert,
btow.



France or England, his Succeflbr was to fignify to the
Survivor, whether he would continue the Alliance, it was
Henry's Bufmefs to inform Lewis XII of his Intention.
However, he had done nothing towards it. But as he
was a lively young Prince, and abounding in riches,
Lewis thought doubtlefs it would be proper to prevent
him, for fear he might ingage in defigns deftrudtive of
the welfare of France. His Ambafladors therefore con-
cluded with Henry a new Treaty of Alliance, wherein
the former Treaties were not mentioned. By this it was
agreed, that the Peace between the two Kings fhould laft
till the death of the fhorteft liver : That it fhould be
confirmed by the States-General of France, and the Par-
liament of England : That each of the two Kings fhould
take care to obtain the Pope's approbation, with a pre-
vious Sentence of Excommunication againft the firft Vio-



with a powerful Army. This Treaty fecured to Fer- Remark <
dinand the Kingdom of Naples, becaufe if Lewis XII had ,h " Tn <"y-
intended to undertake the Conqueft, the diverfion, he
would have been threatned with from England, would
have infallibly kept him from his purpofe. But it is
hard to conceive what advantage Henry could reap from
fuch a Treaty, fince it was not likely, Lewis defigned
to attack him ; fo that all the advantage was on Ferdi-
nand's fide. It muft be either that Henry's Minifters
were not very clear-fighted, or he, from a motive of ge-
nerality for a Father-in-law, whom he did not yet fuffi-
ciently know, was imprudently perfwaded to this pro-
ceeding, the more ftrange, as he had lately renewed the
Peace with France.

But it muft not be thought that Henry was then a com- Henry rr.mds
pleat Politician. He was yet young, and minded his "itj"' D:



diverfions more than the publick affairs. There was no-



-.erfi.ni.
Herbert.



lator.

There was nothing faid in this new Treaty of the thing every day but Turnaments, Balls, Entertainments, Hall

745-000 Crowns that Charles VIII had promifed to pay Conforts of Mufick, which confumed by degrees the eigh-

to Henry VII, or his Succeffors, and for which Lewis XII teen hundred thoufand pounds Sterling, found in the King

himfelf was ingaged by a fubfequent Treaty, becaufe the his Father's Coffers (3). He ufed likewife to play at Teu-

Bulmefs was only to renew the Peace between the two nis and Dice with certain ftrangers who cheated him of

prefent Kings. However, Henry forgot not to fecure the his Money, which he difcovered at laft, and though a

Xlllp-277 debt, by requiring of Lewis Letters Patents, wherein he little too late, fhamefully chafed them from Court. He

promifed to pav the Arrears by means of twenty-five thou- was fo paffionately fond of Mufick, that it devoured great

(and Livres every fix months, till the whole was dif- part of his time ; which, added to the hours he (pent

charged. After which the Peace was ratified and fworn in his Studies and other diverfions, left him but little lei-

by both the Kings. fure to apply himfelf to the affairs of the Government,

Julius II was meditating great defigns againft Lewis the management whereof he willingly left to his Mini-

I'he Succefs of the League of Cambray, though he fters. And therefore it may be affirmed, that in matter of



Aft. I'ub.
2ao.

-290.



The Pope

,'■ -.is Henry y i't

_j confecratcd



R-fi.



lb- p- 27
jApril 9.
Burnet.



Whilft Henry was wholly addl&ed to his pleafures, Wolre rl u
ere was a Perfon gradually rifing at Court, who was at court*



Ft tdinand

Am .ff

fr;m the



had turned it to his advantage, made him very uneafy. Policy, never Prince committed grofler faults, or was
He faw the French more firmly fettled in Italy than ever, more impofed upon than himfelf, efpecially in the firft
and Lewis XII better able to protect the Duke of Fer- years of his Reign.
rara. To accomplifh his projects againft France, he
doubtlefs wanted afiiftance ; and to that end, tried to ex- ther

cite all the States of Europe againft that Kingdom, as will one day to have an abfolute power over him, and to ma-
be feen prefently. So, to infinuate himfelf into the King nage all his affairs as well foreign as domeftick. I mean



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