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of England's favour, he fent him this year the Golden Rofc, Thomas Wolfey, who was made the King's Almoner laft
which the Popes, after folemnly confecrating it, were wont year, and in the beginning of this Dean of Lincoln (4).
to prefent to fome Prince (2). Probably alio, the King of It appears in the Collection of the Publick sifts, that on Aa Puh
Arragon, in concert with the Pope, began now to take the 30th of "January the King gave him a Houfe in Lon- xm.p.267,
meafures to ingage Henry his Son-in-law in a League a- don (5) formerly Empfon's, no inconsiderable prefent, fince i6 9'
gainft France. the Patent mentions thirteen Gardens belonging thereto.

The fuccefs of the laft Campain made the King of We muft now return to the affairs of Italy, which will
Arrazon no lei's uneafy than the Pope. He was fenfible, afford us farther matter for feveral years.

Julius II had two grand defigns in his head. The firft ?t c p c p e - t
was to feize the Duchy of Ferrara ; the fecond to expel Dtfigm.
the French and Germans out of Italy. His Forces alone
not being capable to execute thefe projects, it was necef-
fary to ufe the affiftance of fome other Princes, and try
to ingaa-e them in his defigns. His fcheme was to league
with the Venetians ; to take off Ferdinand and Max-
imilian from the interefts of France ; to break the League
of Cambray ; to perfvvade the King of England to make
a diverfion in France ; to excite the Switzers to invade
the Duchy of Milan. He executed all thefe projects, but
not without encountering fuch difficulties as would have
difcouraged any Man lets refolute than himfelf. Firft, he „ ,-,
made a private .League with the I enetians, after which, „,.,/ Uagua



Lcxvis never loved him, nor had any reafon to love him,
and faw this enemy, fince the ruin of the Venetians, in a
condition to difturb him in the poffeffion of Naples. On
the other hand, the League of Cambray could not pro-
cure him any further advantages, whereas the offers made
him to leave it were very conliderable. The Venetians a-
trrecd to reftore him the Cities they polTelled in the King-
dom of Naples, and the Pope was willing to depart from
his claim of forty thoufand crowns, and give him the in-
veftiture of that Kingdom for a Spanijh Genet only,
'['his was fufficient to induce him to break his engage-
ments at Cambray. In all appearance, ever fince the
end of the laft year, he had taken meafures with the Pope
to form a new League againft France. But as he never



acted openly, he defired thefe meafures to be kept pri- he folemnly gave them Abfolution the 24th of January.

vate, in order to attack Lewis the more irrefiftibly. To Then, he fecretly agreed with Ferdinand by promiling ^

that purpofe, on the 6th of January this year 1510, he him the Inveftiture of Naples. That done, he quarrelled m auJrrc i,

commifiioned Lewis de Caroz of Villaragud. his Ambaf- with Lewis XII, by filling a Bifhoprick in Provence, with- «"'<*

Lewis Xl'»



Venetians,
p. 294.



(1) They were both beheaded nn Tmoer-bill, Augufl 17. Hall, fnl. S. Dudley had, at the time of his Death, in Lands, Fees, ana Offices, to
'he yearly value of eight hundrtd Pounds j and twenty thoufand Pounds in roady Money, befides Jewels, Plate, and rich Furniture, G\. During his
Imprifonment in the Tower, he writ a Bunk called Arbor Reipubhea, dedicated to King Henry. By Eltzabetb his Wife, one of the Daughteis and
Coheirs of Ethuard (>><_>■ Vikount LijU , he left IlTue three Sons and one Daughrer. StVIO, p. 4S7, 4.8S. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. II. p. 217.

\zj It was dipped in Chrilm and perfumed with Musk, and lb lent to Archbiihop Warbam with Inltruftions to prelent it to the King at high
Mais, with the Pope's Benedicts n. Julius's Letter to Warham in Burnet's Collection is dated April. 5. 1510.

• The Reader may fee a large account of the King's Jufts, Pageants, and other cortly devices in Hall and Hclungjjjead, who have many par-
ts 11l.11'. worth perufing, by luch as delight in Inch matters.

4' Burnet fays, he not only ferved the King in all his fecret Pleafures, but was letid and vicious himfelf; fo that his having the Fren.b Pox
( which in thofe days wis a matter of great Intamy ) was fo publick, that it was brought againll him in Parliament when he fell into dil'grace. He
had alfo the Art ft attaching lo etrertually thole to his Interefts, in whole Company the King did mull delight, that thry were always ready to
luiward his Views. Being of a gay, facetious, and open Temper, he would divert himfelf with them in fuch Exerciles (lays Polydort Vlrg'tl I as
were molt agreeable t>> the Levity and Pallions ot Youth, and which did not perfeftly fuit with the Charafter of a Dean in the Chuich. He would
rivfeend tn ting, laugh, raliv , and even dance with them, as if for the time he had quite laid alide that Severity of Behaviour which became
hi- St.mnn. Hifl. Ref. Vol. I. p. 8.

,1 A EvfeiTuage, called the Parfonege, lying in the Parifli of St. Bride's in Fleet-Jlreet ; which Empf.n held by Leafe from the Abbot and Con-
:nl si Weftminjtcr, Kitr.-'j fxi. Tutn. 13. p. 269, The King gave bim alio in [tirtttrj tj,e next year, a Picbcnd of ffindfir. Ibid. p. 293.

5 out



Bemb



Book XV.



fed. HENRY VIIL



709



15 c O.



tndwitb lb

D,.k, r/
Fei r.irj.
Sardi.
Mezerai.



Ferdinand
dels undtr-
band 10 gain
Henry.
Herbert.



out asking his content, contrary to his own promife. Lewis
complained of it ; the Pope denied he had promifed any
fuch thing; and in fhort, they came at laft to give one
another the lie in form. This was precifcly what the
Pope wanted, in order to have occafion to break with
him.

His League with the Venetians being publickly known,
he imperioufly commanded the Duke of Ferrara to re-
nounce the League of Cambray, and join his Arms with
thofe of the Church. The Duke not believing, his being
Vallhl to the Holy See obliged him to be thus blindly de-
voted to the Pope's humours, refufed to break his Alliance
with France, and fo gave his Holincfs the pretence he had
long been feeking. When the Duke offered to pay him
the Tribute due to the Church for the Fief of Ferrara, the
Pope refufed it, plainly intimating by that refufal, he in-
tended to confifcate the Duchy.

Mean while, Ferdinand was privately acting with
Henry VIII his Son-in-law, to draw him into the Pope's
intereft, which was become his own, in confequence of
the Projects they had formed in common. But his prac-
tices were fo feciet, that Lauis XII never miftrufted
him. On the contrary, he entirely confided in the af-
furances given him by his Ambaffador, that his defign
was to continue firmly attached to the League of Cam-
bray.



He had done his utmoft to be reconciled with him, even f ;ro;
to the offering to abandon the Duke of Ferrara. But the
Pope, depending upon Ferdinand, and expecting great
affiftance from England, had evaded all his propofals.
Whereiore, to flop the fury of this impetuous old Man^
Lewis made a new League with the Emperor^ promi-
fing to put him in poflcffion of all Italy, except Genoa
and Florence. Maximilian had the good fortune, that in
all his Leagues he had ever great advantages, though he
contributed the lcaft. On this occalion, Lewis XII could
hardly proceed without him, becaufe it was abfolutely ne-
ceffary to continue the War in the State of Venice, other-
wife the Venetians would have been able to give the Pope Be tatii a
too great an affiftance. The League being concluded at '?"■'< wi '-*
Blois in Auguji, Lavis called a Synod at Tours, to con- ,.,..,",,,' ...
fult how he ought to behave to the Pope. The Synod wirBibtPcfti
were of opinion, that the King mould once more offer the M: ' a "-
Pope a reafonable agreement ; and in cafe of refufal,
might with a fafe confeience wage even an offenfive War
with him. Leivis wanted no more to juftify his intended
proceedings. Prefently after, he concluded with Alaximi- Treaty
Han a new Treaty, whereby they agreed to caufe a Ge- ; -> iximiliari
neral Council to be fummoned to P if a, todepofe Julius U.
To that end, they gained nine Cardinals, who readily un- P&.
dertook to call the Council in their own name. Some of' 1 " C '"." J -
thefe Cardinals were now wjth the Pope, but found means



The Pt>pt fit On the other hand, Julius II gained the Bifhop of to leave him under divers pretences, and, when he would



the Switzers
at variance
lotto France,
Guicciard.
jMezcrai.



Sion ( 1 ), who having great credit among the Switzers found
means to fet them at variance with France, by perfuad-
ing them to demand an augmentation of their penfions.
Their Alliance with that Crown being about to expire,
they required to renew it, that their penfions might be
increafed. Lewis refufing it, the Bifhop of Sim effectu-
ally ufed that refufal to ftir them up againft France, to
which the King himfelf alfo contributed by making an
Alliance with the Grifons. He thereby fo provoked the
Switzers, that in a Diet at Lucern they declared for the



have recalled them, refufed to obey.

Such was the fituation of the affairs of Italy during
the year 1 5 1 o. I have faid nothing of the events of
the War which continued all this while between the Em-
perorj affifted by the French King, and the Venetians,
becaufe thefe particulars are of little fervice to this Hi-
ftory. It will fuffice to obferve, that Chaamont feeing Ge- Chaumoni
ma and Milan in danger, had withdrawn the French '
Troops from the Emperor's Army to keep them at
Milan. The departure of thefe Troops gave the Vene-



res to

Milan.



Pope, and refolved to fend an Army into the Duchy of tians fome refpite, who thereby were enabled to repair



Milan

Hi trhi ia In fine, the Pope forgot nothing that he thought ca-
lh ' lo <pMe of perfuading the Venetians to agree with the Em-



Venetians
the Empen
Guicciard.
JMezerai.



Lewis XII

begins to fnf-
peel the Pope.
Mezerar.
Guicciaid



Julius II is
like to be
Jurpri z.cd at
Bolcgna.



peror at any rate, even to the advifing them to deliver
him Trevifo and Padua. He intimated to them, that the
moft effectual means to drive the French out of the
Milanefe, was to difengage the Emperor from their interefts ;
and when once they were out of Italy, it would be eafy
to wreft from the Emperor not only Trevifo and Padua,
but all his other Conquefts too. But the Venetians durft
not run fuch a hazard.

Such were the vaft projects of the Pope. He was Co
private in his Negotiations, that Lewis XII imagining he
had no other defign than to feize Ferrara, contented him-
felf with ordering Chaumont, Governor of Milan, to aid
the Duke in cafe he was attacked. But fhortly after, a
Venetian Fleet, and Papal Army commanded by Fabricius
Colonna attempting, though unfuccefsfully, to furprize Ge-
noa, Lewis had but too much reafon to fufpect, there was
fome grand defign formed againft him ; and therefore,
fent Chaumont orders to have an eye to the Pope's pro-
ceedings.

Thefe orders came to Milan very feafonably. Julius II
really intended to befiege Ferrara, and for that purpofe
was come to Bologna, till an Army, prepared on fome
pretence by Raymond of Cardona at Naples was ready to
join his and the Venetian Troops. But Chaumont did not
allow him time to execute his projects. Hearing the Pope
was arrived at Bologna, he departed from Milan at the
head of an Army, and made fuch fpeed that he would
have furprized the Pope there, had he not fuffered him-
felf to be amufed with parleys. Whilft he was treat-
ing with the Pope's Envoys, fome Venetian Troops in the
Neighbourhood entering the City, fecured it from the
danger of being intuited. Whereupon Chaumont, being
wholly unprepared for fo important a Siege was obliged to
letire.
He txctmmi- Julius II made great noife at this infult of the French, and
r.i.atu the f,j] e j a ]j £ uro p e _ i an d particularly the Court of England,
ner^h, and w ' tn his clamours. He excommunicated all the Gene-
tr.es t-j fur- rals of the French Army, and prefently after, his and the
fuze 6am*. y mc i\ an Gallies made a fecond attempt upon Genoa, but
Mczcra'i. wi'h no better fuccefs than before.

Tie Switzers At the fame time, twelve thoufand Switzers began their
march in order to enter the Milanefe, under the conduct
of the Bifhop of Sion. But he found the paffages fo well
guarded, that they defpaired of fucceeding in their defign.
So, not receiving betides from the Pope the Money pro-
mifed them, they returned into their own Country.
• War being thus proclaimed between Lewis XII and
the Pope, Lewis thought himfelf under no farther restraint.



fiinnct enter

li«Mi)anef



Lewis XII
joins in a
I ea r ut tiith
the Emptier.



fome loffes fuitained in the beginning of the Campain,
and to affift the Pope who ftill defigned to befiege Fer-
rara.

Chaumont's attempt to furprize the Pope in Bologna, Toe A//<
afforded Raymond of Cardona, Viceroy of Naples, a pie-^^J^' 1
tence to march to the relief of his Holinefs. The Pope's ; '„ n .
Troops and the Venetians were, in December, joined by the
Spanijh Army near Modcna, which Fabricius Colonna had
taken in his return from his Genoa expedition. Though Siege if
the feafon was not very proper to enter upon action, the Mirandoks
Pope was abfolutely bent to befiege Mirandola. This
Town belonged to the Heirs of 'Joannes Picus of Miranda,
with whom he had no quarrel. But as it lay conve-
nient to favour the Siege of Ferrara, he would not
leave it in his rear, but ordered it to be vigoroufly at-
tacked. In fpite of his age, and the rigour of the Seafon,'
he came himfelf to the Siege, to animate the Troops by
his prefence ; and the Town furrendring at laft on the
zoth of January, was pleafed to enter through the
breach.

Lewis XII complained to Ferdinand of his affifting the
Pope. But Ferdinand calling that a trifle, replied, that as
Vaffal of the Holy See he could not help defending his Ho-
linefs's Perfon and State : That beiides, he was not con-
cerned in the quarrels of the Pope and the King of France^
but his intention was to keep to the Articles of the League
of Cambray.

Hitherto Henry does not feem to be concerned with the
affairs of Italy, though the Pope, Ferdinand and the Ve-
netians had formed a defign to ingage him therein. He
peaceably led a life of pleafure, without much regarding
what paffed abroad. On the ift of January 15 n, he iciji
had the fatisfaction to fee his Queen delivered of a Prince, Birtb -a
at whofe birth there was great rejoicing over all the King- |£JJ,£
dom. But the joy lafted not long, fince the young Prince «*,
died before the end of February {2). V'"'"-

Mean while, Ferdinand was feeking means to engage St ^J_
Henry in the League he intended to make with the Dt jwi r -f
Pope againft France. Henry was rich and powerful, and Fct^aaaA
confequently his junction to the League would be oi
great weight, and extremely incommode France. On
the other hand, his youth and fmall experience made
his Father-in-laW hope, it would not be impracticable to
ingage him by degrees, and infenfibly, into projects which
a King of England ought not to concern himfelf with.
It is certain, Ferdinand was now in agreement with the
Pope. All his proceedings, and the feveral circumltances
of Hiftory, render it fo evident that it cannot be doubted.
However, he ufed a profound diffimulation in this re-
fpect. He feigned to intend only the peace of Europe,
that all the Princes of Chriftendom might join together in



(l).Or Palais, lying betwixt Stviferland, the Mihnefe, the Valley of Afi ard Sa-.-y.

(z) He was born at Richmond, and chriftened Henry. He was prefented 10 the King by bis fjuccn »S a New-Jtat J '.
February 22, and was bur-ed at IVejiminfier. Herbert, p. 7. Hail, fol. II.

No. 36. Vol. I. 8 R



lift, but died this fame ;



uv



•J lO



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



i ci i. a War affainft the Infidels. But as he wanted an Army of Lewis XII, would interpofe in the quarrel. And 151 1



He demands

aid of Her
ry / p A"
pretended
IVor with
the M< 01s.
Act. Pub.
Xlll-j.-g^
March i.



lb. p. 197.

June.

Herbert.

Hall.

Stow.



and Fleet to execute his defigns, he pretended to have
very much at heart the continuance ot the War he had
undertaken againft the Moors. He had lent iaft year
upon the Courts of Africa, a Fleet commanded by Peter
of Navarre. Shortly after, he reinforced it with fonie
Troops under the conduit of a Son of the Duke of Al-
va, who attempting to land at Gelves, was flair,, and all
his Men cut in pieces. Ferdinand made ufe ot this ill
fuccefs to cover his preparations againft France. Under
colour of being revenged on the Moors, he alTembled an
Army, and equipped a Fleet, which he pretended to fend
into Africa, but v/as however dellgned for Italy. As it

-was not vet time to difcover his intentions, he carried his
diffimularion lb far, as to demand of the King his Son-
in-law a thoufand Englijh Archers to ferve in this pre-
tended expedition. Weak aid ! to be fent for fp far and

.at fo great charge, if he had really intended to ufe them.
Henry, not perceiving his defigns, readily complied with
his rcqueft, and appointed Sir Thomas Darcy, on whom,
at the fame time, he conferred the title of Baron (1), to
command that fmall body (2). We find in the Colleilion
of the Publick Atls, Ferdinand's Letter of thanks to
Henry (3) for this aid, and for his advice not to hazard
his Perfon in the undertaking : Advice, continued he,
that he could not follow, becaufc Religion was concern-
ed. And yet, it foon appeared, he had never intended
any fuch thing, fince he employed againft France the



therefore, to remove all pretence of rupture, he took care ">• P- 3 OJ
to appoint (Jommiffioners (5) with power, to repair all the
outrages committed fince the late Peace. But his precau-
tions proved ineffectual. An accident this year, afforded
the King of Scotland afterwards that pretence of Breach
which Henry would have prevented.

Andrew Breton, a Scotch Merchant, complaining to the Caufe of
King of Scotland, that the Portuguefc had killed his Father, ?!f™?
and feized his Ship, the King gave him Letters of Mart, England and
after having in vain fought redrefs from the Court of Pot- Scotland.
tiigal. Whereupon, Breton equipped two ftout Ships, and B" c |"" lan -
found means to make himfelf ample amends for his lofles, Hall,
bv falling upon all the Portugal Ships trading to Flanders Stow,
and England. The Portugal AmbafTador rending at Lon-
don, complained to the Council, and reprefented, that
fince the King of England pretended to the Sovereignty
of the narrow Seas, it was but reufonable he ihould pro-
tect the foreign Ships that came into the Channel. Upon
this Complaint, the King equipped two large Men of
War, and appointed the two Sons of the Earl oi Surrey (6)
to command them, with orders to take the Scotch Pyrate.
Thefe two Lords watched him fo narrowly, that they
met with him at laft, as he was returning from Flanders
to Scotland. Breton fought defperately, but was killed in
the fight, and his two Ships taken and brought into Eng-
land (7). The King of Scotland hearing of this, fent and



demanded the two Ships, with fpeedy reparation of the

very Forces which feemed to be defigned againft the outrage committed againft the Peace. The AmbalTadors Hollinglh.

Moors (4). were told, that Py rates were not included in the Peace,

Nothing more was wanting to conclude the projected and that to punifh fuch people according to their deferts

League againft Lewis XII, but to gain the King of Eng- was no breach of Treaty. Probably, Breton had made

land. This was ftrenuoufly endeavoured during the be- himfelf more than amends for the damage he had fuilained,

gaiyiYi^K. ginning of the Year 15 1 1. The Venetians fent him an as it too frequently happens on fuch occalions. But how-

AmbaiTador, under colour of thanking him for his care to ever King James not being able to obtain any thing from

reconcile them to the Pope, 1 defiring him withal, in their the Court of England, protefted againft the Injuftice, be-

Credentials dated the 2d of March, to give credit to what ing determined to refent it the firft opportunity.



Ihty try ft
get Henry
into the
League a-



their AmbaiTador fhould impart to him, which could re
Bimbryge late only to the intended League. About the fame time
a -'it was, that the Pope conferred the Dignity of Cardinal
upon Cbriftopher Bambridge Archbifhop of York, and Am-



mane Cc
Herbert,



baflador at Rome, in a Promotion the nth of March at
Ravenna. All the Hiftorians unanimoudy affirm, Bam-
bridge was made Cardinal , purely for labouring to fet
Henry at variance with France. Matthew Sk'.nner Bifhop
of Sion, was promoted to the fame honour for his pall
and future Services of the like nature. In thofe days,
it was neither Learning nor Virtue that raifed Clergy-
men to the Cardinalate, but folely their Abilities in



I left Julius II, after the taking of Mirandola, bent The Pope
upon the Siege of Ferrara , and only waiting the return S' <s *.
of good Weather. Though Lewis XII was in good mea- King's offers,
fure ignorant of what paiTed in Spain and England, he Guictiard.
knew however enough not to doubt that the Pope was p"" 1 !'.



Hemy en-
gages with
the Al'ies.



Afl. Pub.
XIII. p.30



ready to ferve upon the firft notice, which it was cufto-
mary to order only when a war was forefeen. The rea-
fon alledged by the King for thefe orders, plainly fhew



Hi guctrit
ngainfl

Scotland.



endeavouring to raife him enemies on all fides. He was
even fatisfied, that though he feemed to have no other
delign than to become mafter of Ferrara, yet that was
only the firft Step to fome greater project. Mean while,
he was very much embarrafted. He had properly nothing
to gain upon the Pope, unlefs he would feize the Church's
Patrimony. But he had a great deal to lofe, befides the
temporal Affairs, joined to an entire SubmiiTion to the troubles which the obftinate and haughty Temper of the
Pope. Pope might create him. Wherefore he refolved to try

The endeavours that were ufed to engage Henry in all poffible ways to be reconciled with him. To that
the Italian League, had at length the expedvted Succefs. In end, whilft the Pope was employed in the Siege of Mi-
all appearance, it was reprefented to him, that he was randola, he made him fome overtures by Chaumont; but
highly concerned to oppofe the progrefs of the King of it was to no purpofe. The Pope would hearken to no-
France, who was already become too powerful by the thing, and continued the Siege till he forced the Town to
Conqueft of the Duchy of Milan, and the ruin of the Ve- capitulate. At laft, Lewis feeing there was no hopes of a I-ewa re-
netians. However this be, it appears that about the mid- reconciliation, ordered Chaumont to regard him no longer, ' r f J " rd '° lb
die of the year, Henry was now determined to follow and at any rate fupport the Duke of Ferrara. Chaumont t>opc T *
the Suggeftions of the Pope and Ferdinand. For in June receiving thefe orders, takes the Field in the midft of {'"£"'•
he appointed CommiiTioners, to take care that the Militia winter. His army, joined by the Duke of Ferrara, bardu
of the Kingdom were provided with good Arms, and was not fo numerous as the Forces of the Pope, Ferdi-
nand, and the Venetians ; but compofed of fo good Troops,
that the Allies durft never hazard a Battle, though it
was offered them more than once. Mean while, the
what was his defign. He faid, though the Kingdom was Pope was greatly enibarrafled. Inftead of quietly prepar-
in perfect Tranquillity, neverthelefs, as the Arms were ing for the Siege of Ferrara, he was forced to keep the
commonly fuftered to ruft in time of Peace, he wifhed Field during the winter, without knowing even how to
that his Subjects would be in a readinefs to ferve him, as fave Modena, which was in danger of a Siege. Ferdi-
wcll againft Invafions, if any were intended, as in de- nand, who forefaw what trouble that place would give
fence of his Allies. Thefe laft words could refpe£t only the Pope, had advifed him to refign it to the Emperor,
the Pope, the King of Arragon, and the Venetians; from Nay, that affair had been negotiated, but without Sue-
whence it may be inferred, that the King had now cefs, becaufe Maximilian would receive it only as a place
given his word. But the Sequel will fliew it ftill more held of the Empire, to which the Pope would not con-
clearly, fent. At laft, upon Chaumont's approach to befiege it, Julius n

The antient and ftrict Union between France and Scot- the Pope was willing to deliver it as the Emperor delired, *mJaJ£ «



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 299 of 360)