M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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chamber, took his opportunity, and made fo furious a
Pafs at the King, that he was wounded through the body
of Lilla his Tavourite, who interpofed himfelf, and re-
ceived the Blow. Paullnus being informed of this acci-
dent, haftily ran into the room, and finding Edwin in a
great rage with the King of IVeJfex, toU him, God, to
whom fuch wretches were an abomination, would not
fail to punifh fo horrid a villany. It is faid that Edwin,
whom the Queen had hitherto follicited in vain, promifed
at the fame time to renounce Idolatry, if the God of the
Chriftians would revenge him of his enemy. At the
fame inftant, news was brought him, that the Queen,
after a hard labour, was brought to bed of a Princefs, for
which he returned thanks to his Gods. Paullnus for his
part, having been in great fears for the Queen, fell upon
his knees, and thanked God for her deliverance. The
Prelate's zeal was fo pleafing to the King, that immedi-
ately conceiving a favourable opinion of the Chriftian
Religion, he confented Paullnus fhould baptize the new-
born infant. The young Princefs, who was named

(1) According to Malmjb. Laurtnliui was Archbifhop five years, p. 196. So Gtrvafius alfo fays. But Bnmpton makes him to have been Arch-
biihop fixtecn Years, p. 739. r

(2) Mcllitu, was Archbifhop five years; Jujtu, three, and, according to others ten; Brnmut twenty-fix; and DeMeiit ten. Malmjb. p. 106.

ar'jmpt. Lreri-ai. J * * »

,K (3 i l r Tt r ' K!n B of *""".' W , h °/ eiE „ n , cd , h „° m 642 t0 664> ordcrcd L "" t0 be ke P c throughout his Kingdom ; which, as far as appears, was
trie firlt Inlhtution of It in England. Malmjb. p. n. Bromft. p. 74.0.

(4) About twenty Miles from Oxford, in mitjhin, from whence that Univerfity might be afterwards fupplied.
<5) in Jlrnnet College Library, in Sir Henry Sfelman's time. Com. Vol. I. p. 154.
cJrVvui'f" " f " d t0 '"' Ve been the firft th " divided the Province of Canterbury into Parijba. See Bed,, Edit. IrteM, p. 399, Sfthuti

,l\ B ,',"^T' d WaS the firft • SflXOT Arc!lbim °P. 2" the reft having been fent from Rome. Bromft. p. 742.
(*) . Malmjb. lays thirty-feven, (p. 196I MidCoMi, thirty-feven years and fix months, (p. 1640.)

W 4. V O L. I. S Jt J] •


Vol. I.

Beck, 1. 2.
c. 10.

i. 2. c. 12

Bede, I. :
c. 13.

Eede, 1. 2

Anficda was the firft that received baptifm in Northumber-
land (1).

Edwin however, not forgetting the perfidioufnefs of the
King of Wcffex, marched with an army into his domini-
ons, and, atter defeating him feveral times, compell'd him
humbly to fue for peace, and make him ample latisfadti-
on. But tho' he return'd with victory according to his
wifh, he deferr'd the performance of his Promifes (2).
When the Queen and Paulinas prefs'd him upon that
head, he told them, the quitting his religion leem'd to
him to be of that importance, that he could not refolve
upon it without a thorough examination of matters. And
indeed he heartily fct about it, and frequently conferred with
Coifi the Pagan high-priett, upon the reafons alledg'd by
Paulinus in favour of Chriftianity. Coifi, perceiving the
King was very near turning Chriftian, refolv'd with him-
felf to make his court to him betimes, by conforming to
his will. It would not perhaps be impoflible in the like
cafe, to find fome of this character among the Chriftian

Mean time, the Queen and Paulinus continued to fol-
licite the King to perform his promife ; and to give the
greater weight to what they laid to him, they got the
Pope to write him a Letter. But all would not do; Edvjin
flill dcmurr'd, and could not come to a refolution. At laft
the circumflances of the Vifion he had formerly feen in the
Garden oi Redowald, being, as it is pretended, revealed
to Paulinus, the work was accomplifh'd in an extraordi-
nary way. Bede relates, how that one day as the King
was furroundcd with a croud of Courtiers (3), Paulinus
came in fuddenly, and laying his hand on Edwins head,
ask'd him whether he underftood the meaning of that To-
kcn ? At thefe words, Edwin recollecting what had pal's'd
between him and the Stranger in Redowald's garden, threw
himfelf at Paulinus's feet, who, with an air of authority,
faid to him thus: My Lord, you have efcaped the hands of
your Enemies, and are become a great King. All that was
foretold you is come to pafs ; it is your duty now to make good
your promife. Upon hearing this, Edivin is faid to reply,
He was fully fatisfied, and ready to receive the Chrijlian
Faith. From that moment he ftrove not only to be bet-
ter inform'd himfelf, but alfo to prevail with his fubjecVts
to follow his example, and embrace the Gofpel. To that
end, he believed the beft way would be, before he publick-
ly dcclar'd his intent, to gain fome of his principal cour-
tiers, whofe example he did not queftion, would have a
great influence on the reft of the nation.

The greateft oppofition was moft likely to come from
Coifi, becaufe it was his intcreft to keep the people attach'd
to the worfhip of Idols. But the King was agreeably fur-
priz'd to find, that inftead of oppofing, he was ready to
comply with his defire. One day as the King was dif-
courfing with liim (+) upon this lubjedt, the High-Prieft,
like a good Courtier, laid to him : " I have for a good
" while been ferioufly reflecting on our religion, and on
" the nature of our Gods, and mull own I am not at all
" fatisfied in thefe points, neither can I forbear calling in
" queftion their goodnefs, juftice, or power. Never per-
" haps did any perfon ferve them with greater zeal, re-
" fpecl and afliduity than myfelf. You, Sir, are a wit-
" nefs with what devotion and care I have all along per-
" form'd the functions of my office ; and yet I never
" got any thing by it : Neither is there a Man in your
" court but what is better preferr'd than I am. Now,
" can I help concluding, that fince our Gods take fo
" little care of their moft fincere worfbippers, they
" mud be either unjuft, or weak, or rather no Gods at
« all?"

Edwin, extremely well pleafed with this anfwer of the
High-Prieft, had a mind likewife to know the fentiments
of another Prieft (5) that was next in dignity to Coifi;
who, encourag'd by the example of his Superior, told the
King : " Sir, the more we reflect on the nature of our
" Soul, the lefs we know of it; it is with our Soul, as
" with the little Bird that came in the other day at one
" of the windows in the room where you fat at dinner,
" and flew out immediately at the other. Whilft it was

l\ rw " 3S '"P t ' zcli 1 n ^'"[""day, with twelve other perfons belonging to the Court. Bide, 1. 2. c. 9.
^ (2J Bede fays, the reafon of it was, becaufe he would not embrace Chriftianity without due and mature deliberation, and without being fulh-
c.uuiy inftrufted in the grounds of his Faith. Ibid.

(;) Bede Lys, he was fitting alone ferioufly pondering with himfelf. Rapin.

(4) In a General Allembly. Habito cairn cum Sapientibus Ctnifilia, fcifcitabatur figillatim ab omnibus, quails fibi. docThina has catenus inaudita.
It novus dignitatis qui praedicabatur cultus videretur. Bcde, 1.2. c. 15.

[0. ?,, ,£ a >' s > jt was one ° f tne King's Grmdus: alius Oplimjlum Regis. Bede, \. 2. c. 13.

(6) The Temple was a very famous one, it flood at Godmar.bam, I. e. a receptacle for Gods, in Toil.Jl.ire: Near it is Wigbtm, that is, a place
of Idols. Camden, p. 738.

(7) Which was on Ealter-Day, April 12. Shortly after his two Sons Cffrid and Eadfrid, and fevcra! of the nobility, were baptized. P«/i-
ms preached fix years together in Nor:humbria. Bede, 1. 2. c. 14.

(5) She was daughter to Hlreric, Edwin's nephew. Bede.

'li • u ' \ la y s > tnat Bauhnus coming one time with the King and Queen to a place called AdregriH, ipent there thirty-fix days frcm morning
till night, in inflruffing and baptizing (in the River GUni) the people that flock 'd to him from all qu.rtir', 1. 2. r. 14. This Adregrm, as Bcde
ebjerves, ibid, was deftmyed in his time: but Camden affirms, that it was where Te-verin in Nonlxmhertand now francs.

(10) The lame is faid of Aujt'm 5 and both the rivers are call'd H'wate. Rapii:. It may feem incredible, that fculimti fhculd baptize fo ma-
ny in one day. But this Difficulty is remov'd in an antient Fragment quoted by Mr. Camdem. " The Archbiihop, after he had confecrated the
„ S" er •*'''> commanded, by the Cryers and principal Men, that they Ihould with Faith go in two by two, and in the Name of the Holy
I nnity, baptize each ether." '
fii) And yet Bid. fays, that-



" in the room, we knew fomcthing about it ; but as foon
" as it was gone, we could not fay whence it came, or
" whither it was flown. Thus our Soul whilft it ani-
" mates our Body, we may know fome of its properties,
" but when once leparated, we know not whither it goes,
" or from whence it came. Since then Paulinus pretends
" to give us clearer notions of thefe matters, it i, mv opi-
" nion that we give him the hearing, and laying afide .ill
" paffion and prejudice, follow that which fhall appear
" moft conformable to right reafon."

This advice, that agreed 1b well with the King's inten-
tions, being approv'd of, it was refolv'd Paulinus fhould
explain himfelf upon the fubjeft of Religion, in the pre-
fence of the Pontiff and other Priefts, which was accord-
ingly done. As loon as Coifi had heard the Biihop-6ut, he
declar'd aloud, He could fee no manner of reafon to doubt
of the truth of the Chriftian Religion. Edwin being thus
fure of the concurrence of the High-Prieft and fome of
his principal courtiers, call'd a IVittenagemot or parliament,
to debate, whether the Chriftian Religion fhould be re-
ceiv'd or not. But the majority being determin'd already
for the affirmative, it pal's'd without any oppofition.
Coifi was one of the moft forward to attack the Pagan
worfhip ; and being defirous to fhow fome marks of the
fincerity of his converfion, put himfelf at the head of his
Priefts, and marching toward the Heathen temple, darted
his Javelin againft the Idcl : Alter which it was broke in
pieces by the King's order, and the temple burnt to the
ground (6). The fame day Edwin was baptized (7), „ , ,
with his niece Hilda (8) afterwards abbefs of Whitby* c "

The Northumbrians following the example of their
King, Paulinus, who till then had lain idle, on a fudden
found himfelf fully employed, by the prodigious crowds
that daily came to be taught and baptiz'd (9). But if it
be true, as fome affirm, that he baptized in one day ten
thoufand, his inftrudtions mult needs have been very con-
cife (10). A Church of timber was haftily run up at York
for the new converts, who were very numerous. Shortly
after, Edzuin laid the foundation of a Church of free-ftone
round the former, which flood till the other of ftone w,as
built. He had not the fatisfaclion to finifh it, which was
done by Ofvald his lucceflbr. Paulinus is faid to have,
preached alfo at Lincoln, where he converted Blecca the „ ,

o /-. Bede,

oaxon LTOvernor. c- ,g #

Thus was Northumberland converted to the Faith of
Chrijl. But fome time after, Edwin being flain in bat-
tle, fuch defolation enfued, that Paulinus being compelled 633.
to leave the kingdom, the Northumbrians fell back again w - '• 20 -
to idolatry. Anfrid and Ofric, Kings of Deira and Ber-
nicia, followed the example of their fubjerSts, though
they had been inftru£ted in the Chriftian Religion in Scot-
land, where they had lived in exile. The apoftatizing
of thefe two piinces, and the barbarity of Cadivailo after
their death, almoft quite rooted out Chriftianity in Nor-
thumberland. During thefe calamities, neither Prieft nor
Monk had the courage to attempt the reftoring the Nor-
thumbrians to the Faith. fames the deacon, whom
Paulinus left at York, was not able alone to put a ftop to
the general revolt (11). Things remained in this fad
ftate, till Ofwald afcended the throne, who, as foon as,
he had reflored peace and tranquillity, laboured with all c . j]\"
his power to make religion flourifh again. To that end, S. Dunelm.
he defired the King of Scot/and to fend fome Perfons of
learning to inftruct his fubjeits. Accordingly Cor/nan,
a Monk of fona, of whom I have elfewhere fpoken,
was lent with fome others ; but he being a Man of a
rugged temper, and difliked by the Englijli, returned to
his monaftery ; and making bus report of his Mijfion in a
full Chapter, Aidan, one of the Brotherhood, found by
what he faid, that he had not u fed that condefcenfion to c . .'
the Euglijh their circumllances required, and therefore
told him, " It is my opinion, Brother, that you have
" dealt a little too roughly with thole you defigned to
" convert ; not remembring that the Chriftian Religion
" ought to be infufed in the Mind, not by violent, but
" mild and gentle methods." Upon thefe words, the
Monks unanimoufly declared Aidan was the fitteft perfon



JBede, 1. 3.

Inlroducl. p. clxvi. 2d Ed::.

magnas anficuu hofti prsedas docendo 8c baptizando czipuiu I. 2.

Book III



o 35 .

I 3 . c. S-


Bfde, 1.



I 3-

to be Tent to the Northumbrians. He undertook the affair,
and being confecrated Bifhop, fet out for Northumberland.
Bede gives Aidan the character of a pious and religious
perfon, but adds, his zeal was without knowledge, be-
caufe he kept Ea/hr after the manner of the Eajlern
Chriftians, and not according to the cuftom of the
Church of Rome. However, as much a Schifmatick as he
was in Bede's opinion, nothing can be added to his com-
mendation of him for holinefs of life. He not only,
fays he, inftructed Chriftians in their duty, but alio gave
them an example of a good life, and fervent charity,
which charmed the very Heathens, and allured them to
the Faith. His fuccefs was fo great among the Northum-
brians, that they returned in crowds to the profeffion of
Chrift. Ofwald, who was extremely defirous of the
converfion of his Subjects, did all he could to promote
the Work, even to the becoming Aidan's Interpreter, in
explaining his diicourfes to the people. It may perhaps
feem ftrange, that Ofivald fhould not recall Paulinus,
who was then Bifhop of Rochejler, or make ufe of the
miniftry of fames, who was left by Paulinus in Northum-
berland. But it muft be remembred, that Ofwald, ha-
ving been inftrudted in the Chriftian Religion in Scotland,
had an averfion for the Roman Mijfunaries, on account
of the difference between the Romanijls and Scots about
Eajler, and the Ecclefiajlical Tonfure. Aidan dying after
he had governed the Church of Northumberland feventeen
years ; Finan, another Monk of Jona was fent to fupply
his place. He fixt the Epifcopal See in the little Ifland of
Lindisfarn (1), contrary to Gregory's regulation, who or-
dered that the principal See for the northern parts mould be
fettled at York.

This was not the only thing wherein Finan and the
other Scotch Ecclcfiafticks mowed their independance on
the Church of Rome. Their obftinate refufal to conform
to the Roman cuftom of keeping Eajler, was an article of
much more importance, at leaft in the opinion of the
Italian Priefts, by whom it was confidered as a principal
point. England was then divided into two Parties or
Seels, who firmly adhered to their refpe£tive opinions.
All the Scotch Priefts and Monks, who were very nume-
rous in Northumberland, and all their converts, followed
the Eajlern Churches; but the French and Italian Eccle-
iiafticks, in that and all other points, ftuck to the Church
of Rome, branding with the name of Schifmaticks thofe
who refufed to do the like. And therefore they ufed their
utmoft endeavours to bring the Englijh Churches to a con-
formity with them, which they thought might eafily
be done, could they but once gain over Finan to their
fide. To this end they fent to him a Scotch Prieft, that
had been educated in France, to lay before him the rea-
fons alledged by the Church of Rome upon that head.
But fo far was Finan from being prevailed upon, that he
became a more profeffed and open oppofer of the Roman

This difpute was then carried on with great vehe-
mence, not only among the Clergy, but even among the
moft ignorant of the Laity, as it ufually happens in Re-
ligious Differences. As long as Aidan and Finan lived, the
Romanijls, fays Bede, on account of the veneration all
Men had for thefe two holy Bifhops, bore with patience
this diverfity of opinion. But when Co/man, another
Scotch Monk, fucceeded Finan in the reign of Ofwy, the
difpute was renewed with more warmth than ever. The
Romanijls, defirous of bringing over their adverfuries to
their opinion at any rate, never left till they had got
Ofivy to call a Synod [in the Nunnery of Hilda~\ at
Streams- halh or JVlntby, in order to decide this affair.
The Synod being met, each party endeavoured to procure
as many votes as they could ; but, as it appears from
the accounts of Hiftorians, the Romanijls were much more
active and zealous than the others ; and managed fo, that
Agilbert Bifhop of Paris, formerly Bifhop of the IVejl-
Saxons, came to the Synod on fome pretence, with Aga-
thon one of his Priefts. At the head of the Scotch Party
were King Ofwy, Colman Bifhop ot the Northumbrians,
and the reft of the Scotch Priefts and Monks {?.), with all
that had received their ordination from them. On the
other fide appeared Anjfida, OJitn'i Queen, Alfred King
of Deira, Ojwy's natural Son, Wilfrid a Prieft his precep-
tor, who had ftudied at Rome, Agilbert Bifhop of Paris,
and Agathon a Prieft of the fame Church, Ronan a Scotch
Prieft, 'fames the Deacon, and all who had been difciples
of the Italian Priefts and Monks.

To fee with what eagernefs this difpute was managed,

one would have thought the very EfTence of Religion had

been at flake. And indeed the Roman ijls were of that opi-

j. nion, as appears from the words of Bede, it was not with-

out rcafon, fays he, that this quejlion dijlurbed the minds of a
great number ofChriJlians, ivbo were apprehenfve, lejl after
they had begun the race of Salvation, they Jhould be J'ound to
have run in vain. However, this Hiftorian, tho'he thought
all did run in vain who conformed not to the Church of
Rome, gives Aidan and Finan who were of that number,
the higheft prailes for holinefs of life. He attributes to
them the gift of miracles, which leaves no room to doubt,
but that he looked upon them as Saints ; notwithftanding
they were, according to his notion, actually involved in
Schifn. Baronius treads in the fteps of Bede. When he
mentions the Scots and Britons of thofe days, he calls them
Schifmaticks, for refufing to obey the Pope: But when he
fpeaks ot Aidan and Finan, he makes no fcruple of fainting
them, though they ftrenuoufly afferted the independency of
their Churches. Hence it follows, either thefe two Bifhops
were not really Schifmaticks,, or if they were fo, their Schijm
hundred them not from being great Saints, from being af-
fiftcd by God in working miracles, and converting nati-
ons. But to return to the Synod of Whitby ; firice the dif-
pute about Eajler was the occafion of their meeting, and
the caufe of great commotions in England, it will not be
amifs briefly" to relate the firft rife of it.

Towards the end of the fecond Century, a controverfy
arofe in the Church, concerning the day on which the Ea-
jler Fejlival was to be celebrated. The Churches of AJia
were of opinion, it was to be kept on the fourteenth day of
the Moon, according to the cuftom of the '7'ws, on what
day of the week foever it fhould chance to fall. The
JVcJlern Churches on the contrary, put it oft" till the Sunday
after the fourteenth day, becaufe our Saviour's refurrection
was on that day. Several councils were held about this
matter, as well in the Eaft as in the Weft ; but neither
party would recede from their opinion, each pleading apo-
Jlolical tradition in their behalf, the Eaftern Bifhops from
St. John, and the Weftern from St. Peter and St. Paul.
Suppofing the truth of both thefe traditions, the inference
was plain, that either of them might indifferently be fol-
lowed, and that it was no material point, fince the Apo-
ftles had not fettled it among themfelves. And in fed,
this diverfity of cuftom, prevented not the two parties from
holding communion with each other, till Ficlcr I. Bifhop
of Rome made a rupture, by excommunicating the £{iiar-
todecimans, or thofe that keep Eajler on the fourteenth day
of the Moon. This Proceeding oiViilor gave fo great of-
fence, that Irenceus, Bifhop of Lyons, tho of the fame opi-
nion with Piclor, feverely reprimanded him for breach of
charity, on account of a thing of fo little moment. He
alledged the example of Anicetus, Pius, Hyginus, Telefpho-
rus, Xijlus, predecefibrs of Viclor, who uotwithftanding
this difference, brake not communion with the Churches
of Afia. Adding, he would have acted much better in imi-
tating Anicetus, who gave the Eucharift with his own hand
to Polyearp Bifhop oi Smyrna, though of a different opinion
from him in this very point.

I'iclori, haughty treatment of the Churches of Ajia, in-
ftead of bringing them to his opinion, only made them ad-
here ftill more firmly to their own. They believed, they
were fo much the lei's obliged to conform to the practice of
Rome, as the Pope, after all, could produce no authentick
proof of his tradition from St. Peter and St. Paul; as the
Afiaticks, on their part, would have been as hard put to it
to make out Theirs from St. John. What Socrates the
Hiftorian fays upon this fubject is very remarkable : Nei-
ther Chrift nor his Apoftles have ordered any thing concern-
ing the Pafehal Feajl, as Mofes did to the Jews, their defign
being not to determine circumjlances about Holy-Days, but to
injlrutl Chrijlians in the precepts of piety and a good life. It
is my opinion therefore, that as certain cujloms have been in-
troduced in each country, this of the pafehal Solemnity xvas one
of them, and not built upon the authority of the Apjiles. The
Quartodecimans tell us, the keeping the fourteenth day was
injlituted by St. John. The Romanifts ?naintain, they had
their pratlice from St. Peter and St. Paul : But neither of
them have proved by any authentick record their ajfertion :
Whence it is clear, the Eajler Fejlival may be kept in every
place according to the cujlom firjl introduced there.

From this paffage it is evident, that they who were no
lovers of wrangling, looked upon this controverfy as of
little importance to religion. However, to avoid a diver-
fity even in the fmalleit matters, the council of dries in
3 1 4, ordered that Eajler fhould every where be kept on the
Sunday after the fourteenth day of the Moon, which hap-
pened next after the Vernal Equinox or 21ft of March.
This Canon was confirmed by the council of Nice in 325,
and the Emperor lent orders throughout all the Roman Em-
pire to have it put in practice. His letter upon this occa-
fion to the Governors and other Magiftrates, fhowed that

(1) Or Hvty-IJland, en the Coaft of Northumberland. It was not Fi'-an that fixed the Epifcopal See there, but his predeceffor Aidan. What
Finan did, was to erect there a Cathedral Church j which was built ifrer the Sc<trijh faflnon, not of Stone, but cf Timber, :.nd thatch'd. Ed-
lert, one of Finan z Succelfors, covered the Walls and Roof wi;h Lead. Bide, 1. 3. c. 3, and 25. 5. D:tnrftn. Hutting, p. 333.

(2) Particularly Ccadda, or Cedd, Bifhop of the EaJl-Saxt-ni, Bitmji. p. 778. Bede, 1. :. c. 25.



Vol. I.

the rcafons die Council went upon, were, that the §>uarta-
dccinmns were feweft in number, and flood too near the
Jewijh cuftom. Upon the fame account it was, that die
Council ordered, Eajler Should be the Sunday after the
full Moon in March. But it is uncertain whether it was

RomaniJls. Thus Colman and hia party loft their caufe in
this Point.

In the fame Synod was debated alfo the controverSy
about the Ecclcfajtical Tonfure. The Romanijh maintain-
ed, that the head ought to be Shaved round juft in the

meant, people fhould reckon from the beginning of the four- place where our Saviour wore the Crown of Thorns, of

teeuth of the Moon, or from the evening and beginning of
the fifteenth (i). Purfuant to this determination, all the
Chinches kept Eajlcr-Day on a Sunday. One thing how-
ever, namely, what was to be done when the full Moon
fell out on a Sunday, not being fettled, caufed fome
diverfity. In this cafe, fome Churches, among which was

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