M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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land, gave Henry juft caufe to fear, that as foon as the becaufe it was not to be faved without venturing a Battle. the Emperor,
war with France was begun, the King of Scotland, as Ally The Terms of this bargain are not precifely known. GuicdanL.

' « ' ' " Mezerau

(1) He was Captain of the Town and Caille of Berwick. Rymer, Tom. XIII. p. 194 Dugdale fays, the Title of Baron, which had ceafed

(6 lien. V.) in the Daughters and Heirs or Philip Lord Darcy, was revived to this Sir 'Thomas by writ of Summons to Parliament. (1 Hen. VIII.)
Baron. Vol. I. p. 374-

(2) There went o\er with him the Lord Anthony Grey, Brother of the Maiquil's of Dorfet ; Henry Guildford, Weflon, Brown, William Sydney, Efquires;
Sir Robert Citable, Sir R.ger Ha/lings, Sir Ralph Etdeiiare, Sec. They embarked at Plymouth about the middle of May, and landed at Cad z., June l.
Hall, fol. 11, 12. Sir Henry Gu.Idfiid, and Vl'cfton, and . Brown, Knights, were knighted by King Ferdinand, who gave Sir H. Guild-

Jjid a Canton of Granada, and rVeftm, and — — Brown, an Eagle of Sicily, for the augmentation of their Arms. This Body ot Troops

returned to England about Aiigujl. Idem, fol. 13. Stow, p. 48S.

(3) By this Letter, (writ in a molt religious Strain) it appears that all our Hiftorians, and Dugdale himfelf, is miftaken in the number of the Ar-
cher lent into Spain, Ferdinand's Letter calling them a thoufand, whereas they are laid to be in our Hiltorics fifteen hundred. Rymtr's Feed. Tom. Xlll.

P- 297. V

(4) King Henry fent alfo, in July this year, fifteen hundred Men into Flanders, under the command of Sir Edward Pcynings, to afliit the Duke of
Burgundy againlt the Duke of Gmldrts, Ibid. p. 301. Hall, fol. 13. i+.

(s) Sir Th^rna; Dane, and Sir Robert Dewy. Rymer'% Feed. Turn. XIII. p. 301.
(6j Thtmas and Fdwar I, which Lift was Lord Admiral. Herbert, p. 7. Hall, fol. 1 c..

(7) Though he was grievmifly wounded, he encuoratea his Men, with his whittle, even to his laft breath. The King pardoned the Men, and lent
them oot of the Kingdom. Herbert, ibid.


Book XV.

20. II E N R Y VIII.


151 r. But from thenceforward all the Emperor's proceedings
gave occafion to fufpect, Modcna was acquired upon
Conditions very prejudicial to the King of France his
Ferdinand': The King of Arragon pretended to be in Alliance with
D ^ muU,,on France. He would not declare againft her till he had
fecured the King of England, with whom he was pri-
vately negotiating a Treaty which required a long dif-
cuffion. Indeed, his Troops which were to ferve the
Pope but three months, according to the terms ot the In-
veftiture of Naples, were ftill joined with thofe of the
Allies. But he pretended, the Viceroy of Naples a£ted
contrary to his orders, in remaining in the Pope's army
longer than he was commanded. Mean while, the Army
was prefled by Chaumont and the Duke of Ferrara, who
followed them clofe, and endeavoured to provoke them to
Congnfi of a Rattle. So, to gain time, Ferdinand, who would (till
ctftaual " P a k '" r a neutral Prince, and well affedted to the repofe
Cuicciard. of Italy, propofed a Congrefs at Mantua for a Peace.
The Pope immediately accepted the overture. The Em-
peror agreed to it likewife, and Leivis XII durft not re-
ject it, led he fhould be charged with being the fole Au-
thor of the troubles of Italy. It is certain, if, at this
juncture, inftead of fuffering bimfelf to be amufed by a
Negotiation, the fole aim whereof was to rob him of the
opportunity of pufliing his enemies, he had ordered his
Troops to advance, he would have over-run the whole
Ecclefiaftical State; with fo great a Terror had his arms
infpired the Allies. But he had to manage his Subjects as
well as his Queen, who considered a war with the head
of the Church as a Crime, though there was but too much
provocation. He had bimfelf likewife fcruples upon that
account, which he could not eafily furmount. But how-
ever, he was willing to try once more, whether the pro-
poled Congrefs of Mantua would produce fome good ef-
fect. He hoped at leaft, that the breaking off the Nego-
tiation, in cafe it was not fuccefsful, would fully juftify
him. The Congrefs produced the efTeit expected by the
Allies, that is, it caufed the French to lofe a great deal of
time to no purpofe.
Tbc Emfmr A few days before the Congrefs of Mantua, the Bifhop
^h^itbtU °^ Gurck t who was to be there from the Emperor, had
R.pe. a Conference at Bologna with the Pope, after which they

Cuicciard. pretended to part in great difcontent. But what followed
plainly fhewed the contrary, fincc the Emperor never after
did any thing agreeable to his Alliance with Lewis XII.
A Cornell He confented however, that the Council of Pifa fhould
Vfah tbt b e called in his name, and the Summons fet up at Mo-
Emfmr's dena, and feveral other places belonging to him, becaufe
a«d French jt wa s not yet time to declare himfelf. The Summons
tf'aml. ran > That Julius II having refufed to call a Council, pur-
fuant to the Decree of Conjlance, the Cardinals were em-
powered by the fame Decree to fummon a Council in their
own name. And therefore with the confent of the Em-
peror and the King of France, they ordered the Council
to meet on the ift of September, in the City of Pifa, to
endeavour the Reformation of the Church, in the Head
and Members.
Lewis/-/- The Bifhop of Gunk's Conference with the Pope, and
feat the ^ e breaking up of the Congrefs of Mantua, made the

Emptor and „. r r 1 r r a. n 17 r\ l

JST/tfj of King of France greatly fulpect the Emperor. On the
Arragon. other hand, he could not help fearing the King of Arra-
gon, knowing by experience what was to be expected
from him. He law him making great preparations under
colour of the African War, and knew withal, that not-
withftanding his daily alfurances that he would not con-
cern himfelf with the troubles of Italy, he was ufing his
utmoft endeavours to procure a Peace between the Em-
peror and the Venetians. That is, properly fpeaking, he
was labouring to difengage Alaximilian from the Intereft
of France. In fhort, Ferdinand fent him brotherly Ad-
monitions to make his Peace with the Pope, and not draw
on himfelf the juft reproach of waging an unnatural war
with the common Eather of Chriftians. Lewis could not
but confider thefe Remonftrances as a fort of Proteltation
to affile the Pope in cafe of need. At the fame time, he
' could r.ct believe he would ingage in fuch an undertaking

without being fecureof the Emperor. Thefe things made
him uneafy, and apprehenfive that he fhould at lalt be the
Hi crJtis ' dupe of the Pope, the Emperor, and Ferdinand. So, for
Triulzi a fear of being prevented, he gave exprefs orders to Triulzi,
vttorouRi"' w ''° com manded his army in the room of Chaumont lately
Cuicciard. deceafed, to take all the advantages of the Allies that lay

Mezerai. j n n i< power.

inta '" Triulzi upon this order alTaulted and took Concordia in

Concordia, the beginning of May, at the time the calling of the

Council of Pifa was every where ported up. Then he

endeavoured by feveral marches to oblige the Allies to a

Keaf- Battle, without being able to fucceed. At lalt, he re-

Bolran". f°l ve d to approach Bologna ; not that he believed himfelf

in condition to befiege the City, but to draw the Allies

from their advantagious Pofts, and give the Bolomwis op-

portunity to rife in favour of the Benthioglio , S whom he 1511.
brought with him. The Pope had now done his utmoft
to perfuade the Generals of the Allies to hazard a Battle,
without being able to prevail, fo much did they dread in-
gaging with the French. Wherefore, knowing how the
army flood difpofed, and diftruliing the Bolonnois, who
loved him not, he retired to Ravenna, leaving in Bologna
the Cardinal of Pavia his prime Minuter. He was no
fooner gone, but a Tumult arofe in the City, during
whii li the Inhabitants called in their old matters the Ben-
tivoglio's, and put them in |X)llelTion of the Government.
The Cardinal of Pavia had taken to flight the moment
he perceived their refolution. On the other hand, the Tbejtmftf
army of the Allies advancing to one of the gates of Bj
logna, and hearing the Bentivoglio 's were admitted, and / / • .:i»
the Ecgate withdrawn, ran away in confufion, leaving in " u -' d -
the Camp their Artillery, Baggage, and Ammunition.
Whereupon the Inhabitants ("allying out, and joining with
the Peafants, completely Itripped the fcattered army, and
rendered it entirely unferviceablc for feveral months. The
Duke of Ferrara improving this opportunity, very eafily
tecovcred the places lately taken from him by the Allies.

Amidft all thefe mortifications, the Pope ftill met with TleCirJInal
another which fenfibly touched him. The Cardinal of '/.'J"''^'
Pavia was ftabbed by the Duke of Urbino, who taxed Duhtf
him with being the caufe of the lofs of Bologna. The Urbina.
Pope's concern was the greater as he durft not punifh, in Guiccurd *
the perfon of his Nephew, a Crime he would have thought
worthy of the fevereft treatment, had it been committed by
any other hand. His army being difperfed, and his de- <rtt p f*
figns upon Ferrara vanifhed, he quitted Ravenna and re- T"" '*
tired to Rome. In his way, he had the frequent mortifi-
cation to fee the Papers ported up for the calling of the Coun-
cil of Pifa, wherein he was himfelf fummoned to appear
in perfon.

It was univcrfally expected that Lewis XII would per- Lewis *&"
fue his SuccelTes, and certainly in the then fituation of h ". arm J "
Italy, it was his own fault that he was not marter of Rome. MibnT
The Pope had no remedy fpeedy enough to free himfelf GuiajaiA
from his fad condition. The King of Arragon was too
remote. The Venetians were unable to lend him a fuffi-
cient afliftance, and the Emperor was not powerful enough
to fave him, had he been willing to attempt it. Genoa,
Bologna, Florence, Milan, were in the hands of his ene-
mies. But Lewis, either through fcruple, or fome other
motive, inftead of pufhing his point, ordered Triulzi to
retire to Milan with the army, and even disband part of
the Troops. Probably, he was willing to deprive the
Pope of the pretence of exciting all Chrijlendam againft
him, and publifhing, that he intended to feize Rome and
all Italy. He was very juftly apprehenfive of this from
the Pope, fince it was in effect the foundation, or rather
the pretence of the League formed fome months after
againft France. Triulzi was no fooner at Milan, but Fer-
dinand's Fleet arrived at Naples, with about three thou-
fand Men, who were foon to be followed by a more con-
siderable Body.

It was not difficult to perceive, that the King of Arra- J' J f mt n
gon had fent his Fleet to Naples to fupport the Pope's In- :',Z'° " £r "
terefts, and give jealoufy to the King of France. Julius II, Lews XII.
who was better informed than any man, revived at the
news, and the rather, as he well judged that Ferdinand
would not have been altogether affured of the King of
England. Since the lofs of Bologna, and the rout of his
army, he had fcemed willing to confent to an agreement
with France, and though he had made overtures more
like a Conqueror than one conquered, Letvis had accepted
them on condition they were approved by the Emperor.
But when the Pope found, the Spanijh Fleet was at Na- u '
pies, and Ferdinand began to declare himfelf, he added '£"*•
new Terms to thofe he had already propofed, and plainly
fhewed he was no longer for Peace. This Conduct put
Lewis XII beyond all patience. So, defpairing to agree Lewa tain
with fo obftinate an enemy, he ordered Triulzi to fend B,l "S nai " ! -
Supplies to Bentivoglio to guard Bologna, and fome time
after, took Bologna and the Bentivoglio' s under his protec- At*. Pub.
tion. On the other hand, though he was not obliged to Xin._p.303.
affift the Emperor, unlefs became into Italy in perfon, he %ji)Ttbe
added however to the German Troops in the State of Ve- Bmfenr.
nice a ftrong re-inforcement commanded by la Paliffe. Mean *** Pcftalk
while, the Pope having; certain advice of the eoocl Inclina- ", Cc , ! " : ,"' '**
tion of the Kings of Arragon and England in his favour, ct*,c .
refolved to fummon a General Council in oppofition to Gu - cc "*
that of Pifa. To that end, he publiflied a Bull, wherein,
having firft excufed the neglect the Schifmatic Cardinals
laid to his charge, and inveighed againft their Infolence,
he called a Council to be held at the Laieran in Rome, the
19th of April 1 512.

Since the Bifhop of Gurck's Conference with the Pope ^ ; ' i: "
Maximilian's Conduct was fo doubtful, that it was difficuk .
to judge certainly of it. He had agreed to the calling; of
the Council of Pifa, which was done with his exprefs



ttt H IS TO Rf of ENGLAND.

Vol. I.

t; 1 1, confent. 6ut lie had not yet appointed Ambaffadors, nei-
ther was it known that any German Bifhop was pre-
paring te go thither. Moreover, he had promifed to
Command in perfon in Italy t and lead thither a ftrong
reinforcement. But he remained immoveable. And yet,
he continued at Injpruck, without {hewing any thoughts
cither of the Council of Pi/a, or the War with Italy.
Mean while, the Conqucfts that were expected to be
made upon the Venetians were to be all hfe. Thus, in
the prefent pofture of the affairs of Italy, Lewis XII faw
the burden of the war laid upon him alone, without his
daring almoft to complain to the Emperor, for fear he
fhould join with his enemies. And indeed, Maximilian
was ftrongly follicited by the Pope, the King of Arragon,
and the Venetians themfelves, who offered him a good
Sum to induce him to defift from his pretenfions to their
Dominions. Very probably, he was yet unrefolved, and
knowing the League that was forming againft France,
was willing, according to Cuftom, to let the two Parties
proceed, in order to take afterwards that Side which beft
fuited with his Intereft. This doubtlefs was the reafon of
his preferving a good underftanding with Lewis XII, in
confenting to the calling of the Council of Pi/a, and
withal, of referving a means to be reconciled to the Pope,
in fending neither Bifhops nor Ambaffadors to the Coun-
cil. Thus remaining almoft equally fufpecled by both Par-
ties, he waited till the Succefs of the War, or the offers
from both Sides, fhould engage him to declare for one or
UtceriMr.ty Mean while, affairs continued ftill in the fame fituati-
If'i' 1^'" on< The Pope and the Venetians were alone in open War

Mer.iy'l and
F rdinand'j
Embafjy r,

of Italy,


with France. The Emperor feemed to float between
both fides. The King of Arragon had hitherto done no-
thing more than afforded hopes that he would join the
League when concluded. But it was not fo yet, every
one fearing to engage in it unfeafonably. Julius II and
Ferdinand knew one another too well to confide in each
other. Each ftrove to make the other fubfervient to his
defigns, and was afraid at the fame time of being deceiv-
ed. Ferdinand had ftill in France an Ambaffador, who
endeavoured to perfuade the King, that the preparations
in Spain concerned only the Moors. On the other hand,
the Pope had not fo quarrelled with Lewis XII, but that
he had ftill left him fome hopes, and continued a fort
of Negotiation with him, by means of the Bifhop of
Murray the Scotch Ambaffador, who did the office of
mediator. Ferdinand was afraid, in cafe the Pope made
a feparate Peace with France, the Kingdom of Naples
would be in danger. The Pope had no lefs reafon to

caring, that after the execution, his artifices were difco- i;ii.
vered. The Fleet and Army he had prepared in Spain,
had for pretence, a War with the Infidels. When he was
going to declare openly againft France, he failed not to
ufe the pretence of protecting the Church againft the
outrages of Lewis. As foon as he had gained the King
of England, they jointly fent Ambaffadors to Lewis, to
require him to leave the Pope unmolefted, intimating, LewisXH
that asChriftian Princes they could not difpenfe with pro-
tecting the Church, difturbed by his ambition. Lewis Yaw
plainly, that their meafures being riow taken, it would
be too late to juftify his conduct ; and therefore, chofe to
return a haughty anfwer, which was precifely what his
enemies wanted.

Shortly after, on the 4th of October, the Pope, the League a-
King of Arragon, and the Venetians concluded a League i^'V? francs
at Rome, leaving a place for the King of England, who ^, mt .
had fhewn his delire to be included. Indeed, Cardinal Guicdard.
Bambridge was concerned in the Negotiation as Ambaf-
fador of England. But he was ordered not to fign the
Treaty, becaufe Henry expected to make a private one,
more agreeable to the interefts of England than that which
concerned Italy only. By this Treaty the Pope promifed Anitla of
to find for the fervice of the League fix hundred Men '^' Q L '^'
at Arms, five hundred Light Horfe, fix thoufand Foot(i), xm.p.7+7.
and twenty thoufand Ducats a month. The Venetians Guicciard.
were to furnifh eight hundred Men at Arms, a thoufand
Light Horfe, eight thoufand Foot, and' to pay monthly
twenty thoufand Ducats. Ferdinand was to provide
twelve hundred Men at Arms, a thoufand Light Horfe,
ten thoufand P'oot, and twenty thoufand Ducats a month.
' It is true, neither the King of France, nor the Duke of
Ferrara, were named in the Treaty as enemies of the
Allies. But it was eafy to perceive it, fince the intent
of the League was to reftore to the Pope the City of Bo-
logna, and whatever belonged to the Holy See, and to make
War upon all Perfons that fhould offer to hinder it. A
place was left for the Emperor in cafe he would enter into
it ; and Raymond of Cardona, Viceroy of Naples, was de-
clared General of the League.

Whilft the World was in expectation of the effect of A~mnft>
this League, the Council of Pi/a was folemnly opened in ''"" ' f"" n z
that City, by the Cardinals who had convened it, and fit of Pi&T
fome Bifhops of France and Milan. The firft Seffion Guicdard.
was held the 4th of November, though the Pope had ex-
communicated the Cardinals, and deprived them of their
dignity. The fecond was held the 1 1 th of the fame
month. But becaufe there was a commotion that day in The CnaeU
the City, the Cardinals and Bifhops were fo terrified, ""J ™ -

fear, that to fecure the quiet poffeflion of the Kingdom of that on the morrow they removed the Council to Milan,


ferdt an At.
tnj r, Naples,

Naples, Ferdinand would forfake the interefts of the
Church, and leave him expofed to the mercy of the King
of France. In that cafe, the Pope would have nothing
to expect from England. Thus, affairs were come to
that pafs, that it was neceffary, either that each fhould
quickly make a feparate Treaty, or both jointly declare
themfelves, not to remain in this ftate of uncertainty.

where they expected to be more out of danger. Indeed,
the Inhabitants of Pi/a could not look with a good eye
upon a Council, which expofed them to an excommu-
nication and interdict, though it was not in their pow-
er to oppofe the orders of the Florentines their Sove-

I obferved that the Switzers were at variance with Th S»k-

zers »ijtc&

And therefore, Ferdinand began at laft to pull off the Lewis XII, by the practices of the Cardinal of Sion, or zcrs

mask a little more, by fending to Naples, the Troops

he pretended to defign for Africa, in order to hinder

the Pope from thinking of a feparate agreement with


Whilft the Pope and the King of Arragon were thus

founding each other, the Cardinals, who had fummoned

the Council to Pi/a and were come to Milan, thought

fit to open it by Commiffioners. But this was only for

form's fake, to keep to the day appointed. Never was

General Council fo thin. The Bifhops of France were

not yet arrived, and there was no likelihood of any from

Germany. The Pope was enraged when he heard the
fun Pifa and Council was opened at Pi/a. In his paffion with the

dtr'aTl'Z- Florentines, for fuffering the Council to meet in one of for him to hinder them from coming to the very Gates
dm. their Towns, he excommunicated them as well as the Pi-

Cuicciard. [ ans ^ anf j put b otn tne Cities under an Interdict. But the

Opening of
the Council
if Pifa.

The Pope

rather of the Pope himfelf, who fet him to work. Their jay,
firft attempt to enter the Milanc/e proving unfuccefsful, Guiccuro.
they refolved this year to levy fixteen thoufand Men, the
Cardinal of Sion having pofitively promifed them Money
at their entrance into Italy, and that the Army of the
Allies would employ the French in la Romagna. As this
levy could not be ready till the beginning of the Win-
ter, they began their march in November, and penetra-
ted as far as Vare/e. Gajlon de Foix, Nephew of Lew-
is XII, Governor of Milan, was fo deftitute of Troops,
that he knew not how to oppofe their paffage. However,
with the few Men he had, he took the Field, to annoy
them and obftruct their march. But it was not poffible

:ines mike a Florentines forced the Priefts to celebrate Divine Service,
y.jl of it. leaving to private Perfons the liberty to obferve or reject

the Interdict.
Henry pn- It was difficult for Julius II and Ferdinand, to con-
7J,"'tb """ tinue lon S.' n tncir prefent fituation, without caufing ma-
'hia'zue. tua ' fofoicions, capable of changing the face of affairs.
The reafon which had hitherto with-held Ferdinand,
namely, his uncertainty with refpect to the King of
England, was now vanifhed. Henry, after long fufpenfe,
had at laft pofitively promifed to enter into the League
againft France. Whereupon the Negotiation of the
League advanced more in one month than in a whole
year before. It was a conftant rule with Ferdinand, to
cover all his defigns with the cloke of Religion , little

J'ch Virg.

of Milan. The French had now begun to furnifh the Tley retin
Caftle with Ammunition in order to quit the City, when fi&*if
fuddenly the Switzers hearing no news of the Pope, nor
the Army of the Allies which they thought to be af-
fembled in la Romagna, retired to their own Country,
after burning fome Villages. If the Pope had not difap-
pointed them of the Money he had promifed them,
and if the Army of the Allies had acted in la Romagna,
Milan, Bologna, and Ferrara, would have been in great
danger, fince the French were at that time very weak
in thofe parts. La Palijfe was then in the Emperor's
Army with a large detachment of the King's beft

Nothing could be more advantagious to England, than Fj'fe Prfiey
to fee the Forces of France turned againft Italy. The ^!1 enr y
Conqueft of the Duchy of Milan was lefs

VIII to rr.ed-

bencnaal to dlc wilb lbt

Affair: of
(0 In the Treaty, as it ftands in Rymcr, it is only laid, that the Pope was to furnifh fix hundred Men at Arnu, without any mention of Light- Italy,
Horle and Foot : Neither is the number of Troops that W3s to be fent by the Venetianl fpecified, but it is laid, they were to find a Fleet irrung enough
ro beat the Enemy's : And on the day of the Publication of the League, the Pope and the Venetian} were to pay eighty thouiajld Ducats of Gold for
two months wages for then Forces. Fad. Tom. XIII. p. 307. See Guiuiardi*, 1. 10,


Book XV,

20. Henry vnr.


i 5 ii.

The Pope O-

all the Adhe-
rents eftbe

Pi la.

Tie King of
Navarre is of
tl 1 number*
drfigns to
Ji ;. ( Navatrc.

lie makes a
cautions Pro-

Henry re-
Jolves upon
carrying tvar

Lewis XII than to England. For it procured England
a fettled Tranquillity, whereas it expofed France to per-
petual troubles, and an immenfe expence. It was there-
fore policy in Henry to fufter the French, Germans, Ita-
lians, and Spaniards to battle it in Italy, without involv-
ing himfelf in a War which could never procure him any
advantage. To the time I am fpeaking of", the Kings of
England had taken care not to meddle with the affairs of
Italy, if we except Henry III, who being unfortunately
defirous of making his fecond Son King of Sicily, ruined
his own Kingdom to execute that extravagant project.
But he was not a Prince to be imitated by his Succeflbrs.
The advantages of this policy were fo manifeft to all ijt
Englijh, that it required no lefs than a Ferdinand, the
ableft and molt fubtle Prince of his age, to make them
fwerve from it.

This Prince had joined with the Pope ever fince the

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