M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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beginning of the year 1 j t o, or perhaps the end of the
foregoing, and yet had been near two years without de-
claring himfelf. This delay proceeded only from his dc-
fire to fecure England firft, that Henry might make a
divcrfion in France, which would oblige Lewis XII to
ncglcCt the affairs of Italy. This diverfion muft have
been advantageous to the King of Arrugon, fince it would
remove from Italy, or at leaft, weaken, a very formid-
able rival. But it is hard to conceive wherein it could
be ferviceable to England. On the contrary, there feemed
to be feveral very itrong reafons to divert Henry from fuch
a delign, without mentioning the Peace he had lately
renewed with France, and confirmed by a folemn Oath.
This probably was the caufe of his fo long deferring the
conclulion of the League I fhall fpeak of hereafter. In-
deed it was not poflible, but that fome of the King's Coun-
cil were clear-fighted enough to fee that this League was
no ways advantageous to England, what colour foever was
given thereto.

Whiltt this Negotiation languished in England, new
occurrences put Ferdinand upon taking frefh meafures,
and contriving all forts of ways to fucceed with Henry.
Lewis XII perfifted in his dehgn to hold the Council of
Pi/a, as was faid, and that caufed 'Julius II to convene
another at the Lateran, and excommunicate by the fame
Bull all Princes and others who adhered to the firit.
Among thefe Princes, was John d' Albret King of Navarre,
who being allied to Lewis XII, blindly followed the di-
rections of the Court of France. The King of Navarre
had no fooner declared for the Council of Pi/a, but Fer-
dinand upon that pretence, formed the delign to feize
his whole Kingdom, and make Henry his Son-in-law the
inflrumcnt to execute it. To that end he gave Henry
to underftand, that a fair opportunity offered to recover
Guienne, taken by France from one of his predeceffors,
ftnee the League that was going to be concluded in
Italy would find Lewis XII fo much employment, that
probably, he would not be able to defend his own Coun-
try. But as the diftance of Guienne might deter Henry
from attempting this Conqueft, Ferdinand, out of affec-
tion, very willingly promifed to fupply him with Troops,
Tranfport - Ships, Artillery, Provilions, Ammunition,
without ftipulating any thing for himfelf, but the fole plea-
fure of procuring his Son-in-law fo great an advantage.
This offer opened the eyes of Henry and his Council ( 1 ).
The acquifition of Guienne feemed to them a thing fo ad-
vantageous, and withal, fo glorious in the beginning of
this Reign, that the King, without any farther difficulty,
entered into the League propofed by the Pope, Ferdinand,
and the Venetians. Such was the real motive (2) that in-
duced the Court of England to break the Peace lately
renewed with France, without alledging other reafon than
the protection granted by Lewis to the Bentivog/io's, and
the calling of the unlawful affembly of Pi/a. As if Eng-
land was concerned to help the Pope to Bologna, and
oppofe with Arms a Council, confuting of a fcore of
French Bifhops, without power and credit even in the very
place where they were allembled. We fhall fee prefently,
how Henry was the Dupe of his affectionate Father-in-law,
and how Ferdinand politickly made ufe of him to ferve his
own ends, without giving himfelf the leaft trouble about
his Son-in-law's affairs.

When Ferdinand had gained Henry, he concluded at
Rome, with the Pope and the Venetians, the fore-mention-
ed League. In this Treaty of Rome, it was exprefly faid,
that all the Articles were negotiated and fettled with the
King ot England's knowledge, the Cardinal of York ail-

ing for him, and daily cxpeding orders to fign it ; but 15:1.
that for certain reafons the conclulion of it could be no
longer delayed.

About fix weeks after, Henry and Ferdinand conclu- ! - '
ded at London, a private League lor the Conqueft o.< , '
Gutenne(i). This was a confequence of the firft, on
the fuppolmon that the depriving the King of France of c "r
that Province was a good mean, to ferve and protc-a the a"
Church ot C,cd, the great and principal aim of the A!- XIII P . 3 u.
lies. If ever God's holv name w and than

My taken in vain, it is in the preambli of* thefe two 7 '.^
rreat.es. In the firft, the Pope p that hi, foil

aim in defiling Bologna, and the othi 1 £ tes whi h be- R,J -" C '
longed to the Church, was to reftore Italy to her former
1 lanquilluy, that all Chriftians might join tb.ir F. re-;
againft the Infidels, as he had ever wifhed, and (till did
wifh with all his heart. Thus, ton „ the

Infidels, it was neceflkry that / : f roin

t.oubles, winch could not be hop d till the Pope had ex-
ecuted his ambitious project, without which foArwas not
to expect to enjoy any quiet.

In the fecund Treaty, Henry and Ferdinand fa forth, <**«/««/

I hat they had made Alliance, with all Chriftian Prin- ,

« CK ' *°}ii t0 n be cnablL - J U > wa S e y '»r ^th the ene-
mies of Ch rift ; and for that purpofe, were now im- '"•' Fs " J >-
' ployed in preparing powerful Armies by Land and Sea ; ' Jri
■ but that fuddenly, when they leaft expected it, they
were told, the King of France's Troops were befieg-
ing Bologna, where the Pope, old and infirm, lay feiz-
„ ed with a grievous diftemper, and attended by all his
Cardinals : That being extremely affiicted at this
J news, they had befought the King of France by Let-
■' ters and Ambaffadors, to give over his delign : That
J the Pope had offered him the pardon of all his Sins,
" provided only he would abftain from the patrimony of
" the Church, ceafe to inflame the Schifm, and adhere 1
" to the Council of Lateran : But that all this had been
(< to no purpofe. On the contrary, he had made himfelf
malter ot Bologna, by the treachery of fome of the
Inhabitants; twice routed the A; my of the Holy
Church of Rome, and in contempt of the Holy See,
" called a Council, after having bribed fome of the Car -
« dmals. That fince, the Pope had lent a Legate to
" him to demand only that he would forbear to attack
" the Church. That the Legate not prevailing, the
•' two Kings of England and Spain had fent Ambaffa-
dors to advife him amicably to dclift from his atf mpts,
" and be reconciled with the Pope, or elfe they could da
" no lefs than undertake the protection of the Church ;
" but that their advice had been flighted. That upon
all thefe confiderations, the two R perfefUy know-

ing how detrimental fuch ;..i ambition might prove
" to the Catholick Faith, the Church of Gof, and the
welfare of Chrijlendom, had thought proper to a°-ice
upon the following Articles, to the praife and glory
" of Almighty God, our Lord Jefus Chrift, and the
" whole triumphant Court of Heaven, for the defence,
" exaltation, increafe of the Catholick Faith, the Chri-
" ftian Religion, the Holy Roman Church, which was
" unjuftly oppreffed, and upon the frequent inftances, ex-
" hortations, and admonitions of the Pope, the head
" thereof." The fubftance of this pious Treaty was as
follows :

I. The two Kings took upon them the defence and
protection of the Holy Roman Church, againft all Perfons
that fhould attack her (4.).

II. Ferdinand, as Catholick King, and to difcharge his
duty to God and the Church, promifed to take Arms in
her defence in Italy.

In the Hid Article it was faid, that the Pope and the
facred College of Cardinals had judged, that in order
to deliver the Church from the oppreffion fhe groaned
under, it was neceffary to wage War upon the King of
France, not only in Italy, but in fuch of his Provinces alio
as bordered upon the two Allies And therefore it was
agreed, that they fhould carry their Arms into Guienne,
and conquer that Province for the Crown of England,
and that Henry, in affifting the Church, might at the
fame time recover what belonged to him. To tha f pur-
pofe, as foon as Ferdinand fhould have actually declared
againft fhe Kingdom of France, and taken arms in defence
ol the Church, Henry, at a proper feafon, fhould proclaim
war againft the fame Prince in defence of the lame Church.

(1) The Lord Herbert fays, fome of the Council who more ferioufly weighed the Bulinefs, were againft a War with Franee, and m^rc pr-icubrly for a
Reafon which England Ihnuld never forget. Let us therefore (fays one of the Council) league off ear attempts agairje the TVrra firrm. 'lb. nature
Iflands feems net to fort iteitb Cenquefls in that kind. England atone is a juft Empire : Or luben v.e would enlarge eur feh'es, let it be that tvjy iee tan, and to
•wbicb it feems the eternal Pnraidmcc batb deftined us ; and that is by Sea. Herbert, p. g.

(i) Another Inducement to Henry was the Pope's Promife to take away the Title of MoJI Chrifiian from the King of Franee, and confer it 01 him.

(3) The Engli/li Commillioners were, Thomas Howard Earl of Surrey, and Gerrge Talbot Earl of Sbrewjburj, Rymcr'i Feed. Tom. XIII. p. 312.

(4) Contra onmes illanl Invadentes feu Oppugnantcs. Rymer'i Fold, Tom. XIII. p. 313.

No. 36. Vol. I.

8 S




Vol. I.


To perform this Article, Henry promifed to fend into
Guier.ne fome time in April 1 5 I z, a body of fix thoufand
Foot ( 1 ) commanded by a good General ; to maintain
them at his own expence, and not recall them without
the confent of the King of Arragon. Ferdinand bound
himfelf, on his part, to find five hundred Men at Arms,
fifteen hundred Light-Horfe, and four thoufand Foot, on
the fame terms. Moreover, he ingaged to furnifh the
EngUJh Troops with provifions and ammunition at a mo-
derate price. It was farther agreed, that each of the two
Kings fhould fend a Fleet to Sea with three thoufand good

He could look upon Maximilian but as an ally ready to 151 *•
abandon him, if he found it more for his intereft to join
with his enemies. In that cafe, all the Emperor's con-
quefts upon the Venetians would be fo many loffes to
France. Mean while, the Supplies he lent him were very
expenfive, and yet, he durft not afford him a pretence
to change fides. Thus Leivis faw himfelf upon the point
of being attacked by all the forces of the Pope, the King
of Spain, and the Venetians, without any hope of afllft-
ance from the Emperor. As for England, though he was Lfw ' 5 [¥■

yet ignorant of the Treaty of London, md Henry's Ara-

ptBs Hurry.

Soldiers, for fix months, befides the Mariners, and that bjgffador pofitively denied that his Mafter intended to be
neither fhould recall his Fleet without the other's con- concerned, all Henry's Proceedings were plain indications


IV. That Ferdinand fhould find forty Ships, at a rea-
fonable rate, to tranfport the EngUJh Forces.

V. That in cafe the Allies fhould take any places in
Guienne and elfewbcre, they fl-.ould be delivered to him
of the two Kings, who had a prior title to the fame.

VI. That if either of the two Kings fhould be attacked
out of Guienne, they fhould jointly take care of the de-
fence of the Country of him who wanted affiftance, fin-
cerely and with all their power.

VII. That the two Kings confidering that the Pope
liad called at Rome a Council, which all Chriftian Princes
ought to obey, and fend Ambafladors to, and it was af-
firmed that the King of France perfifted in his defign to
continue the Council fummoned to Pi/a, they agreed to
adhere to whatever fhould be decreed by the Council of
Lateran, and oppofe that of Pi/a, with all its Favorers
and Adherents.

VIII. That neither of the two Kings fhould make Peace
or Truce without a mutual confent.

IX. That by this, the former Treaties fhould not
be deemed void, but, on the contrary, remain in full

X. That it fhould be ratified within four months, by
Henry, and Ferdinand, in his own and the name of Queen
'Jane his Daughter.

Jnif-ruilimof Henry and his Council thought, wkhout doubt, they
Henry and na j mar J e a very advantagious Treaty, fince it was to
procure them the Duchy ot Guienne, and Ferdinand de-
manded nothing for himfelf, as if he had afted purely
from a motive of Religion, and out of affection to his
Son-in-law, though, in reality, he had confulted only his
own intereft. As for the Pope's affairs, about which both
Kings feemed to be fo greatly concerned, it may be af-
firmed, they did not fo much as think of them, as it af-
terwards appeared. But they wanted that pretence to daz-
zle the publick, though, in all appearance, the world was
not fo blind, as to imagine that two great Kings fhould
take arms on purpofe to diffolve a Council which called
itfelf General, compofed of a fmall number of Bifhops, of
one Nation only, and fo little regarded, that even at Mi-
lan, where it was removed, the Government was forced
to make ufe of their whole Authority to procure its re-
Lcwis'i Stif- During thefe Tranfaftions, the Emperor gave the King

that he would foon declare againft him.

Mean while, the Pope, who had ever in view the Thl K"K 'f
taking of Bologna and Ferrara, was very preffing with the ^/ r '* % ™„'„
Viceroy of Naples to advance with his Troops, and take the Foft and
the command of the confederate Army. But notwith- Vaaetiaju.
Handing all his follicitations, the Junction could not be till uicc;i
the middle of December, and even then, the Naples Artil-
lery not being yet arrived, the Army could be only em-
ployed in fome trifling Expeditions in la Romagna, with
which ended the year 151 1. It is time now to return
to the affairs of England.

Though Henry had not yet proclaimed war with France, Hall-
Lewis XII knew what he was to expeft. He had good o'li^Iih
intelligence by means of one Buonvi/o a Merchant of
Lucca, who being a Bankrupt, was retired into Eng-
land, where he had obtained fo much favour from the
Pope as to be made a kind of Agent (2). This Man
being corrupted by France, difcovered to Lewis the ie-
crets, the Pope was fometimes forced to truft him with ;
and hence it was that the Court of France was informed
of many things which the EngUJh would have concealed
from them. It was probably by this means that ihc King Lewis*"
of France had the firft notice of the League concluded at "J'^'.f'r'
London, though it was made a great Secret. But fhortly Ljndun.
after, he had no more occafion for fpies to know Henry's

The Parliament being met the fourth of February (3), 151-.
the King communicated his defign of making War upoi :
France. He protefted, his fole aim was to free the Pop
from the King of France's oppreflion, and efpecially to
caufe the Schifmatical Council of Pi/a, now removed to^"' '
Milan, to be diffolved. Though this War undertaken, °f m
as the King himfelf affirmed, folely to oblige the Pope, Herbert.
was little agreeable to the intereft of England, the Parlia- 3* u "
ment however gave the King a large Sublidy (4). In all Hulling!.
appearance, the leading Members of the Houfe of Com-
mons being informed of the true reafons, fo ordered it,
that the reft came into their opinion. Otherwife, it
would have been difficult to make them perceive the ne-
ceffity of England's ingaging in a War v/ith France, to
reftore Bologna' to the Pope, and diffolve a Council fo
inconfiderable as thatof Pi/a. Before the Parliament broke J**nD"ilsj
up, the King was pleafed to reftore John Dudley, Son of' m ^ p^_
Edmund Dudley, to the rank and honours his Family had ley rJUnJ.
been deprived of by the Father's Attainder. From that Hctb£ rt.
time, he had always an affection for him, and at length,

plains of dr f France fo much caufe to fufpeft his Sincerity, that ne- towards the end of his Reign, made him Lord Admiral of

Cuicclard. ceffity only obliged him to feign any further confidence England.

in him. There was no German Bifhop come to the The War Henry intended to undertake againft France, Henry /WiA

Council ; and when the Emperor was preffed upon that having for pretence the diffolving of the Council of Pi/a, ^"-b'/f" 1 ™

fubjeft, he replied, It was necelFary firft to have the ap- he could not difpenfe with acknowledging that of Lateran, of Lateral

probation of the Diet of the Empire, which he did not and fending thither Ambaffadors. He made choice of Sil- Aft - Pu l>-

doubt of obtaining: That though he fhould fend Bifhops vejler Bifhop of Worcejler, with Sir Robert Wingfield, and p' b " i ; p ' 32? "

from his hereditary Dominions to Pi/a, it would be more commiffioned them to agree in his name to whatever fhould Herberu *"

prejudicial than advantagious to the Council, fince it be deemed neceffary for the reformation of the Church,

would give occafion to imagine, he defpaired to obtain
the Diet's confent. On the other hand, inftead of com-
manding in perfon his Army in the ftate of Venice, as he
had promifed, he left all to the French Troops, who were
come to his aid. In fhort, whilft he liftened to the of-
fers of the Pope, Ferdinand, and the Venetians, he told
the French Ambaffador, he was ready to march to Rome
at the head of an Army, provided his mafter would fend
him a ftrong Re-inforcement, and a fumof Money, pro-
portionable to the greatnefs of the Undertaking. Amidft
thefe uncertainties, Lewis knew not what to truft to.

as well in the Head as in the Members. This Claufe was
only to caft a mift before People's eyes, fince nothing cer-
tainly was farther from the Pope's thoughts, than to en-
deavour in this Council, either his own or the Church's

The Time being come to execute the projects agreed by 71 ' t M* r f*fi
Henry and Ferdinand in the Treaty of London, Hemy% a j t

ds an

gave the command of his Fleet to Sir Edward Howard Army ,m-o
Son and Heir to the Earl of Surrey (5), and of his Army, s ?£ n '
which was to aft on Land, to Thomas Grey Mar- xni. n.Acy.
quifs of Dor/et (6). All the Troops that were to ferve Hall.


(1) By an additional Article, dated March 16, it was agreed, That Homy fliould fend five hundred Men more ; and Ferdinand find in all two th:ulind Men Hollinsik.
at Arms, and three thoufand Light Horie. Rymcr's Fad. Turn. XIH. p. 324.

(2) His Collector and Prrcfor in England, lays Hull, fcl. 16.

(3) Hall (ays, it met January 15. fol. 16; and Hdlingjhcad, theicth, p.812.

(4) Two Fifteenths from the Commons, and two Tenths from the Clergy. Hall, fol. 16. StTW, p. 490 The mod remarkable Statutes enacted
in this Parliament were thel'e: I. That every Captain (hall have his whole and perfect number of Men and Soldiers, and give them their lull Wages, upon
pain of Imprifonment, and forfeiting all his Goods and Chattels. 2. That no Cloth fhall be exported out of the Realm, till it is barbed, rowed, and (horn,
upon pain of forfeiting the fame. 3. Several ignorant Pretenders and Quacks having taken upon them to practife Phylick, it wis now ordained, That no
Perfon fhould take upon him to excrcifc the Profeffion of a Phyfician and Snrgeon, unlefs he is fiift examined and approved by the Bifhop of the Dioccle where
he refides, or his Vicar-General, upon pain of forfeiting fix Pounds a month. See Statut.

(5) The King, by an Indenture dated April S, granted Sir Edward the following allowance. For his own Maintenance, Diet, Wages, and Rewards, ten
Shillings a day. For each of the Captains, for their Diet, Wages, and Rewards, Eighteen-pence a day. For every Soldier, Mariner, and Gunner, five Shil-
lings a month for his Wages, and five Shillings for his Victuals, reckoning twenty eight days in the month. See Rymer'a Fwd. Tom. XIII. p. 327.

(6) He was accompanied by his three Brothers, J 'cbn, Anthony, and Leonards, and by the Lords Brooke, IVilloughby, Firms, the Baron of Burford, Sir Richard
Corr.iualt, Sir Maurice BarVcy, Sir IViiliam Sondes, tte. Hall, fek 17,


Book XV.





Vol. Virg.

in the Guienne expedition, being embarked about the end
of May(i), in Spanijh VelTels, arrived the 8th of June
at Pajfagc, in the Province of Guipufcoa, where the Mar-
quifs of Dorfet landed thofe he was to command. The
Lord Herbert fays, thefe Troops confifted often thoufand
Men, but probably, he included in that number the
three thoufand that were to ferve at Sea according to the
Treaty ( z ). /

private de-
JJgn to con-
fer Na-


Bis manf

Artifices ti






firft dangers: That however the Siege of Bayonne would 15 it,
not be retarded, became there was no quertion, the King
Df Navarre would be glad to be fomething preffed, in
order to juftify himfelf to the King of France, when he
fhould enter into the League. The Marquifs of Dorfet t
who did not yet fee into his defigns, having held a Coun-
cil of War, replied, That by his Inftructions he could un-
dertake nothing againft the King of Navarre ; but if the
The Admiral having convoyed the Marquifs of Dorfet Duke of Alva would pafs thro' that Kingdom, he might
to Spain, put to Sea again, and arriving on the Coalt of if he plealed ; but for his part, being already near Bayonne,
Bretagnc, landed fome Troops, and plundered the Coun- he could not think of taking fo great a compafs to join
try (3). Henry hearing, the King of France was prcpar- him.

ing a great naval Armament, fent a reinforcement (4) to Ferdinand was not content with this anfwer. He Ttx Duh if
his Admiral, which enabled him to make head againft ftrongly indited upon what he had propofed, that the AIva *•/"*"
the French. The two Fleets meeting the 10th of Au- Englijh Troops fhould come and join his army, and in cukcTardT

the mean while, gave orders to the Duke of Alva to Hal',
befiege Pampeluna, Metropolis of Nava;

gujl, came to a furious engagement, which ended in great
lofs on both fides. The Regent, a firft rate Ship (;),
and the Corddiere, commanded by Primauget (6), being
grappled, were both blown up, with lofs of all their Men.
This accident happened by the defperate courage of p r i-
tncutget, who finding he could not fave his Ship, fct fire to
the powder (7).

The Treaty of League concluded at London, feemed
to be made only to pave the way for Henry to the Con-
queft of Guienne. But Ferdinand had never any fuch
thought. His folc aim was to conquer Navarre for him-
felf, and employ to that end the Englijh Troops he had
(cut for into Spain. But as it was by no means proper
to inform Henry of fuch a project, he had been obliged
to allure him with the hopes of recovering Guienne, in
order to induce him to fend his Troops. This is the true
rcafon why Ferdinand fhewed in the Treaty fo much
difintereftednefs, that all the advantage feemed to be on
tlte fide ot England. But the performance was very far
from anfvveiiiiR the engagement.

During the H " bert -
Siege, he continually amufed the Marquifs of Dorfet with
poiitive promifes, that immediately after the taking of
Pampeluna, the Duke of Alva fhould join him to befiege
Bayonne. Mean while, the King of Navarre being unable lie icing <f
to defend himfelf, was retired into France, where he made N 'V™*
a Treaty with Lewis XII, for their common defence. V^c."
But it coft him the Town of Salvatierra, and all Beam,
which he was forced to deliver to the French.

Pampeluna having furrendered by capitulation the 25th rarn^luna
of July, Ferdinand, according to his promife, fhould have '" l "'
ordered the Duke of Alva to join the Englifl). But the
reft of the fortified Towns in Navarre ferved him for
pretence to delay the Junction. So the Duke of Alva Ferdinand
continued his Conquefts, whilft the Englijh Troops, tho'^'^"
without ftirring from their Camp, ferved as a countenance
to his defigns. And indeed, though the French, who
daily received frefh Supplies, faw themfelves fufficiently
ftrong to withftand the Duke of Alva, they never dared

a : Juts,

The Marquifs of Dorfet being arrived in Guipufcoa, to enter Navarre, for fear of coming between the Eng-

found a Commiffioner of the King, who paid him great
refpect, and told him, the Duke d'Alva was taking tha
Field, in order to join him. And indeed, the Duke im-
mediately put himfelf at the head of the Spanijh Army.
But inftead of joining the Englijh who were encamped near

UJh and Spaniards. Wherefore, being contented to re- ThtD-Atcf
main encamped between Bayonne and Salvatierra, they Alva TO '
gave the Duke of Alva all the leifure he wanted to fubdue ^..
almoft, all Navarre.

Then it was that the Marquifs of Dorfet plainly per- Tie Mar.
Fontarabia with defign to befiege with him the City of ceived the King of Arragon acted with infinccrity, and f"'f' 'f D, ' :

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