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Bayonne, as was rcfolved, he kept at Logrogno on the bor- that his defign from the very firft was not to invade Gut- utl'.tsml\
ders of Navarre. He intimated to the Englijh General, enne, but conquer Navarre. Ferdinand was very fenfible, Artifices.

his Artifice would at laft be difcovered. ^ •" ■»»»»-* F '

that the King of Navarre being in Alliance with France,
it would be very dangerous to attack. Bayonne with Na-
varre behind them : That whilft they fhould be employed
in the Siege, the King of Navarre might introduce the
French into his Dominions, join with them, and by en-
camping between the Mountains of Navarre and the Sea,
cut off the Provifions which fhould be brought to the Camp
before Bayonne, without being obliged to give Battle, if
he thought proper : That therefore it was necefiary, be-
fore they engaged in the Siege, to try to gain the King of
Navarre to the Intercfts of their matters.

Thefe reafons were fo plaufible, that the Marquifs of
Dorfet was eafily perfuaded to fend an Englijh Officer
to the King of Navarre, to require him to join with the
Allies. Ferdinand fummoned him likewife, but more
haughtily, to forfake the King of France, and come into
the League (8). The King of Navarre replied, he was
rcfolved to ftand neutral. But the Englijh and Spaniards
not being fatisfied with this anfwer, jointly prelTed him to
declare himfelf, or deliver four of his Towns for their Se-
curity, which that Prince would not grant. During thefe
Negotiations, a French Army commanded by the Duke of
Longueville, approached the Frontiers of Beam. Where-
upon the Marquifs of Dorfet complained to Ferdinand,
that the time loft in folliciting the King of Navarre, had
ferved only to give the French opportunity to come and
defend their Borders, and withal preiTed him to declare,
whether he would attack Guienne, purfuant to the Treaty
of London. Ferdinand anfwered, Prudence would not
fuffer him to fend his army to Fontarabia to befiege Bay-
onne, and leave his Dominions expofed to the Invafions
of the French and Navarrois : That it was much more
convenient to pafs through Navarre, and fecure three or
four places, in order to hinder his enemies from making
ufe of that Kingdom againft him : That therefore he
wifhed the Englijh would join the Duke of Alva, and his
army fhould make the Vanguard, to be expofed to the

in . F»fi ,"f'f' s
1 to h

So, to prevent

the complaints the Englijh General might make to the \h-fittli
King his matter, he fends an Exprefs to England, to give Mwjw/i /»
Henry an account, after his manner, of the affairs of that fejj*'*'
Country, and to defire him to order his General to act Herbert,
in concert with him. Henry, who had received nothing Hollinglh,
to the contrary from the Marquifs, readily fent IVmdfor
Herald with the defired orders to the General.

Whilft the Herald was on his journey, the Duke of 7/ '««
Alva became mafter of St. Juan de Pie del Puerto. Pre- ™^£f^
fently after the taking of that place, Ferdinand acquainted Hcrb:rt.
the Marquifs of Dorfet, that his army was ready to march
into Guienne, and defired him to join the Duke of Alva
without delay. But the Marquifs was no longer willing T%t Mar-
to be deceived. He knew, the French army was
trenched between Bayonne and Salvatierra, with the Ri
ver Bidajfoa in Front, which muft be palled within view,
and befides Bayonne was fo well provided, that there was
no likelihood of befieging it. What Ferdinand therefore
propofed was impracticable, and only a continuation of
his Artifices. From St. Juan de Pie del Puerto, the
right-hand Road led into Beam, and the left to Bayonne,
fo the Duke of Alva's intent was to engage the Englijh
to enter Beam with him, under colour there was no other
way to draw the enemies from their advantagious Poft,
or at leaft, to befiege Salvatierra. But the Englijh Ge-
neral having no orders to make War upon the King of
Navarre, either in Beam or elftwhere, refufed to join the
Spaniards. Ferdinand reaped this advantage from his re-
fufal, that he caft the whole blame upon him, of their not
invading Guienne according to the Treaty. After that,
the Duke of Alva turning back, laid Siege to Ejfella, ths
only place that remained to the King of Navarrt.

The Marquifs of Dorfet, full of Indignation at thefe He prepsn:
proceedings, and confidering that his army was daily " """* n
weakned by Sicknefs and want of Provifions, which were s^^f '
grown fcarce fince the war in Navarre, defired Ftrdi- Herbert.


(1) The fixtecnth. Hall, fol. 17.

(2) He fays farther, that it appears- by the Spanijh Hiftory, that there were among them five thoufand Archerl, who carried, befides their Bows, HaJ-
lerts, which they pitched in the Ground till their Arrows were fhot, and then took up again to do execution on the Enemy. An excellent part (fays he)
of military Difcipline, and yet not remarked by our Englijh Chronicles, p. 9.

(3) About Cemetrul and Brifi. Hall, fol. 20.

(4) Of twenty five Ships which the King came and view'd at Portfmvath. Idem. fol. II.

(5) Commanded by Sir Thomas Knc-vet Mafter of the King's Hoife. The other Captains of note were, Sir John Carew, Sir CI 'tries Brandon, Sir
Henry Guildford. This Engagement happened in Auguft. Ibid.

(6) Baibaroufiy called by our Chronicles, Sir Pitts Mcrgan, fays my Lord Herbert, p. 11. In this Sea-Fight the Er.gljh had forty-five, acd thz Frtn.l
thirty-nine Ships. Hall and Hollmgjhead give a large Deicription of the Battle, fol. 21, 22. p. 815.

(7) Upon the lofs of the Regent, the King built a Ship the greateft ever known before, and called it Henry grace de Dtcu. Hall, fol. 22. Tho' Bu-
d'.inan and Lcjle fay, he imitated James IV King of Si<tht;d in one he had made, but built it fo, that they could not make it fl«er. Herbert, p. 11.

(SJ It was called the Holy League, Htrbttt, p. 9.

a r.end



Vol. I.

Jie arrives

in England.

Henry ptr-

' ^General

been iwpAed

keeps Na-

Hand to furnifll liim with Ships for his return. It was
witli great difficulty that he obtained his requeft, Ferdi-
nand ftill protefting againft his departure, as directly con-
trary to the Treaty. Mean while, he was not forry for
it, fince the Englijh were almoft become ufelefs, after the
Conqueft of Navarre. In the mean while, the Marquifs
of Dorfet falling lick, the Lord Thomas Howard took the
Command of the army. At the fame time, as the Troops
were going to embark, the Herald arrived from England,
with poiitive orders to the General, to obey the Com-
mands of King Ferdinand (1). But the army mutinying
it was impoffile to detain the Soldiers any longer in Spain,
and the Embarkation being made, they arrived in England
in November (z). Henry was at firft very angry with his
but being informed of all particulars during the
Campain, plainly faw, Ferdinand had deceived him, and
that his affected difintereftednefs in the Treaty of League,
was oniy to draw him more eafily into the Snare. He
thought proper however to diffemble, for fear of giving
Ferdinand a pretence to join with France, and leave him
in ftraits. •

Before the year was expired, Ferdinand faw himfelf in
full pofll'flion of Navarre, though the King of France had
ufed fome endeavours to wrcft that Conqueft out of his
hands. In December, the King of Navarre, and Francis
Duke of Angouleme befieged Pampeluna; but not being
able to take the place, were forced to abandon the reft of
the Kingdom to the Spaniards. After Ferdinand was in
polleffion of Navarre, he fought pretences to keep it, but
found no better than a Bull of Pope Julius II, who ex-
communicated John a" Albret King of Navarre, and gave
his Kingdom in prey to the Conqueror. Mezerai affirms,
this Bull never appeared ; but the Lord Herbert fays, it
was dated March i . i 5 1 2.

We mull now fee what pafted in Italy whilft Ferdinand
was conquering Navarre. The confederate army of the
Pope, the King of An agon, and the Venetians, under the
command of the Viceroy of Naples, taking the Field in
December, the Pope caufed the Viceroy to be continually
preffed by Cardinal John de Medici, his Legate, to be-
ilege Bologna. At length, notwithstanding the op'pofition
ot the Viceroy, and the Venetian General, who forefaw
great difficulties in the execution of that defign, the Pope's
Inftances were to be complied with, and the Siege of
Bologna being refolved, the army of the Allies (3) ap-
peared before the City. But Gajlon de Foix Duke of
Ncmntrs, and Governor of Milan, coming to its relief,
compelled the Allies to raife the Siege. Some days after,
he defeated a Venetian Army at Brefcia, and flew eight
t' thoufand Men. At laft, on the nth of April, finding
means to give the Allies battle near Ravenna, he put
them to rout, and took the Legate prifoner ; but was
himfelf flain after the Battle, in too warmly purfuing a
body of Spaniards, who were retreating in good order.
>a,i ^ After that Prince's death, la Palijfe took the Command
cmfgna, oi tne army, and the next day became mafter of Ra-
Cuicciard. venna. Whereupon all the Towns of la Romagna, taken
by the Pope after the Battle of Agnadel, voluntarily fur-
rendered to the Cardinal of St. Severin, who was in the
French Army as Legate of the Council of Pi/a, trans-
ferred to Milan,
lit Pope The Confternation at Rome was fo great, that the Car-

ina « *«'» djnafs went in a Body to petition the Pope to make Peace
with France. But Julius II had resources unknown
pethaps to the Cardinals. So, all they could obtain was
to engage him to make fome feigned advances, in order
to gain time, and hinder the French from marching to
Rome, as they might eafily have done, without fear of
meeting any obftacle

Whilft Lewis's affairs feemed to be in the moft flou-
rifliing condition, they were in reality going to decay.
mrcb The Sivitzers, encouraged by the Cardinal of Sion, prepar-
ing to exert their utmoft to invade the Duchy of Milan,
la Palijfe thought it more proper for his Mafter's Intereft,
to relieve that Country which was deftitute of Troops,
than make Conquefts in the Ecclefiaftical State. So, leav-
ing the Cardinal of St. Severin in la Romagna, with five
or fix thoufand Men, he haftily marched into Milan.
The retreat of the French, when it lay in their power
to march to Rome, infpired Julius II with frefh Courage.
From thenceforward he would no more hear of Peace,
Oj&j^f't^g" Lewis XI I offered him the fame Terms as before
the Council his Victory. At this Juncture it was that the Council of
»/Uuran. Lateran was opened the 3d of May, which had been de-
layed by reafon of the battle of Ravenna.

All hope of Peace vanishing, the Pope excommunicated
Lewis XII, and put France under an Interdict (4). He

Affair, of




Siege of


raiied by
Gallon de


J/Wn, but i,
ktUed bimfe'f.



1 swis'i A[-
/a->s dtcline.
"Tie S» it-

La Paliffe
C uicciara.


15 12,

is contemned

a: Milan.

Lewis XII
is excommu-


ufed for pretence the captivity of his Legate, who was
detained at Milan, where, tho' a prifoner, he performed
howeve.r the Functions of the Pope's Legate, the Inha-
bitants of Milan refufing to own the Authority of the
Council held in their City. It was a great mortification The Council
to Lewis, to fee his Council contemned by his own Sub-
ject.; but this was only a fmall part of the misfortunes
to which he was expofed this fame year. After la Paliffe La Romagna
had quitted la Romagna, all the Towns of that Country "" mtt " ,l "
fubmitted to the Pope. At the fame time, Ferdinand ' '
became mafter of Navarre, and Lewis was forced to fend
an army into Beam to hinder the Englijh and Spaniards
from invading Guienne. On the other hand, the Empe- Tit Empe-
ror concluded a Truce with Venice, and fecretly promifed ''" '* ; / '"'
to withdraw from the French Army a body of German Venetians.
Troops, lent the King for the defence of the Milanefe. Bembo.
And yet upon the aifurance of this aid it was that Lcivis
recalled horn Milan part of his own Troops, not doubt-
ing that with thofe he left there, and the Germans fent
him by the Emperor, he fhould be able to refill his
Enemies. Thus, the French finding themfelves weak in
the Duchy of Milan, la Palijfe was obliged to recall the
Cardinal of St. Severin, with his Troops, which was the
caufe of the lofs of la Romagna.

Mean while, the Sivitzers, to the number of fixteen Tletw.penr
thoufand, began their march about the end of Augujl, or !eUtt " bmt "
the beginning of September. But inftead of taking the ""• Trent,
direct road to the Milanefe, the pafles whereof, they did Gukciard.
not queftion , were ftrongly guarded, they marched to
Trent, with Maximilian's permiffion. Though this, if
any, was an Enemy's act, he was ftill defirous to hide
his Intentions, by telling the French Ambaffador, that his
Alliance with the Sivitzers fufFered him not to refufe
them a paffage through his Dominions ; as if his Treaty
with Lewis XII was to be lefs obferved. The Switzers They tp-
having pafted unmolefted through Trent, proceeded to/ , " J ' iMi -
Verona, and joining the Venetians, they marched together
towards Milan. Whereupon the French entirely difcon-
certed, and not having above ten thoufand Men, refolved
to retire into the fortified Towns, in order to wafte the
Enemy's Army by Sieges, till the King fent them Sup-
plies, or the approaching Winter flopped the progrefs of
the Allies. But they were foon deprived of this refuge, The Emperor
by the Emperor's orders for his Troops to retire immedi- ™***«w
ately. Thefe orders being punctually obeyed, la Palijfe l[ m ^f
found himfelf fo weak, that defpairing to fave the Mila- French,
nefe, he refolved to repafs the Mountains, and return into G Vi cciard '
France. The Prelates of the Council feeing Milan was fe m ,/' '
going to be abandoned, by a fudden Decree, removed the Tbt Council
Council to Lyons, and followed the French Troops. They " m ™d "
would have carried the Cardinal de Medici with them ; Cardinal
but went away in fuch confufion, that his Friends found de Medici
means to fecure him. After the French were retired, all m f k " b "
the Towns of the Duchy readily furrendered to the Swit-
zers and Venetians, except Parma, Placcntia, and Reggio,
which fubmitted to the Pope. On the other hand, Alex- Bologna left
ander Bentivoglio, not thinking himfelf fafe in Bologna, de- " ,bc Pc f 1 ''
parted from thence with all his Family, leaving the City GVicciard,
to the Pope's Mercy. Thus Julius II, who, about a
month before, faw himfelf in a very ill fituation, was ar-
rived at the height of his wiflies by this furprizing revo-
lution, which reftored him Ravenna, Bologna, all la Ro-
magna, and drove the French out of Italy.

There remained ftill four things to do to complete the Tie Duke of
Pope's happinefs, namely, to difpoffefs the Duke of Fer- Ferrara^»«
rara, to reftoie the Sforza's to Milan, and the Medici to "J*Xe„.
Florence ; and laftly, to expel the Germans and Spaniards Guicciard.
out of Italy. As for the Duke of Ferrara, he voluntarily
delivered himfelf to the Pope, upon the faith of a Safe-Con-
duct. An Imprudence which would have coft him dear,
had he not been freed by Fabricius Colanna his Friend, who
forced the Guard fet at the gates of Rome, to hinder his

The French were no fooner out of Italy, than the AI- Ctmgrefi of
lies began to difcover their different ends in ailing againft Mantua bt-
Franee. Upon this occafion they judged proper to meet '%/:Z.' '
at Mantua, where they could agree but upon two Arti- Ibid,
cles, namely, that Maximilian Sforza eldeft Son of Lo-
dovico the Moor, fhould be reftored to Milan, and the
Houfe of de Medici to Florence. In confequence of this Florence
laft refolution, the army of the Allies approaching Flo- S"bmiti n
rence, compelled the Florentines to confent to a Treaty, q^^"
whereby the Medici were reftored to their Country as
Citizens only, and not as Governors. But the Cardinal
de Medici entering the City by virtue of the Treaty,
whilft the army of the Allies was at the gates, found
means to introduce many Officers and Soldiers, and raife

(1) King limy promifed at the fame time to fend a new Supply of Troops, under the Command of the Lord Herbert his Chamberlain. Hail, fol. 20.
Herbert, p. lo. (2) In the beginning of Decenshr. Hill, fill, 20.

(3) Itconflfled of eighteen hundred Men at Arms, and about ten thousand Foot. Guicciard, I. 10.

(+1 It is laid that Lewii caufed feveral Medals to be coined with this Infcripticn, Perdam Babjlsmm, I mill deflroy Babflta. Which if true, fliews
that Rome was not called Babylon firft by Proteftants.

3 a -Seels-

Book XV.

20. H E N R Y VIII.


I 5 12.

Congrefs at

The Pcpc*s
League ivitb
the Emperor
againfi Ve-

Articles of

the League*

The Empe-
ror renounces
the Council
cj Pifa.

Sforza is put
in pojjejfson
1/ Milan.

Remarks on
the year

a Sedition which made him matter of the City. Where-
upon, the Government was fettled upon the fame foot,
it w,is before the banifhment of the Medici.

It was a great ftep for the Pope to have reftored the
Med. A to Florence, and Sforza to Milan. But this did
not fuffice to content him. The Duke of Ferrara was
(til! matter of his Duchy, and the Council of Pifa fitting
at Lyons. The Allies therefore muft be brought to turn
their arms againft Ferrara, and procure a Peace between
th;" Emperor and the Venetians, that the Emperor might
without difficulty abandon his Council. To that purpofe,
the Pope obtained a fecond meeting at Rome, where he
could gain nothing with refpedt to Ferrara, becaufe the
Duke was protected by the King of Arragon. Betides,
the Venetians could not agree to find Men and Money to
render the Pope mafier of that Duchy. As for the Peace
between the Emperor and Venice, he found ftill greater
difficulties, though he paffionatcly withed to accompli fh
that Project, for fear one or other of the two Powers
lhould recall the French into Italy. But the intolerable
Terms propofed by the Emperor to the Venetians, hin-
dered him from fucceeding. In fhort, the Pope feeing his
labour was in vain, and defiring, at any rate, to ditfolve
the Council of Pifa, and prevent the return of the French
into Italy, concluded with the Emperor a League offenfive
and defenfive againft Venice. By this Treaty, the Empe-
ror engaged to become a principal Party in the League of
Rome, and agreed, that the Pope fhould keep Parma,
Placentia, and Reggio, faving however the Rights of the
Empire. He promifed to renounce the Council of Pifa,
and forfake the Duke of Ferrara, and the Bentivoglio's.
The Pope engaged on his part, to aid the Emperor with
all his power, thunder his Cenfures againft the Venetians,
declare them excluded out of the League of Rome, and
drop the profecution of the Coknna's, for aiding the Duke
of Ferrara to make his efcape. The Treaty being figned
and ratified, the Bifhop of Gurck as the Emperor's Lieu-
tenant, renounced in the next Seffion of the Council of
Lateran, the AfTembly of Pifa, and revoked whatever
had been done by the Emperor towards the calling and fup-
porting it.

About the end of December, Maximilian Sforza, eldefr.
Son of Lodovico the Moor was put in potfefnon of the
Duchy of Milan, purfuant to the agreement of the Allies
at Mantua.

I have now run over the occurrences of the year 1512,
a year very remarkable for the feveral changes in the af-
fairs of Italy, and ftill more, for the conduct of the Princes
concerned, which difcovers their different characters.
Lewis XII was the dupe of his fcmples, which made him
lofe the opportunity of difabling the Pope to hurt him,
and in the end occafioned the lofs of the Milanefe. 'Ju-
lius II made Religion fubfervient to his immoderate am-
bition, by ufing the glory of God and the good of the
Church, for a cloak to gratify his paffions. Having form-
ed a League to reftore the Venetians to their Dominions,
to the glory of God and exaltation of the Chriftian Faith,
he concluded another, on the fame pretence, to difpoflels
them of all they had recovered. Ferdinand drew Hen-
ry VIII into a War for the Pope's defence, and to pro-
cure Guienne for the Crown of England ; but artfully made
it fubfervient to the Conqueft of Navarre for himfelf.
The Emperour Maximilian acted with no more ftneerity.
His conduct was the more extraordinary, as he was fole-
ly indebted to Lewis XII for all he had conquered in
Italy, after the League of Cambray. Nay, the very pre-
fervation of his Conquefts was wholly owing to that Prince's
continual fupplies. And yet, he no fooner faw him upon
the decline, but he moft ungratefully helped to hurl him
down the precipice. It is faid he had a Book wherein
he marked in red Letters, the injuries received from the
King of France. But I do not know in what colour
Lewis XII lhould have writ in his Book the wrong done
him by Maximilian on this occafion. As for Henry VIII,
he was certainly the dupe of the King of Arragon and the
Pope. But what is more ftrange, after Ferdinand and
Julius II, by their artifices, had ingaged that Prince in a
League againft France, as foon as affairs had taken fuch a
turn that they no longer wanted his affiftance, they thought
no more of him than if there had been no fuch Perfon in
the World. In all the Negotiations between the Allies,

whether at Mantua or Rome, after the retreat of the \-i?
French, Cardinal Bambridge was never called to them,
neither was there any mention of the King of England.
The Pope and the King of Arragon, fatisfied with expel-
ling the French, for look Henry, without troubling them-
felves about his concerns. It even appears that he was
not informed of thete Negotiations. We fee in the Col- £°- rub -
leiiion of the Publick Afls, that the 1 oth of November, he
ftill gave full powers to his Ambafladors (1) at feveral
Courts, to treat ot a League in favour of the Pope, at the
very time, the Pope was entirely neglecting the intcrcfh
of England. About the fame time, H,nry figned Let- Ib - P- ;♦»
tcrs Patents, declaring he entered into the League conclu-
ded at Rome a year before, though, fince that, 'Julius II
was in pofleffion of Ravenna, all la Ro'>;agna, I'arma,
Placentia, Reggio, and his defires had been acconiplithed
by Lewis's lofs of Genoa and Milan, and by the Empe-
ror's renouncing the AfTembly of Pifa. Thus, he was
evidently the dupe of all thefe intrigues. He lent, with-
out knowing it, his Troops to Ferdinand to conquer Na-
varre. On the other hand, the Terror of his Arms was
greatly fubfervient to the Pope's dehgns, as it hindered
Lewis XII from keeping in Italy Troop , which he believ-
ed necefl'ary for the defence of his Kingdom againft the
Englifh. This was the real aim of Julius and Ferdinand,
and Henry was fo blind as to ingagc, without neceffity, in
a War with France for their intereft, imagining he was
acting for his own.

Who would not have thought that Henry's experience Henry fur-
fhould have rendered him wifer and more circumfpect ? f' r ' H"fiV
And yet, he was farther amufed by thefe very Princes, Tt^mL/sb
who told him that having nothing more to fear in Italy,
they were going to join all their Forces to invade France,
and if he would act likewife, he might eafily recover
Guienne and Nornandy. Henry being perfwaded of their rb. p. 34a,
fincerity, immediately fent AmbalTaciors to Brujfels (2),
to conclude a League againft France with the Pope, the
Emperor, the King ot Arragon, Charles of Aujlria So-
vereign of the Low-Countries, and Margaret Duchefs Dow-
ager of Savoy his Aunt, who governed his Dominions du-
ring his Minority. Henry reckoned that the execution
of the Treaty would immediately follow the conclulion.
But it will hereafter be feen, tlut if they concluded the
League, it was only to draw Money from him, and leave
him to maxe War all alone. He was young and unex-
perienced, but withal fo feif-concei:ed as to think him'elf
wifer than his Council. Befides, he had plenty of ready
Money in his Coffers. What could Perfons fo fubtle as
Julius, Maximilian, and Ferdinand, delire better than to
have to deal with fuch a Prince as Henry ? We have al-
ready feen this year 1512, how artfully they improved
fo favorable a difpolition, and we fhall fee in the following
years, how very little he himfelf profited by what he might
have learnt by experience, during the courfe of the pre-

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