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fent. However this be, being refolved to carry War into
France, he afTembled a Parliament the 4th of November^
to demand an aid of Money. Shortly after, the Com- , _ ,.
mons, without examining too clofely the reafons which matrim
induced him to take arms, granted him a Subfidy (3), «*» /c»z
and a Poll-Tax (4) upon all his Subjects, for the cxpences a°"2'
of the War (5). stow.

During the Seffion of the Parliament, Henry received a HoiUngft.
Bull from the Pope, who to encourage him to pufh the^'^-^j*
War vigoroufly againft France, granted a plenary indul- g^[
gence to all his Subjects that fhould aid him with their A &- Pu b.
Perfon or purfes. This was all the affiftance he had XiU fs*h
from the Pope for a War, the fole motive whereof, as
it was pretended, was the defence of the Church.

Nothing more remains to finifh the account of the
occarrences of this year, but briefly to mention the mea-
fures taken by Henry with regard to Scotland.

Whilft Henry refolved to carry War into France, he Henry triet
ufed his utmoft endeavours to preferve a good understand - ""■ "■" "
ing with the King of Scotland. But it was almoft im- %ffff r "
poffible that England fhould be in War with France, mti Scot-
and Scotland not interpwfe. However, Henry imagined '* nd ,
that by the affurances he gave the King of Scotland, of
his intention to obferve punctually the Treaty ol Peace,
he fhould prevent him from being concerned in the quar-
rel. James fuffered him to think what he plealed, and
in the mean time was preparing to affift France by a

(1) Thomas Howard Earl of Surrey, and George Talbot Earf of Shrewsbury. Rymer's Feed. Tom. 13. p. 341.

(2) Sir Edivard Poynmgs Controller of the Houfhuld, Sir Thomas Boleyn, Sir Richard fVyrtgJield, and Jibn Tonge, Doftor of Laws, and Ma^cr
of the Rolls. Ibid. p. 344..

^3) Two Fif'eentbs and four Demies. A Fifiemtb or !$utnszimc, is a Tax of Money laid upon a City, Burrough, nr other Town through the
ReUm, and fo cai.ed, becuufe it amounted to a fifteenth Fart ot 'hat which the City or Town had been valued at of old ; and therefore every
Town knew what a F't'eenth for themfelves did amount to, which w s in piop.>rti.n to the Lind or Circt.it belonging to it. Thus Camden fays of
Batb, Geldabat pro •vigmri bidis. Whereas a Sublidy was r^if d upon every particular Man's Cods or Lands, and therefore was uncertain, becaute
the Ellarr of every particular Man is uncertain. Cowed Die?

(4.J Every Dake was to pay ten Mailts, ao E.rl five Pounds, a Lord four Pounds, a Knight four Marks J every Man valued at eight huirl-ed
Pounds in Ooi'd - , trur Marks ; and f- after that rate down to htm who had firty shillings in Wages, who paid Twelve-pence ; after which every
one above fifteen Years ot Age, paid Four-pence* Herbert^ p. 12.

(s) In this Par.iameit, the Benefit ot Clergy was taken away from Perl" ns committing Murthcr or Felony in any Church, Charel, or halbwei
Place j and from thole that rob or mutther any Perfoos in the King's High-way, or in Uieir Houfes. See Status.

No 36. Voi, 1.


power! ui


Tie H I S TO R T of E N G LAN D.

Vol. I.

I powerful d.verfion, in c?.fe that Kingdom was attacked.

He* 5 " -

rbert. Upon the nift report that the King of England was go-
ing to quarrel with Lewis XII, James took care to be
provided with pretences to break with him. The affair
of Breton furnifhed him with one, and he moreover fought
others. But the true reafon of his acting was, that, for
fume ages paft, the Kings of England were grown i'o
powerful, and had fhown fo great a defire to unite all
Great-Britain under their Dominion", that the Scots could
little expect to refill them but by the affiftance of Franee,
which had ever protected them. It was therefore more
neceffary than juft, for Scotland to continue firm to the in-
terefts of France, and not fuffer that Crown to be dilabled
TbeKhgofto affift her Allies. So, not to (werve from this max-
Scotland im, James IV, who had determined to go to Jerufalem,
frtparato )aj j ^fa his defign when he heard there was like to
be a rupture between France and England. He equip-
ped a Fleet, which he intended to fend into Fiance, un-
der odour of prefenting it to Queen Ann, Wife of Lew-
is XII. • But this Fleet, in which was the largsft Ship
that had yet been feen on the Sea, was loft or difabled by
a ltoim and the Admiral's ill conduct.
James «»- At laft, Henry having proclaimed War with Lewis
chdti a xil, James concluded a League againft him with France
LewUXIl' 6 the 2 " d of May this year. Shortly after, he prepared
an Army, but without divulging for what it was de-
figned. His intent was to make an inroad into England,
Art- Pub. as foon as Henry had fent his Forces into France. Henry
Xlli.p-33-. having notice of this armament, fent two Ambaffadors (i)
333, 347 ' into Scotland, under colour of adjufting fome little clifre-
es, but in reality to found the King's intentions.
Herbert. The Ambaffadors acquainting King James that their maf-
Pol. Virg. ter was f om ething jealous of this Armament, as it it was
made in favour oi France, Jair.cs replied, That being
equally an Ally of both Crowns, his defign was to ob-
feive an exact neutrality. The Ambaffadors prayed him
to give that anfwer in writing ; but he refuted, on pre-
tence it would breed a fufpicion in the King of France.
Shortly after, Henry learnt by his Spies that a League was
concluded between France and Scotland, and he even pro-
Art- Pub. cured a copy of the Treaty (z). So, perceiving that a
xin.p-339- War with Scot/and was unavoidable, he fent the Earl
Herbert. Q j. g urrt y j nt0 t j ]e northern parts with power to levy
an Army, and act againft Scotland in cafe of necefii-


1 51 3. The occurrences of the year 151 2 made great alte-

Vuw and rations in the interefts of the Princes concerned, and con-
I*" r 'fi°J fequently in their defigns and mcafures.
0/ Julius'' Julius II, pleafed with having expelled the French
!"• out of Italy, and fo greatly increafed his power, by the ac-

quifition of fo many places, was thinking however of feiz-
iug Ferrara. After that, he hoped, with the affiftance
of the Venetians and Florentines to be able to drive the
Emperor out of Venice, though he had lately leagued with
him. As for the reft, he had no thought of making
Conquefts in France ; his fole aim was to find Lewis
XII employment at home, and entirely diffolve the re-
mains of the Council of Pi/a, which however was not
very formidable to him, fince the Emperor's difuigage-
Of Ferdi- The K : ng of Arragon's fole view was to preferve his
ami. late Conqiieft of Navarre. To enjoy it in peace, the on-

ly way was to keep Lewis XII elfewhere employed, or
prevail with him not to difturb him. To that purpofe it
was neceffary to ufe the terror of the Arms of the Allies,
and particularly of the King of England, that the King
of France being attacked from feveral quarters, might be
induced of himfelf to defire a Peace, and leave him in
pofieffion of Navarre. Ferdinand would not have fcrup-
led to abandon his Allies, provided he could obtain at that
rate fuch a Peace as he wanted.
of :it Em- The Emperor fought only to draw Money both from
femr. n ; s Friends and Enemies. He was very fenfible, thai

with his own Forces alone, it would be difficult to make
Conquefts upon the Venetians ; and that the Pope, though
his Ally, did not with it. But he was extremely referv-
ed to them, to procure the larger funis in making a
Peace. On the other hand, he endeavoured to embroil
matters as much as poffible, and make new Leagues,
becaufe in all the Treaties of that kind, Money was ftill
given him to maintain imaginary Troops, which he never
raifed, at leaft not fo many as he promifed.

The Venetians were extremely defirous to end a de-
netians. ' ftructive War, by which they were drained. Their fole
aim was to induce the Emperor to be fatisfied with a
good fum of Money, for the reftitution of their Towns,
and thereby put their State upon, the fame foot it was
before the League of Cambray. But as the Emperor
could not think of depriving himfelf of an entrance into

Italy by the reftitution of thefe places, it was their bufi- 15 13.
nefs to compel him in fome meafure, by new Leagues
which might make him apprehennve of lohng them
without any advantage. But as this was the Senate's
fole view, they were always ready to break all their en-
gagements, as foon as the Emperor would hearken to

The Sivitzers thought only of fupporting SJbrza at Of tit
Milan, to have always in that Duchy a Prince who Swltze "«
fhould rely on their affiftance. Confequently, it was
their inteteft to keep the King of France at a diftance,
and oppofe all his attempts to recover it.

Lewis XII, extremely mortified at the good fuccefs of the K r S
of his Enemies in Italy, ardently defired to recover Genoa"! Franc€ -
and 'Milan. To fucceed, the aid of the Venetians, the
Emperor, or the Switzers was neceffary. It was alfo re-
quifite fo to flatten the conclufion with one or other of
the two la ft Powers, that the expedition of the MilaneJ'c
might be made in the Spring, for fear it fhould be pre-
vented by the War, the King of England was preparing
againft him in Picardy.

Of all Lewis's Enemies Henry was the only one who Of Henry
thought of making Conquefts in France, prepofteroufly
imagining, his Allies would make diversions in feveral
places, to facilitate the execution ot his deligns. But he
did not yet fufficic-ntly know them. The Venetians had
been excluded out of the late league. The Pope and
King of Arragon had no defire to attack Franee, but on-
ly to create Lewis troubles, which might hinder him from
thinking of Italy. It was folely with this view that they
feigned a willingnefs to fecond the King of England. As
for Maximilian, Henry and his Council muft have volun-
tarily deceived themfelves, to hope for any affiftance from

James IV King of Scotland, feeing France upon the °/ '*' p"«
point of being attacked by the King of England, was '•'
preparing to affift her, deeming his own and that King-
dom's interefts to be infeparable. He eafily perceived,
Henry courted him only to hinder his interpofing in
the quarrel, and was willing to feed him with hopes of
fucceeding in his defign. But he was however determined
to break the Peace, rather than leave a Kingdom in danger,
from which alone he could expect a fpeedy and powerful
protection in cafe of need. It is true, he had made a
Peace with Henry VII, and renewed it with Henry VIII.
But it was when thefe Princes had no quarrel with
France, his antient and conftant Ally. In his opinion,
Henry by wantonly attacking France on frivolous pre-
tences, violated indirectly the Peace made with Scotlana.
At leaft, James pretended that in figning a Peace with
England, he was not bound to forfake France whenever
the King of England fhould think of attacking her.

Such were the difpofitions of all thefe Potentates in
the beginning of the year 151 3. We muft fee now by
what means each endeavoured to attain his ends. This
new Scene will difcover to us no lefs variety, artful ma-
nagements, devices and artifices, than the former, fince
the Actors and Perfonages will ftill be the fame.

Whilft Henry was ferioufiy preparing for the War he The Empt-
was to carry into France, his pretended Allies were mind- " r °2"' "

, . ' rr . ' . , r ,. 1 • • n League It

ing their own affairs, without regarding his interelts. Lewis xil,
Since he had entered into the League of Rome, the Al- « order 10
lies, it feemed, fhould have done nothing without his i " en, " bm >

knowledge. And yet Julius II had leagued with Maxi-
milian, and excluded the Venetians, without informing him
of it.

In the beginning of the year 1513, the Emperor had
no farther regard for his new Allies, fince he fent and
propofed a frefh League to Lewis XII upon new Terms.
He offered to affift him in recovering the Milar.cfe, pro-
vided Lewis in return would aid him againft the Vene-
tians. Moreover, he demanded Renie, Lewis's fecond
Daughter, for Charles of Aujlria his Grandfon, and that
for her Dower Lewis fhould afiign him all his pretentions
to Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. But that the per-
formance of the Treaty might not entirely depend upon
the Faith of the King of France, he required that the
Princefs fhould be immediately fent to him, and Cre-
mona, and all Gierradadda delivered to him as foon as
the Duchy oi Milan was recovered. Certainly, one can-
not but admire the Emperor's affurance in making thefe
propofals. He had not hitherto been able to continue
tne war againft Venice, without the affiftance ot Z.«w'jXII,
nay, he thought he ftill wanted it, and yet made him an
offer of his aid to recover the Ik ■ Rut upon what

Terms ? Why, after Lewis fnouid have been at a yaft
expence to recover that Duchy, he was to refign it to the
Emperor's Grandfon, with his pretentions to .'■
This is called ufmg people like true dupes. But after


(1) Ibamat Lord Dacre of Greijiek, and Dr. Nicolas Wcji Dean of Windjtr. Rymer's Feed- Tern. 13. p. 331, 3',;.

(1) See the Articles in my Lord Herbert, p. 12, of the Compl. Bift.

1 ■ fear, a great part u, the King's Palacs at H'cttmmtUr, and the Chapel in the Tower of L ■:!:, w re burn;. S1.1




Book XV.



Lewis trift
. ■ vai n ft
• in the

jii. ' •
Go " iard.

1515. the ill turn Maximilian had lately fcrved L«m'j- XII, it
is not very likely, that he believed his propofals would be
accepted. Probably, he made them only to hinder Lewis
from joining with the Venetians. At the fame time he
intended to infpire thefe laft with jealoufy, and a tear of
his uniting with France, that this fear might induce them
to offer him more advantagious Conditions.

Lewis XII hearkened to thefe propofals, as if he had
fome defign to accept them, becaufc he thereby hoped to
create fufpicions in the Switzers and Venetians, and incline
them the fooner to join with him. As for the Ven
they defired nothing more than a (tried: Union with Frame,
and if any thing retarded the Negotiation, it was only the
hope of an agreement with the Emperor, in which ca 3
tiiey would have gladly renounced all Ibrts of Leagues.
As for the Switzers, it was not poffible for Lewis XII to
gain them to his fide, though he offered them more than
at firft was demanded. Belides their hatred of him, the
f.\a: of their affairs ■ altered, lii.ee the reftoration of
Sforza to Milan. Whilft that Prince was in exiie, it was
doubtful, whether in good policy they ought to en
in a war with France f< 1 hi fake. But fince he was by
their affiftance in poffeffion of the Duchy, their Honour
and Intereft required their utmoft endeavours to fupport
him (1). However this be, Lewis's Negotiation with the
Switzers not fucceeding, he was under a neceffity to join
in a League eitiicr wijji the Emperor or with Venice, o-
tl i wile he could little expect to recover Milan.
tnpofah of In the mean time, the Venetians fent and propofed a

the Vene-
tians to
Lewis X , I


Death tf
Julius II.
Cu.n iard

fa-ma ana
fuimit to the
Dike of

League to him upon the lame Terms with that of the
year 149?, namely, that they would affift him to recover
the Milariefe, provided he would relign Cremona and
Gierradadda. Lewis readily liftened to their offers ; but
the Venetians themfelves did not 1, alien the conclulion, by
rcalbn of their cireumftances prefently after.

': he King of Arragon havin go 1 Intelligence of what
pallid between Lewis XII and the Venetians, informed
the Emperor, and advifed him to offer Verona to the Ve-
netians lor a fum v\ Ivionev. This was the fubject of a
long, though fruitle s Negotiation.

Whilft the affairs of Italy were in this ftate of uncer-
tainty, Julius II, who was preparing to befiege Ferrara
in the beginning of the Spring, died the 2 ill of February,
having kindled a flame which his death was not capable
of extinguiftiing (2). As foon as the news reached the
Viceroy of Naples, who was ftill with his army in Lwn-
bardy, he approached Placeniia, and entering without op-
pofitton, reftored that place to the Duke of Milan. Parma
quickly followed the example of Placentia, and was like-
wile delivered to the fame Prince. No one was in hafte
to fend affiftance to the future Pope to preferve thefe pla-
ces ior him. On the contrary, the Princes of Italy could
not fee without uneafinefs, that the Popes had footing in
LombarAy, under a pretence which might, upon occafton,
be ui'ed againft moft of them.

Q:i the 1 1 th of March, Cardinal 'John de Medici, who
eleven months before was taken prifoner at the Battle of
Ra:\nna, was elefted Pope, and afTumed the name of
Leo X. He was hut thirty leven years old, hut had how-
ever great experience, having been employed in divers
important affairs in the late Pontificate. He was neither
fo hot nor fo haughty as Julius II his Predeceffor, but
was much more artful and politick. I fhall have occa-
fton hereafter to add to his Portraiture fome Strokes,
wh .h will more fully Ihow his Genius and Character.
Before the death of Julius II, Ferdinand was em-
r let-ween ployed in framing a plot perfectly anfwering the name he
had in the world. The beginning of the year he Jwd
fent two Monks into France to make fome overtures to
Lewis XI 1, by means of Queen Ann, to whom they had
accefs. But as Lewis perceived it was not poffible to
make a Peace, or even a Truce with Ferdinand, with-
out leaving him in pofTeffion of Navarre, he had appeared
at firft very cold. But at length, confsdering that he
could hardly expeft to recover the Duchy of Milan,
whilft the King of Arragon was his enemy, becaufe it
was he that excited the King of England his Son-in-law,
he determine,!, though unwillingly, to conclude with him
a Truce, for a year, on condition the King of England
was included, and Italy excepted. He reckoned, that du-
ring this Truce he Ihould with cafe he able to re-con-
quer the Duchy of Milan, after which, he fhould he fuf-
ficiently fti'ong to defend his own Kingdom againft the
Englijh. Nothing was farther from Henry's thoughts than
fuch a Truce, which would have broke all his meafures,
and yet, Ferdinand doubted not to act in his name, as
i; he were lure of his confent. This affair was began in

January, and the Rth of l\-> ■. •• ■■, Lewis empowered 151 ;.
Odet de Foin Lord of Lauti , ; > • :ai
Commiffioners. In fhort, the Treaty was 1
he Ortbez in Beam the i& .of April. The Tj

That there fhould he a Truce t >t a. year, out < t /:. ,
between the King of France, the King ol (Scot/and, t!
Duke of Guelders on the one part ; and on the pi
Emperor, the King of 4ri . the Cafiilt,

and the Kin; 1 ol /■'* 'and. !- XII uni rti I • ■
cure the King 01 5 jtland's and tl Did >'s

confent, and Ferdinand in 1 foi the King ol
land. But as Ferdinand knew be fhoi ! btain

Henry's confent, he caufed it to be in! rti I in [*n

ty, that it fhould be ratified within a month by him
and Lewis XII, but that the ' pari Id be al-

lowed two month. ; with 1 pi.:, \}i laration, tli 1 with
regard to the Emperor, the King / 'land, the King of
Si Hand, and the Duke of <. . ; , the Tru< : Ihould
take place, but from the day of the exchi 1, ■ 1 ra-

tifications. Never perhaps was ken any thing fo bold as
what Ferdinand did on this occafion. lie perfectly knew
that Henry would never agree to the Truce, and yet ti ok
upon h ; m to procure li;-. confent, as if he had been fully
empowered to that end. The laft Article, < u .
the ratification, plainly difcovers his thoughts. But it is
ftill more vifible, in that he not only took no ftcp to per-
fwade Henry to do what he feenied to deli re, but even
concealed from him the Truce as far as poffible.

As foon as the Treaty was I :d, <nd took car,e F rdimnd

to publifh his complaints, that he had been very ill
by the Allies of the League ; that ihe rope and
had acquired many places, but foi his part he h I | ined
nothing at all, and yet the Allies refufed to continue the
Supply to which they were bound, though trie King
Fiance ftill poffeffed feveral Towns in Lak, and '.he
S anijh Army was ilili in the fervice of the League, r
this was only to prepare people to fee with le!s furpi
and indignation, the private Truce he had juft made with
France, without the participation of his Allies.

The Eyes of the publick were fixed upon the new
Fope, to fee what com fe he would take. But he did not
long leave the Politicians in fufpence. Though whilft a
Cardinal, he did not entirely approve of Julias Ii's Con-
duct, he purfued however his plan as foon as he was in
his place. He was doubly concerned to keep the French
out of Italy : Firft, as Pope, fince Neighbours fo powerful
could not but be formidable to him. Secondly, as head
of the Houfc of the Medici, he had caufe to fear, that if

Leo X Pope.
Ad. Pub.
XIH.p 3+9

Lewis XII recovered the Milanefe, he would undertake
to reftore the Florentine* to their Liberty. In a word, he
wifned to put an end to the Council of Pi/a, which could
be done only by ingaging Lewis XII in wars, which
fhould compel him to make his Peace with the Church.
Ferdinand had likcwife the fame views, to keep the King
of France at a diftance from Navarre, Roujfilltln, and the
Kingdom of Naples. As for the Emperor, it was his In-
tereft to difable France to affift the Venetians. But they
had, none of them, any dclire to carry war into France,
but only fo to manage, that this divcrfion might be made
at another's expence.

To that purpofe they unanimoufly caft their Eye, The
upon Henry VIII, as a Prime extremely proper to exe- "A'^'J*^
cute their defign.. He had ready Money, warlike Sub-

Trtiee for one


Lewis and

I .■ , -id
j> 1


';.' ti ni! hit

I : ■ ■' .-.



jecSts, and could with eafe trani'port Troops into fome part France,
of France remote from the Borders of Spain and Italy.
In fine, he was exceeding defirous to fignalize himfell by
illuitrious Adtions, and fcrugled not to fhow it publickly.
So, each of them laboured with all his power to confirm
him in his defign, to wage war with Fiance, by putting
him in hopes of being vigoroufly fupported, though no-
thing was farther from their thoughts. Lea X was no
fooner in the papal Chair, but under colour of notifying
his Promotion, lent him a Letter, alluring him, that he
was fully determined to adhere to the League formed by
Julius II his Predeceffor, and even to conclude a new
one with England. But at the fame time, be preffed
the Emperor to make a Peace with Venice, a ted

with the Venetians to hinder their Union with Fra) .
promifing to ufe all his Intereft with the Emperor to
procure them an honorable and advantagious Peace. Ail
thefe practices could not be managed fo priv. 1
King of France had fome Intelligence of them, fo that he
foon grew very jealous of the new Pope.

Hcnrv did not want much Solicitation to carry his ingre Am
Arms into France. His thought;- were already ben; U|
a war. So, finding, the Pope, Emperor, and King •
Arragon promifed him to act eigoroufly, he did not que:


rid »(:'■. , ' ] '■ - and

(1 Ti - hod pirm : :;d to p.iy them ore hundred and fifty thoufar.d Ducats upon his reffcrati:n to Nia r

1 Gut ■ lard. 1 11.

la 11: took the nsme of Julius from his inclination n War, in memory of Jtltai Cerjar. Kc crrrrmrdid h's A. my ;n P;r

I ,,- \ ■ id, as he marched over a '.' i . <i the .' ■. , he threw St. f. ■■■■ Keys into the R:..r. . Paul . 5wonL



151:. tion the favorablenefs of the opportunity to recover good
part of what his PredecefTors had formerly loft. And
therefore, he readily agreed to form a new League with
them, not for the affairs of Italy, with which he was pro-
bablv difgufted, but to attack France from feveral quarters.
Aft. Pub. And that the League might be the more fecret, it was
xiii. p. 354, aoreed, that it fhould be negotiated at Mechlin, between
&c ' Margaret of Auflria Governefs of the Law- Countries, au-

thorized by the Emperor her Father, and the AmbafTa-
dors of England ( 1 ), and that afterwards it {hould be ap-
proved and ratified bv the Pope, the Emperor, and Fer-
dinand. This was another fnare laid for Henry, which
lie perceived not till it was too late to avoid it. Though
Ferdinand was then upon the point of concluding the

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