M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Truce with the King of France, he made himfelf how-
ever one of the principal Parties in this League, as re-
pugnant as it was to the Truce. The Subftance of the
new League concluded at Mechlin the 5th of April, about
the fame time the Truce was figned at Orthez, was as

Ibt T<rmi That within thirty days after the date of this Treaty,
"J ti" each of the Confederates fhould proclaim War with
Ua l'"- the King of France, and within two months invade him,
viz. the Pope in Provence or Dauphine : The Emperor
in fome place out of Italy : The King of Arragon in
Beam, Guienne, or Languedoc : The King of England in
Guicnne, Normandy, or Picardy, and that their Armies
fhould be ftrong and well provided with all things.

That the Emperor ( if he had not yet done it ) fhould
revoke all his proceedings in favor of the Council of
Pifa. This fhows how little Henry or his Plenipotenti-
aries knew of what paflcd at Rome, fince it was now
three months or more that the Emperor had abandoned
that Council.

That the Pope {hould thunder his Cenfures againft all
the oppofers of this League and abettors of the contrary

That towards the expences of the War, the King of
England fhould give the Emperor a hundred thoufand
Crowns of Gold, at three payments ; thirty-five thoufand
prefently after the declaration of the War, as much more
when the War was begun, and thirty thoufand within
three months after.

That the Emperor meant not to enter into this League
as Guardian to Charles his Grandfon.

That the Emperor and King of England fhould ratify
the Treaty within a month, and the Pope and King of
Arragon within two months ; with this exprefs declara-
tion, that in cafe the Pope and the King of Arragon fhould
not ratify the Treaty by the time appointed, it fhould
however be in force between the Emperor and the King
ot~ England.

Laftly, The Confederates renounced all exceptions
whatever, and particularly that which might be made to
another's ftipulating for them.

Never perhaps was feen more infincerity than in this
whole Nogotiation, fince of all the Confederates Henry
alone intended to keep his word. Leo X ratified not the
Treaty ; Ferdinand, as will be feen prefently, difowned
his AmbafTador : As for the Emperor, he received the
Money from the King without troubling himfelf to per-
form his engagements. Thus Henry was the conftant
dupe of thefe Princes, who were a little too politick for

The Treaty being brought to London, Lewis Carroz
de Villaragud, Ferdinand's AmbafTador, approved and ra-
tified it by Letters Patents of April 1 3th. He declared in
thefe Letters, that though he had a fufficient power from
the King his mafter, to conclude the League with the
Plenipotentiaries of the confederate Princes, he had not
been able, for certain weighty reafons, to be prefent at
the figning at Mechlin. But being very fure, the Treaty
contained only what was agreeable to the King his Ma-
fter, who defircd nothing more earneftly than it's execu-
tion, he approved and ratified, in the faid King's name,
all the Articles of the Treaty. And to remove all occa-
fion of difputing the validity of his ratification, he infert-
ed the Treaty word for word, in his Letters of ratifica-
tion, and concluded it again with the Earl of Surrey the
King of Engla mPs Commiflioner, by virtue of a full
p. 363. power received foi that purpole. Afterwards, the 25th of
the fame month, he fwore 1 > the obfervance of the Ar-
ticles upon the Souis of Ferdinand King of Arragon, and
"Jam Queen of Cajlile. It is uncertain whether the Am-
bafladoi was himfch deceived, or whether knowing it,
voluntarily helpeu to impofe upon Henry. All that can

Vol. I.

at London
ratijiet and
fzuiors t3
tbe League
Aft. Pub.

xin. P . 3S g.

be faid is, that the great precautions taken to hinder his 1533.
being fufpecSfced of infincerity, are not very common with
thofs who intend to act fairly.

It mult doubtlefs be thought ftrange, that a Pope, an H-nry i%
Emperor, and a King of Spain fhould thus join, to lay "»t°ft*t ab
fuch a fnare for a young Prince of twenty cue year., of
age, and who was even Son-in-law to one o. them. And
yet it is fcarce to be doubted, that the League concluded
at Mechlin, in the abfence of the Pope's and King of Ar-
ragon's AmbafTador's, was thus projected to entangle Hen-
ry, under colour of keeping it the more fecret. Tney
fucceeded fo well, that Henry relying upon the diverfions,
his pretended Allies would make in Guienne, Beam, Pro-
vence, Dauphine, Burgundy, flattered himfelf that he might
ealily extend his Conquefts in Picardy. To that end, he A a. Pub.
made extraordinary preparations by Sea and Land, which Xlil.p.364.
put him to a vait expence. But whilft we leave him em- Ha " -
ployed in preparing fir the next Campain, it will be
neceffary to relate what palled in Italy.

The Venetians not being able to obtain a Peace from League h-
the Emperor, who pretended to fubject them to very un- tw "? „,.
reafonable terms, follicited afrefh the Negotiation they had an( i ,{, s ve-
begun with France. On the other hand, Le*.vis XII, to netians.
whom time was precious, readily accepted their propofals. £' '" n '.j
Thus the League between that Monarch and the Veneti-
ans was quickly concluded (2), upon the fame foot as that
ot the year 149?. This was t ran (acted by Andrew Gritti, Guicciard,
who being then Prifoner in France, was commifiioned to
conclude it in the Senate's name. Prefently after he was
releafed, as well as Alviano, who returning to Venice, was
made General of the Forces of the- Republick.

When Lewis XII had concluded his Treaty with the Lewis pnj$
Venetians, he ordered his Troops to march into Italy, Tnmuuille
where they arrived in June. As, by the Treaty of Truce ^,,^ „„
concluded at Orthez, Henry was allowed two months to Army.
fend his pretended ratification, and as that term was not Guicaarfc
yet expired, very probably Lciuis ftill flattered himfelf
that Henry would perform what the King of Arragon
had promifed for him ; otheiwife he would not doubtlefs
have fent his bed Troops into Italy. Mean while, tbe
preparations which were continuing in England, and the
Hoitilities, already begun at Sea fince April, between the
French and Eng/ijli, fhould have convinced him that Fer-
dinand had deceived him. However this be, the French
Army commanded by la Trimouille being arrived upon
the borders of the Milanefe, Maximilian Sforza quitted
his capital, and retired among the Switzers, who were to
the number of fe\ en or eight thoufand Men, at Como and
Novarra, where they expected fupplies from their own

Upon the approach of the French, Raymund de Car dona, Ferdinand'*
who was ftill in Lombardy with the Spanijh Armv, retired General goet
without making the leait motion to af'fift the Duke of /rOT MlUn '
Milan, though Italy was not included in the Truce of
Orthez. Very likely Ferdinand was not difpleafed, that
the French fhould make fome pregrefs in the AV.lanefe,
to keep them employed then-, whilft Henry carried War
into Picardy. At leaft, ai.y oJicr reafon of h ; s General's
conduct can fcarce he imagined. The Dulce of Milan sforza hjii
having no other Forces but the Switzers to oppofe to the "" Milan
French, Milan and the reft of the Towns of the Duchy, j„j£- ova "™,
except Como and Novarra, fubmitted to la Trimouille with- Cukciard.
out offering to relift, whilft the Switzers, who were not
ftrong enough to take the Field, remained immured within
the Walls of thele two places. Whilft the French were
making thefe Conquefts, Alviano took for the Venetians,
Pefchiera, brefeia, Valeggio, and at laft Cremona, after
a fruitlefs attempt to become mafter of Verona by intel-

About this time the Faction of the Adorno's, who in c ' e "° t ."
Genoa fided with France, found means to become fuperi- j^ce.
or, and put the City again under the Dominion of the Gukciard.
King (3).

Lewis XII was now in poffeffion of the whole Milanefe, La Trimoo-
except Como and Novarra. La Trimouille knowing, the AJIJ^
Switzers expected a ftrong reinforcement from their own Switzers a:
Country, thought he fhould make hafte and befiege Ncvar- Novarra.
ra, before the arrival of thefe Troops. He marched there-
fore to the Town, and in the expectation of taking it
immediately, furioufly ftormed it. But whatever bravery
the French fhowed upon this occafion, they were repulfed
with a very great lofs, which even obliged the General
to retire to Riotta, a village about two miles from No-
varra. Mean while, the Switzers proud of rcpulling -77,, F r <. n ch
fo terrible an aflault, and beginning to defpife the French, Army A-
before whom they had not yet dared to appear in ihe f'"" d ^ "*
Field, fuddenly refolved to fally out of Novarra, and attack Gaicdwd.
the enemy in their Camp. This refolution was imme-

(1) Which were Sir Edward Pojwijjj Contiolier of the Houlhold, Jtha Tvung Miller of the Rolls, Sir Tb-mai Bcltyn, and Sit Rhlcrd Pf'yg-

jield. Ryr.tr'i Iced. Tom '3. p. 354

(2) At Bbu. IV.arcb 14. P. Daniel, Tom. Vll. p. 305.

(3) About the end of June. Safin.


Book XV.




The French
rain ham.

Genoa is

and Sforza
is rtflortd
t; Milan.




He is defeat-
til by the

Tire Veneti-
a ns matit fbi
tope Um-

Wolf y be-
comes Prime
Pol. Viig.

diatcly executed, to tlic great aftonifhment of the French,
who not being able to refill: this unexpected attack, were
entirely routed. But that was not all. Their confterna-
tion after the defeat was fo great, that they thought it their
only fafety to repafs the mountains, and with all poffible
diligence return into France. The news of their fli"l:t
reaching Genoa, the Adomo's quitted the City to the Frc-
goj'tts their enemies, who chofe for Doge Otlavian Fregofa
head of their Family and Faction. Thus, within the
fpace of a month, Lewis XII got and loft Genoa and Mi-
lan, and Maximilian Sforza, who had been expelled out of
his Duchy, took pofleffion again. But it was the latter
end of the year before he recovered the Catties of Milan
and Cremona, kept by the French and Venetians.

'J 'he revolution in the King of France's affairs, occa-
fioned much the fame to thofe of the Venetians. Alviano
their General no fooner heard of the French Army's mis-
fortune, but he haftily retired into the territories of Venice,
and befiegcd Verona. But Raimund de Cardona, who had
affected a fort of neutrality whiltt the French were in the
Milanefe, knowing they were out of Italy, turned his For-
ces againft Alviano. He not only forced him to raife the
Siege of Verona, but even purfuing him from place to
place, obtained over him a iignal Victory, which obliged
the Venetians to refer their differences to the Pope, tho'
he had declared againft them by a/fitting the Emperor.
The neceffity of their affairs compelled them to take that
ttep in order to gain time. They had loft all their
Towns in the Milanefe, and their own Country had been
horribly ravaged by the Spaniflj Troops, even within light
of Venice.

VVhilft thefe things were acting in Italy, Henry was
preparing to pafs into France with a numerous Army.
.But before I fpeak of the fuccefs of his firtt Campain,
it will be neceflary briefly to mention what paffed at his
own Court, and which it will be worth while to infift
upon a moment. Thomas Wolfey had been introduced to
Court by the Bifhop of IVinchejler. Prefently after, he
was made Privy-Counfellor, and as fuch, had opportunity
to make himfelf better known to the King, and gain
his efteem, as well by his own qualifications, as by the
intereft of the Bifhop his Benefactor, who ceafed not to
caufe the King to admire the ftrength of his genius, and
obferve how fit he was for the greateft affairs. JVolfey
on his part neglected not what he thought capable of in-
crealing the King's good opinion of him. To an inde-
fatigable application, and extreme diligence in all the af-
fairs he was charged with, he added a blind condefcen-
fion for all his Matter's paffions. The Kins; was highly
pleafed to fee in his Court and Council a Churchman,
lefs rigid and fcrupulous than the Archbrfhop of Canter-
bury, or the old Bifhop of IVinchejler. IVolfey danced,
fung, laughed, and played with the young Courtiers who
were molt in favour ; and if Polydorc Virgil is to be cre-
dited, who loved him not, neither had reafon to love him,
he carried his complaifance fo far as to lend the King his
houfe for his mott fecret pleafures. However this be, his
condefcenfion, joined to his Talents for bufinefs, and a
pretty extcnlive knowledge in Divinity which he had
acquired, as well as the King, by reading the works of
Thomas Aquinas, foon gave him the advantage over all
the other Courtiers. When he faw himfelf well fixed,
he made it his particular bufinefs to fhewthe King his er-
rors fince his acceffion to the Throne, and how his youth
had been abufed. By this method he infinuated to him
by degrees, that he was ill-ferved, and wanted an able
Minifter, capable of eafing him in the Adminiftration of
the mott weighty affairs, and of fhewing him the con-
fequences. In a word, he fo managed, that he became
himfelf that Minifter which he advifed the King to feek,
and by degrees was intrufted with the care and conduct
of the King's principal affairs. His credit rendered him
haughty, proud, infolent, and ungrateful to his old Friends.
In fhort, he was taxed with all the failings of this nature,
which Favorites are ufually charged with , and which
indeed few Favorites can avoid. IVolfey, like mott others,
grew extremely odious, chiefly becaufe his Counfels were
always felt-interefted, which the event difcovered to all
but the King, who was blind in that refpect. His favor
and credit, caufed the mott potent Princes of Europe, to
ftrive to gain him to their interefts, and glory, at leaft
outwardly, in being of the number of his Friends. The

reafon is, becaufe during this Reign, the affairs of Europe 1515.
were in fuch a fituation, that England was capable of
making the balance incline to the fide fhe efpoufed. IVcl-
jey knew how to improve this advantage, to render him-
felf the richctt and mott powerful Subject that ever was;
but laboured not with the fame ardour for his Matter's
honour, as for his own intereft. After he was declared
Prime Minitter, he managed, during the fpace of feven-
tecn years, all the King's affairs both Foreign and Do-
meftick (1).

Before the King was ready to pafs into France, the Halli
War was already begun at Sea. In April, Admiral Haw- ■■ •"'• .
ard had put to Sea with thirty-two Ships of War (2), H«bor«« '
whiltt the French Fleet remained at I'rejl, expecting fix
Gallics, which Pregcnt (3) was to bring from Afar)
The Englijh Admiral approaching Brejl, refolvcd to at- ■ ' ''•

tack the French Ships as they lay at Anchor. But

l n • j r, 1 , • , How-

notice that f regent was arrived at Conquet, he 1 I thai ,, 1$.

way, to endeavour to take the i\x Gallics, and attacked
them indeed with great bravery (4). But during the fight,
his Ship being grappled with Pregenfs Galley, he entered
it fword in hand, and at firtt caufed great diibrder. Un-
happily, the Galley being afterwards difingaged, he was
left in the hands of his enemies, with a few attendants,
and, being unknown, was knocked over-board with a
half-pike. The lofs of the Admiral caufed fuch a contter-
nation in the Englijh Fleet, that they durft not continue
the fight (5). The news being carried to Court, the H»lli
King conferred the Office of Lord Admiral upon Thomas v '"'
Howard, Brother of the deceafed. Mean while, as the
French Fleet, by receiving a ftrong reinforcement, was
become fuperior to the Englijh, the laft returned to fome
Port in England, expecting the arrival of the new Admiral.
The French, encouraged by the retreat of the Englijl),
failed to the Coaft of England, and even made a defcent
in SufTex, and carried away fome booty.

Mean time, Henry was preparing to carry War into !,(-n! ? y"-
France, tho' none of his pretended Allies had yet made^'™pl^'
the leaft ttep towards performing the Treaty of Mechlin. Hall.
Leo X had not ratified the Treaty, and nothing was
farther from his thoughts, than the fending of an Army
into Provence or Dauphine. The Emperor began to feek
excufes not to enter Burgundy with an Army, though he
had pofitively promifed it. Aj for the King of Arragon, it' caqtt
he had not only concealed from Henry his one year's', ' " ;l/ '(

T^ • l r> 1 • r L- Ferdinand t

1 iuce with trance, but was even trying to amuie him r ., fear'i
with hopes, that he was inftantly going to make a 7>«" with
powerful diverfion in Guienne. He (0 artfully acted his T,™?"'

I • .Y 11- rr r n - ,- . Herbert.

part, that it was june before Henry was fully informed

of the Truce of Orthez. Provoked at fuch a Fraud, he

difpatched an Ambaffador to the King his Father-in-law,

to upbraid him with breach of Faith, and fummon him

to execute the Treaty of Mechlin, or rather, that fignei

by his Amballador in his name at London. Whereupon Ferd'nand

Ferdinand, feeing he could no longer wear the ma-k, .*"

difowned his Ambaffador, and laid, he had exceeded his " Jj/J '

Inttructions. He confefled however, he had concluded

a Truce for a year with Lnvis XII, being forced by the

nccefiity of his affairs, but promifed to do wonders when

it was expired, and advifed his Son-in-law to accept of

the Truce, that they might afterwards unite their Forces,

and jointly attack the common Enemy* But Henry

could no longer rely upon fuch promifes. Thus, by

the Artifices of the Pope, the Emperor, and Ferdinand,

he faw himfelf engaged to carry War alone into the

Enemy's Country, which was to have been invaded in.

four feveral quarters. He was not convinced of their In-

fincerity till it was almoft too late to recede, the greateft

part of his Army having already paffed the Sea, and juft.

entring upon action. Happily for him, Lewis XII, deceived

by the Treaty of Truce concluded at Orthez, had now

fent his beft Troops into Italy, imagining Henry would

accept of the Truce according to the King of Arragon 's


Shortly after Henry received a Letter from the Em- The Emftnr
peror, with many excufes, that it was impoffible for him ■ •"> *«
this year to lead an Army into Burgundy, but he would ?j w
punctually perform his engagement next year. Mean h.
while, to fhew, he meant not to forfake him, he laid,
he would come and ferve as Volunteer in his Army.
Thus, of the four Allies who were to act at once againtt Henry re-
France, Henry alone was charged with the burden of thc/V**" 'f
' J & the War

(1) In the prefenr War, the King cr-mnrtted to him the direction of the Supplies and Provifions to be made for the Army; which W.'->ry took care
not to neglect the Advantages of. The victualling of his Army was not, without a Sarcafm to his Birth, recommended to We/fey, fays the Lcrd Her-
bert, p. 15.

(2) Hall and the Lord Herbert fay, forty two. fol. 22. p. 13. The Admiral was accompanied by Walter Dn'reux Lord Ferrers, Sir JPe/ftan Brvzone,
Sir Edward Lbyngham, Sir Anthony Eyntz., Sir John Wa.'hp, Sir -Jbimas Wyndham, Sir Stephen Bull, William Filz-WUtiam, Arthur Plantagenct, Sir
William Sidny, Elquires, &c. Hall, fol. 22. St'.nv, p. 491.

(3) Called by our Hiftorians, Prior John. (+) On the 25th of April. Hall, fol. 23.

(5) This Sir Edward Howard was not elded, but fecond Son cf Thomas H'.iuard Earl of Surrey, Son of the Duke of Narfilk, Urn at Bcfmrtb-JaU,
and attainted in the Parliament of Her.. VII. The faid Terras was reftored (4 Hen. VII.) to the Title of Earl of Surrty, and to the Lands which
were his Wives lnherimr.ee. Sir Edward was conftituted Almiral of England, Wales, Inland, Kumandy, Ca[.ognt, and Ajuitain, 4 lien, VIII. March 19.
Ditgda/e's Barsn. Vd. II. p. 267, 27L


No. XXXVII, Vol. I,

8 U

W ar .



Vol. I.


War. Edward IV his Grandfather had been formerly in Buffi eTAmboife, and fome others of the greateftDiftin&i- 1513.

much the fame cafe, and thought it no difhonour to make on. This Battle, if fuch a rout may be lb termed, was

a fpeedy Peace with Lewis XI, when difappointed by his called, The Battle of Guinegtijh, and by fome, The Battle

Allies. If Henry had followed his example, he would of Spurs, becaufe the French made more ufe of their Spurs

have terribly embarraffed thofe by whom he was deceived, than their Swords. Whilft the two Armies were in view,

but being greedy of Glory, would fhew he had no occa- before the Engagement, a body of French attempted to

tic fajfa lis f lon for them. He had fo relied on the (incerity of his introduce a Convoy of Proviiions into the Town, but

Allies, that though the Treaty of Mechlin was not to be were repulfed by the Lord Herbert, who was left to guard

ratified by the Pope and the King of Arragon, till the 5th the Trenches. After the Battle, the befieged defpairing Terouenne

of June, he had caufed the belt part of his Army to pafs of relief, furrendered the City the zzd of Auguft, and '^r au

over to Calais in the middle of May. It is evident, the the King, in company with the Emperor, entered on the s tuw .

ratification of the Treaty of Mechlin had been fo long 24th.

retarded, only to engage Henry beyond a poffibility of It feemed to be Henrys deftiny to be always the Em- Herry^,V«

receding. peror's dupe. After the taking of Terouenne, Maximilian, ''.[ P J' !U '"

Beloie the departure of the firft Troops ( 1 ), Henry had who had only ferved at the Siege as Volunteer, found nkmui]*

beheaded the Earl of Suffolk, Prifoner in the Tower ever means to have the place delivered to him, and immedi- H.ll.

iince the reign of Henry VII, who gave Philip I, King of ately ordered it to be demolifhcd. It is hard to conceive ^°",'

Cajiile, a pofitive promife to fpare that Lord's life. But what induced Henry to this condefcenfion. All that can HulUngih,

probably, he gave the Prince his Son orders like thofc be conjectured is, that there was perhaps in the Capitu-

given by King David to Solomon his Succeflbr, with ref- lation, fome Ai tide againft the razing of the place, but

peft to'foab. The Hiftorians have endeavoured to difco- that altering his mind, he was willing to fave his honour

ver Henry's Inducement at fuch a Juncture, to put the by delivering it to the Emperor. Though this were the

Earl of Suffolk to death, who was not in condition to cafe, there would be no lefs reafon to be fur prized at his .

hurt him. But they have faid nothing fatisfaclory (2). management. 'Tis eafy to perceive it was very advanta-

Tli Englifii The two Bodies of Troops tranfported to Calais de- gious to Charles of Aujlria, Grandfon of Maximilian, that

parted thence the 17th of 'June (3), under the Command Terouenne belonged neither to the French nor the Englijh.

of the Eail of Shrewsbury (4), and the Lord Herbert {5), But what Intereft could Henry have to lofe fo many Men,

in order to march to Terouenne, to which they laid Siege (6). and fo much time, to take a place in order to have it

jiirr.y o-v.r
to Calais.

•Hit Earl f
Suffolk be-



Du B.iiay.


befiege 1'e

Art. Pub.
Xlil. p._

r- r°-

> t. >w.


But the King departed not from England till the 30th of
the fame month, having conftituted Queen CatheriueRe-
gent (7). He arrived the fame day at Calais, being at-
tended by Thomas JVolfey his Prime Minifter, Charles
Brandon another Favorite lately made Vifcount l'f/ie(&).

razed in favour of Maximilian, who had not merited fuch
a Condefcenfion (10)?

As the Seafon was not yet far advanced, Henry refolv- Slep of
ed, before the end of the Campain, to befiege Tournay, T.^'"'?'
whether he heard the place was ill provided, or the Em- hi'I.
with many other Lords (9). Whilft the Troops continued peror's Intrigues had again influenced his Council. For, Stow,
the Siege of Terouenne, he remained at Calais with a body the Conqueft of Tournay, which lies at fome dirtance from {1 e ]£ ert i
of nine thoufand Men, ready to march upon the firft: Calais, was much lefs advantagious to Henry than to the
Henry emit occafion. At laft, having certain advice that the Duke Archduke Charles, whofe Dominions it fecured ; whereas

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