M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

The history of England : written in French (Volume 1) online

. (page 305 of 360)
Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 305 of 360)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

*'■ of Lcngueville was approaching to relieve the Town, he Boulogne would have been, without doubt, much morecon-
haltened from Calais to the Siege, where he arrived the venient for the King, by reafon of the neighbourhood of
Tti Etnpenr 4th of Augujl. On the 9th, the Emperor came and con- Calais. Neverthelefs the Siege of Tournay was refolved,
ETfl* ferred with him between Aire and Terouenne, and three probably, becaufe the Emperor hoped the King would give
,i.,.y, days after repaired to the Camp and ferved as Volunteer him that place as he had done Terouenne. But he found
Hall. under the King, making no fcruple to receive a hunded againft him Interefts ftronger than thofe of the King

Hatb Crowns a day for his pay. By this mark of efteem, and himfelf, which oppofed his defigns.

the imaginary honour he did the King, he meant to make Whilft preparations were making for the Siege, Henry Henry -JJla
amends for his Breach of Faith, and the hundred thoufand paid a vifit to Margaret Governefs of the Low-Countries, ^"f t 7 t .
Crowns received for an Expedition which he had never in- who was at Life, and ftaid three days with her. Then Hall,
tended to make. he returned to his Army which was marching to Tour- Herbert.

Mean time, the Duke of Lor.gueville who commanded nay (11), but the Emperor left the King upon fome dif-
the French Army, approaching Terouenne, Henry pafTed guft, the reafon whereof is unknown. Next day, the ijthTo"""?
the Lys with the greateft part of his Troops, in order to of September, the army arrived before Tournay, which

17, Battle
if Sfsrs.

Aug. i6.

Afl. Pub.


meet him. The two Annies engaged, but not long, held out but feven or eight days (12). Henry entered xili. p.3771

For the fight was hardly begun, when the Trench, by the City on the 24th (13), a month after his Entry into Se P t - 2 3-

what accident is unknown, ran away in confuiion with- Terouenne* By the Capitulation, the Inhabitants were to H ^J, rt *

out any poflibility of their being rallied. But the princi- have their antient Privileges, upon paying to Henry afmall

pal Officers chofe rather to he taken prifoncrs than follow annual acknowledgment of four thoufand Livres Tcurnols^

fo difhonorable an example. The Duke of Longucv'dle for ten years only (14).

was of the number, with Chevalier Bayard? la Fayciic^ After the taking of Tournay? the King calling a Coun- Henry i«y#


(j) Oa Apt II 30. Stow, p. 491.

(2) The chief Region, as my Lord Htrbert and ethers fay, was for fear, in cafe of the King's death in France, the People being well-arTec?ed to the
Home ol F/k, mould take him out of the Tkwer and make him King. Edmund de la Pole was Son of John de la Pole Duke or" Suffolk, by Elizabeth
Sifter of Edward IV. But this reafon kerns weak, finer "Margaret Queen of Scotland, the King's Sifter, was the undoubted Heir of the Ho ufe of York,
in cafe the King died without iifue. The French Writers lay, Richard his younger Brother commanded fix thoufand F>en:b at the Siege of Tercuenne,
which fume have thought battened his Brother's death. Dugda/e's Baron. Vol. II. p. 193. Hall, fol. 26.

(3) Thomas Grey, Miiquili of Dorfct, was Central of all the King's Forces both by Sea and Land, and Thomas Lord Howard Admiral. Rymer\ Feed.
Tom. XIII. p. 305, 306.

(4) George TLl&tt HJgh>Stewar.d of the King's Houlhold, accompanied with Thomas Stanley Earl of Derby, Thomas Docivra Lord Prior of the Order of
St. John, Sir Robert Ratcliffe Lord Fftat Waiter, the Lord Haft tags, the Lord Cobban*, Sir Rice ap Thomas Captain of the Light-Horfe, Sir Thomas
Blount, Sir Richard Sachi verc/l, Sir John Digby, Sir John Askew, Sir Lrzvis Bag.t, Sir Thomas Cornwall, Sec. This Body confided of above eight thou-
sand. Herbert, p. 15. Rjlihr's Fad. Tom. XIII. p. 372. Stow, p. 491.

(5) Charles $emerjet x natural Son by Joan Hill of Henry Duke of Somerset (who left his Life in 3 Ed-ward IV.) married Elizabeth, Daughter and Heir
of William Herbert Earl of Huntington, by reafon whereof he bore the Title of Lord Herbert, and as fuch had Summons to Parliament, 1 Henry VIII,
3 Hcn'ry VIII, He was Lord Chamberlain to Henry VII, and continued in the fame Office to King Henry VIII. From him are defcended the prcfent
Scnstrfets, Dukes if Beavfot. He was attended by the Earls of Northumberland, Ktnt, and Wihjkire, the Lords Audley, and De la Ware, the Barons Carc-w,
and Curfon, Sir Thomas Weft, Sir Edward llujcy, Sir Robert Dimocke, Sir Dat/id Owen, &c. He commanded fix thoufand Men. The Baron of Carow,
Matter of the Ordnance, was killed the firft night before Terouenne in the Lord Herberts Tent, which came fo near him, that the French writ he was
ilain there. Herbert, p. 15. Rymer, Tom, XIII. p. 372.

(6) June 22. There were within the Town fix hundred Horfe, and two thoufand five hundred Foot, befides the Inhabitants. Hall, fol. 24. H->l m
lingjk. p. Si 7.

\-]) She was alfo General of all the Forces in England, and had Power, with five noble Perfonages, to take up Money upon Loan, as cccafion IhouM
require, and to give Security of the Sums for maintaining and raifing of Forces, if need mould require ; as it is more particularly fe.t forth in the Patent
liolls of theft times. Bacon, p. 145.

(S) May 15th, 1^13. His Uncle William Brandon, Standard-Bearer to Henry VII at Bof-worth-Field, was llain by King Richard III himfelf. Dug*
dal e \ Baron. Vol. II. p. 299.

(9) The King divided his own Forces into three Bodies. The Vanguard, confuting of three thoufand Men, was commanded by Cbarlet Brand,'., Vif-
count Lijle j the right Wing by Sir Richard Carew, and the left by Thomas Lord Da/cy j Henry Bourckier E?.rl of EJfcx was Licutenant-Gcnml of the
Spears, and Sir John Fecby commanded the Horfe. Edward Stafford Duke of Buckingham, with fix hundred Men, was on the King's left hand ; and on
the right, Sir Edward P'oynings with the fame number. George Nc-vil, Lord Abergavenny, followed with eight hundred Men; and Sir WiUiam Compton,
with the retinue of Fox Bifhop of Wincbejicr, and of Wdjey, which amounted to eight hundred Men, brought up the Rear. The King's Forces were in
all eleven thoufand three hundred Men. Statu, p. 491.

(ioJ It bordered, it feerns, upon his Territories, which had been much infefted by Irruptions from thence, and therefore by his Intreaty, it was razed,
favc only the Cathedral and religious Houfes. But the French repaired it foon after. This could not but fecm ftrange, fince it coft fo much, as Guicc:~
ardin doubts not to call it Intolerable and Infir.it d Expiree. Herbert, p. j6.

(11) The King, about a Mile or two from Lijlc, lo.il himfelf in a great Mifl:, neither could he nor any of his Train refolve which wiy to turn, till
a Victualler coming by chance irom his Army, both informed him where his Army lay, and conduced him thither, to the great Joy ol them all.
Hcrbtrt, p. 16. Hail, fol. 35.

(12) Though the Gates bore this Infcription, Thou Loft never loft thy Virginity. Hall, fol. 44.

(13) Hall lays, it was the id cfoOclibcr. The King knighted upon this occafion, Edward Guildford, William Fifz-William, John Daurcy, Wiiltam

Tiler, John Sharpe, William Hufey, John Savage, Chriftspher Garnyjht, Sec, —The number of luhabitants in that City was eighty thoufand. tlalt t

fol. 45,

(14) And prefent payment f fifty thoufand Crowns dt fsieil, (or tan thoufand Pounds StaJjefc lhU } foj, 44. ) Ths Ciry furrendered to the King by
the Hams of Rej Tra-Vkrtftitnl bUtt Gbri/Utn #*£.} Hcrbtrt, p. 17,

Book XV.



1513. cil of War, it was debated, whether it was proper to places being given to the Emperor, and razc-J, was to ijij.

keep tiie place, which feemed to be difficult, by rcafon
of its diflance from Calm's. But after a long debate, it
was refolved to keep it, and leave for Governor Sir Ed-
ward Poynings, with a ftrong Garrifon. The contrariety
of the two refolutions with refpect to Teroucnnc and Tom-
my will, perhaps, appear ftrangc. The firft of theft
places which was neareft Calais, and fecurcd the road from
Calais to Tournay, was demolifhcd. The fecond, which
could not without great difficulty be relieved, was deemed
heceftary to be kept. This contrariety could proceed
only from Wolfey's Intereft, who influenced the Council
as he pleafed. He had cart his Eyes on the BHhoprick of
Toiirnay, as a thing very convenient for him, wliereastli.it
of Terouenne was nothing in companion. Accordingly,
he afterwaids found means to obtain the adminiltration of
this See, under colour, that the Bifhop refufed to fwear
Fealty to the King. This is the true rcafon why it was
refolved to keep Tournay, and perhaps of undertaking the
Siege ( 1 ).
Margaret Next day after the King's Entry into Tournay, the

mrfChyfes Princefs Margat c t Duchefs Dowager of Savoy, and the
Archduke Charles her Nephew, came to congratulate him
upon his new Conqueft. The fortnight they ftaid with
him, he took care to entertain them with all forts of Di-
verfions, as Jufts, Turnaments, running at the Ring, Balls,
Malquerades, and the like. Mean while, amidft all thefe
Diverlions, the Minilters of the two Courts began a Treaty,
which was concluded a few days after.

Margaret and Charles being returned to Lijle, Henry
repaid their viilt (2), and was received with all imaginable

Henry at

him of no benefit. As for Tournay, he never reaped any
considerable advantage from it, by rcafon of its diftance
from Calais. IVoljey was the only gainer by it, the Bi-
fhoprick of that City, which lie obtained in the end, to-
gether with the Abby of St. Amend, being of a much
greater Revenue than what the King himfelf received
iroin Tournay and its Territory,
_ The iil Succcf, of the Italian Campain had put Lmh'i 7ifS*T««fi
Xli's affairs in a bad fituation, and the lots of the battl ' ""'"
p{ Guintga/lt, with the taking of % . id ",;.

iiad entirely difordered them, lint this was .1 irifl
companion of the danger France was in, by In-

vahon, after the French were driven out ol the Milan ft.
The warlike Switztrt, excited againfl Lewis by the IVpc
and the Emperor, not being latisficd with their advan-
tages over him in Italy, refolved to attack him in his own
Kingdom. The opportunity was favourable, by rcafon of
the fcveral forementioned Junctures. To improve this
opportunity therefore, the Svuitzers levied fifteen thoufand
Men (3), to whom the Emperor joined all the Nobility
of Franche-Cor.itc, and fome German Horfe, under the
Command of Ulrick Duke of I'/irtemberg. This :irn,y Tbtyhjip
entering the Duchy of Burgundy, encamped before Dijon,
where la Trimouille, lately rciurrusdJroin Italy, bad fhut
himfelf up with fome Troops (.]); .but that place was lb
weak, that there was no likelihood of keeping it. He
defended it however fix weeks. But at laft, feeing that
by the lofs of Dijon, not only Burgundy, hut all the reft
of France vvoujd be in great danger, he thought he
fhould prevent it without waiting the King's ordei

Henry re-
turn their

NmTnats ^'P^ an d civility. Some days after, on the 15th of might come too late. By a Capitulation with the Swit- La Trim**

at Lirtc Oelober, they ligned a Treaty, importing, That though zers, he bound himfelf to pay them four hundred thou- '"* '/""'

Art. Pub. Flenry had bound himfelf not to rcpafs into England till fand Crowns (c), of which he paid down twenty thou-]

^'[^^'the war was ended, he fhould however, have liberty to re- fand, and promifed in the King's name, that he would

Herbert. turn thither with his army. de'.ift from all his pretentions to the Duchy 'of Milan. Guic ' '■

That during the Winter, the Emperor fhould keep in The Switzers, pleafed with their Expedition, retired into J '

Artois and Hamault a body of four thoufand Horfe, and their own Country, carrying with them four Hod ages,

fix thoufand Foot, for the Defence as well of Tournay and who found means to efcape when they knew the King

the Tournaifts, as of the Archduke's Dominions. refufed to ratify the Capitulation.

That for the maintenance of thefe Troops, Henry fhould Lewis XII rinding himfelf attacked in fo manv places, Lewu mnhs

pay the Emperor two hundred thoufand Crowns at fcveral and not doubting that the Pcpe and the King of Arragcn " "-'■'•' ■ :b

payments. created him all thefe Troubles, refolved at laft to he n

That before the ift of June next year, Henry fhould concded with the Pope. This agreement was the more M

Remark on
tb.l Treaty,

carry war into Guicnne, Normandy, or Picardy, and tlic
Emperor into fome other Province of France.

That before the 15th of May, the Emperor, the
Duchefs Margaret, the Archduke Charles, the King of
England, Queen Catherine, the Princefs Mary, fhould
meet all together at Calais to celebrate the Archduke's
Marriage with the Princefs Mary, purfuant to the Treaty
concluued between the Emperor and the late King
Henry VII.

Whatever was to be done, Henry muft always find
Money. Maximilian had already received a hundred

cafy, as Leo X had not, like Julius II, a perianal enmity
againft him. Since the French were out of Italy, he had
nothing to demand of the King, but the dilTolving of the
Council of Pija, without which indeed he could not con-
fent to a Peace. The Council was grown fo thin, that
Lewis, in forfaking it, made no great facririce to the
Pope. It is true, the fubmitting in a point he had hi j
therto openly maintained, feemed to be fomething dif-
honorable. But as the Council of Pija had been pro-
perly fummoned againft Julius II, he thought he might
without reproach yield to another Pope. However, Lewis
thoufand Crowns of Gold, without having executed any perceiving, that by his reconciliation with Leo X, he
of his Engagements entered into by the Treaty of Mech- fhould take from the Kings of England and Arragm the
I'm, and found means to procure two hundred thoufand pretence they ufed to make War upon him, was at length
more by the prefent Treaty, befides the advantage of induced to renounce his Council, and acknowledge that of
razing Terouenne, which very much annoyed his Grand- Lateran. This renunciation was folemnly matie in the
fon the Archduke's Dominions. Nay, it is very probable, tenth Seffion, held about the end of December.


ptojrofii a
tteiu I.e.igue
to Hemy.

the difgull which made him quit the King's Army, pro-
ceeded from his not being able to perfuade him to pro-
mife him Tournay alfo when taken. This manifeftly
fliews, he looked upon Henry as a novice, ealily to be
infnared. Certainly Htnry's many falfe fteps in the be-
ginning of his reign can only be excufed by his little
knowledge of the Character of the Princes with whom he

It cannot be doubted, that the King of Arragm was
of the fame opinion concerning Henry him Son-in-law.
Notwithftanding the ill turn he had ferved him laft year,
he had ftill the allurance to fend him an Amball'ador at
Lijle to propofe a new League, as if his word had been never intended to perfuade him to make a feparate Peace,

i . nr

Leo X, in the beginning of his Pontificate, writ to <iu P ;e
Henry, as to all the left of the Princes, eaiiieft'iy exhort
ing him to Peace. In this manner he was to talk, in '-.'_
order to difcharge the duty of the common Father of Act. r
Chriftians. Henry, who faw plainlv, and was aftcrv. ..
more fully convinced, that this was only grimace, replied,,
he could not make Peace witho.it his Allies, and El
feparate Peace would be directly contrarv to all his En-
gagements. This anfwer difpleafed not the Pope, who
then fought only to raife Enemies to France. But when Afl P
he was fure of his agreement with Lcivis XII, he took : - ll; - i-5 i5 «
occafion to fend another Letter to Henry, tellins; him, he

Henry re-

turns to





but as he had taken Arms foicly for the defence of the
Church and the Holy See, and had, by his hue Victories,
attained the end he had propofed, it was reafon d.!e he
fhould lay them down, fince the Prince, who oppri (1 I
the Church, was returned to his obedience. Thi 5 Letter
was dated December the 17th, about the time of the tenth
Seffion of the Council of Lateran, wherein the French
Ambafladors made a folemn Submiffion in their Mailer's

Nothing contributed more to open Henry's eyes, than Hrmr fn
this fecond Letter. He imagined, when he protefted
that he took arms in defence of the Church, his Allies

more to be relied on than fome months before. But it
does not appear that Henry was then inclined to trull to
his promifes.

Henry departed from Lijle the 17th of Oclober, and on
the 24th arrived at his Palace at Richmond, after a glo-
rious Campain. I call it glorious, if the Succefs of his
Arms be only confidered. But in another refpetfl it was
not very honorable, fince he had been the dupe of the
Pope, the Emperor, and the King of Arragon, who had
thrown upon him the whole burden of the War, which
fhould have been common to all the four. It is true, he
had taken Terouenne and Tournay. But the firft of thefe

(1) ff'dfey represented to the King, that it was fit Tournay (hould be kept as a Trophy of his Vifbries, and the rather as Cttfar [in his f -_ - -
knowledges he no where frict with fo brave a Rcfiftanee. However, it coll H'olfey no 'mail trouble and oppofition batore he c^uid ob'..un the ;-.. Selfioti . i this
Bifhoprick. Herbert, p. 17. Stryfc's Mem. F.ccl. Heitry V'H I, p. 15.

(i) OShirfll. //,///, fol. 45.

(3) Twenty five thoufand, fays P. Daniel, Tom. VII. p. %to. CuicfwdiB fiyi, *hej hid twenty thcufand Fcot, and that lie Emperor fer :

2 th< ul'jnd Horfe and Artillery, 1. 12. 1 r r >

U) A thoufand Lances, and fix i-lwufani Foot, Cuiedtri, (5) Six hundred thou&nd . -.




Vol. I.

15 1 3. knew, he did not mean, for all that, to neglect his own
Intereft, that Language being properly only to amufe the
publick. He had the more rcafon to believe it, as, even
in the Treaty of League, each of the Allies had evidently
propofed to himfelf temporal advantages. And yet, he
faw, the Pope had no fooner obtained his delire, but he
took the words of the Preamble of the Treaty in the
literal Senfe, as if there had been indeed no other defign
than to labour for the Church, and under that colour,
pretended to diffolvc a League formed by himfelf. This
convinced him, that the Pope, in drawing him into a
•war with Frame, had only his own. Intereft in view.
On the other hand, he was not better pleafed with the
King of Arragm, nor had rcafon to be fo. As for the
Emperor, he had performed nothing of what he had pro-
Herrfihti to mifed. All thefe Confiderations having at laft opened his
w'tiFnnce Eyes, produced a Peace with France, which was concluded
the next year. But before we clofe this, it will be ne-
ceifary to relate what palled during the Campain, between
the Englljli and Scots.
WurbtHmm 'James IV feeing Henry ready to carry War into France,
Scotland ""^ ca '' ed n ' s Parliament, and reprefented to them the indig-
Bmhm.n. nities Scotland had fuffered from the Englijh, fince the
Herbert. laft Peace. Bretons affair was not forgot in this enumera-
tion. But the bell reaibn, he alledged to induce the Scots
to a War, was, that^r<7«tv, the ancient and faithful Ally
of Scotland, being about to be invaded by the King of
England, he could not difpenfe with affilfing her. This
reafon, though very plaulible, was not however univer-
fally approved. Many thought it ftrange that the King
fhould thus wantonly, and without an urgent neceffity,
break a Peace advantageous to Scotland, folemnly fworn
to, and even lately renewed. But the King's Creatures
and the Penfioners of France, whom Lamothe, the French
Ambaffador, had now prepared to ferve the King his Ma-
fter upon this occafion, carried it by a great majority, fo
that War was refolved.
James IV Henry was in France, when James affembled his Army

to invade England, purfuant to the foregoing refolution.
He fcr.is a But to keep fome fort of formality, James writ him a
difianci to Letter, and fent it by a Herald, who found him at the
Acl.'puk Siege of Tertnienne. Thl; Le'ter, dated the 26th of July,
xiu. p. 38'.. contained the Grievances, James believed to have caufe
Hall> to complain of, and a declaration of War in cafe he

defifted not from his Invafion of France. Henry could
not fend his anfwer till the 1 zth of /lugitjl, the fublhmce
Henry's whereof was, " That he was not at all furprized to fee
"Jwi tt n j m pj-eajj t) le p eacc upon frivolous pretences,, fince he
" therein only imitated the iniincerity of his Anceftors
" and Progenitors. Then he upbraided him, that whilft
" he knew him to be in England, he never dewed,
" either by Letter or AmbaHador, that he intended to
" efpoufe the King of France's quarrel, but waited for
" his departure to execute his unjuft defisns. He added,
" that knowing him perfectly, he had forefeen his
" breach of Faith, and for that reafon, before he palled
" into Fran had taken fuch a courfc, and fo well
" I :d for the defence of his Kingdom, that he did

i; not queiiion, by God's help, to fruftrate all the en-
" deavours of Scbifmaticks, excommunicated by the Pope
" and Council of Latcran. That befides, he hoped to
" have it very foon in his power to requite him, and
" in the mean time, would not fail to take the mod ef-
" feiStual methods, to deprive him and his pofterity of all
" hopes of ever inheriting the Kingdom, he was going
" fo perfidioufly to invade. After that, he fet before
" his eyes the example of the King of Navarre, who
" for taking part with France, was difpoilefied of his
" Kingdom, without hopes of being ever reftored. As
" for the pretended grievances alledged in his Letter, he
" faid, they had been fo often anfwered, that all farther
" mention of them was entirely needlefs. But for the
" King of Scotland's fummoning him to defift from the
" War with France, he told him, he did not acknow-
" ledge him for competent judge in his affairs with Lewis
" XII, and notwithstanding his threats, would con-
" tinue the War. He concluded with faying, that he
" might be allured he would omit no opportunity to be

" revenged, wherein he hoped to fuccfied, with the help <5«3«
" of God and St. George."

James flayed not for an anfwer to his Letter, to take J amcs "**
the Field. On the 2zd of Augujl, he enter Northum- Herbert^
berland, and took feveral places, particularly Norham &c.
Caftle(i). The Englijh Writers affirm his Army to be
fixty thoufand (rrong. Nay, fome mount the number to Ha ".
a hundred thouland, which is hardly credible. It cannot
however be doubted it was very numerous, confideringthe
care Buchanan takes to dew, it was extremely leflened by
defertions, and by being kept unemployed for fome time.
The Earl of Surrey was then in Yorkjhire (2), with twenty IT* Earl of
fix thoufand Men. But at the firft news of the Scots ^ u ^7. ,„
entring England, he marched directly towards them, and ma rdtJ,iK,
the 4th of September came near enough to fend and offer "d 'f" >
them Battle, by a Herald, who reported that the King ^"f""'"
of Scot/and accepted it for the Friday following. James Stow.
was then encamped on the edge of mount Cheviot, where Herbert.
it was difficult to attack him (3). And therefore, the H ° m "6 (b '
Earl of Surrey, feeing the Scots would fight only in fo ad-
vantageous a Poft, refolved to ftay till they defcended on
the plain. The Englijh not appearing on the day ap- Ttuendu-
pointed, an old Scotch Lord (4) took occafion to reprefent "?"" ,
to the King, that he had done enough to fave his ho- fnmfahtiKg,
nour: That it was not prudent to fight the Englijh j n Buchanan,
their own Country, but the belt way would be to re-
tire with his booty into Scotland, where it would be in
his power to fight or avoid a Battle as he pleafed :
That as he had taken Arms only to make a diverfion
in favour of France, he no lefs employed the Englijh
Forces, without fighting, than by hazarding a Battle:
That upon this occafion he ought not to liften to the
intereited Counfels ot the French Ambaffador, who only
wanted to hazard fome great action at another's expence,
in order to free the King his Mafter from his prefent
{freights : But in ferving France, Scotland was likewife
to be regarded. This advice feemed too cautious to ths
King. As he had determined to give Battle, he fiercely
anfwered, he would fight the Englijh were they a hun-
dred thoufand. Mean while, the Earl of Surrey to draw HaU -

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 305 of 360)