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him from his Poft, marched along a River (5) which part-
ed the two Armies, as if he intended to enter Scotland
thro' Carlijle, the road to which place he feemed to take.
James having notice of it, fet fiie to his Camp, and
marched along the fame River on the oppofite fide. But
unhappily for him, the fmoak of his own Camp hindered
him from feeing the Englijh, who iorded the River un-
perceived. Then James halting about Floddon, drew up Battle of
his Army. Here it was the Earl of Surrey attacked him, 11 ^ d ""•
having palled with difficulty a fort of morafs between the is dsfiSud
two Armies. The particulars ot this Battle are fo va- * m 0' '•"'■ ■
rioufiy related by the Hiftorians of both Nations, that h/h."""'
the one cannot be followed without departing from the Stow.
other. But as to the fuccefs it is not the fame. They Herbert,
all agree, the Scots loft the day, after valiantly fighting
till night, which parted the Combatants. The two Ar-
mies retiring, the Englijh knew not they were victorious,
till the morning, when they faw, their enemies had quit-
ted the Field of Battle with all their Artillery. The
Englijh own, they loft five thoufand Men in this Battle,
which was fought the 9th of September. But they fay
the Scots loft ten thoufand (6). The Scots pretend, there
were but five thoufand flain on each fide, but confefs
their lofs was very confiderable by the great number of
Lords and Officers of their nation killed in the Battle ;
whereas the Englijh loft not one Perfon of diftinction (7).
King James was never more feen after the Battle. The <j% c E„ g |;nj
Englijh imagined they found his Body wounded in two places, bdieve they
upon a heap of dead, and ordered it to be put into a h ^f M "">it
Leaden-Coffin, without daring however to bury it, be- Buchanan,
caufe he died excommunicate. But the Scots affirmed Hall,
it was not the Body of their King. They faid that be-
fore the Battle, he had caufed five Men of his own Sta-
ture to wear the fame Arms with himfelf, and that the
Body which the Englijh took for the King's was one
Elphinjlon's who greatly refembled him. However, they
could not tell what was become of the King. One faid

(1) Which yielded after a fix day; Siege. Hall, fol. 3S.

(:) The Kin,; hid, at his departure, appointed him his Lieutenant in the North of England- with Order?, if the Sects made any Inoirfions, to raife the
Militia of the Counties of Cbijier, Lanca/lir, Durham, A'crtbumber/and, Weflmoreland, 2nd Cumberland. Hall, fol. 37. Rymcr's Feed. Turn. XIII. p. 375.

(3) There was but one narrow Field to get up to him, and at the bottom of the Hill was placed all his Ordinance. On one tide of his Army was a
jreat Marin, and the other parts of it were encompaffed with Cheviot Hills. Hall, tbl. 40.

(4) Archibald Douglafs, Earl of Angus. Buchanan.

(5) The River Tyll, or elfe Sandyjord. Hall, fol. 41.

(6) Hell lays, there were fifteen hundred Enghjh, and twelve thoufand Scots (lain, fol. 43. According to Buchanan, there fell above five thoufand Scots.
{7) In tills Battle the Vanguard was led by the Lord Thomas He-ward, who had with him the Lords Clifird, Conytrs, Latimer, Sci-ift of Vfiale, Lumlcy.

Ogle ; Sir Nicolas Afiplcyard, Sir William. Sidney, Sic William Gafcoyne, Sir Stephen Bull, Sir Henry Shirburnc, tec. The rij.ht V.'ing was cummandtd by-
Sir Edmund He-ward, and the left by Sir Marmadukc Conflabic. The Kear was brought up by the Earl of Surrey himfelf, who was attended by the Lord
Scrcft of BolUtl, Sir Pb.lip Tth.ey, Sir George Darcy, Sir Thomas Barkley, Sir John Stanley, Six. John fflHougbbj, &c ; the Lord Daera and Sir Edward
: J v, with their Horfe, being appointed as a Referve. On the Sc.'cb fide there fell one Archbilhop, two Biihops, four Abbots, twelve Earls, and feventccn
with eight or ten thoujaud common Soldiers, Scea Dclcription ot the Battle in my Lard H bcrt, p. lS. Hall, fol. 38, &c. Stow, p. 492.


Book XV.





."(•WIT Sf-

/:rts the
P'fi'; leavt

:i tsrf the

-■■fj'- ,


Act. Vv\>.
XIII p -,8c.
» 1. 19.

indeed he Taw him ride over the Tweed after the Battle.
But a- the Fight laik-d till night, this evidence is not
much to be relied on. It was however the foundation
of the report of his not being dead. Some fufpe&ed, he
was killed in retiring Out of the Battle by the Lord Al-
exander Humes, or his Vailals. But this Fact was never
well proved. However this be, it was never known for
ccrrain, whether the Body found by the Englijh on the
Field of Battle, was the King's or not (1). Mean while,
Henri ftippofuvg it to be the very Corpfc of James IV,

own private intercft. 7'o this artifice therefore 1514.


Lewis recurred to free himfelf from his prefent embara/T-
ment. At the beginning of the year 15 14 he took care
to renew the Negotiation concerning the marriage ol the
Princcfs Rente his fecond Daughter with Charles Arch-
duke of AuJIria, Inlawing, Maximilian and Ferdinand
v/ere equally defirous of it, efpecialiv upon the term-, pro
pofed by thcmfclvc. He ltartcd however difficulties
capable of continuing the Ncgptiatjpii without entirely
breaking it off. The Pope could n..i look upon thi. pro

writ to the Pope for a difpenfatlon to interr it in St. Paul's jeer without uneafinefs. He was as much afraid ol Mi
Church (2). Leo X, anlwered by a Brief, flgnifying, tans being in the hands <,t a Grandfon of the Emperor
1 bat it was fet Jorth to him from the King of Eng- and King of Arragon, as of (ecine the

" land, that in a Treaty concluded between the late King
" of Scotland and Henry VII, and renewed by Henry VIII,
" the firft had fubmitted to an excommunication in cafe
" he a£ted in breach of it, and yet had broken the
" Peace : That therefore he had been pronounced excom-
" municate by the Cardinal Archbifhop of Yor%, by vir-
* We of a power granted by Julius II : That he died
" in a Battle, without having been abfolved ; but in
** confederation of h
« the Ki

" in confccratcd ground. Upon thefe accounts, the Pope
w was plcaled to grant his requeft, confidering, as he was
41 told and ought to believe, 'James in his laft moments
*' fhowed fomc figns of contrition, fuch as his circum-
" itances would admit. That therefore he appointed the


Frtncb King rc-


vpm this


His intercft required that Milan fhould r
in the Family of the S/hrza's The Swi/zen pa/Eonate
]y wiflied it alfo. The Vmttiam too would have there-
in found a great advantage, if another interefl bad

prevailed. And that was, to oblige the Emperor to make
Peace with them on reafonaWe Terms. But this the;
could not hope without (he aflill.inie of France ; and
this affiftancc could not be obtained without aiding Lew-
ration of his Royal dignity and nearnefs of blood, is XII to recover the Milanefe.

ng of 'England defired permiffion to bury him Maximilian found his account in his War with / •

nice, becaufe it coft him lit tit-. Since the League of
Cambray, he had always been powerfully aided by /
or Spain, or rather, had never made War hut at ano-
ther's expence. His Allies were neccfl'anly obliged to
find him Men or Money, otherwife they might be fore
" Bifhop 0. London, or any other Bifliop the King fhould he would quickly change fides. Since he had left France
" pleaie to nominate, to inquire into the matter; and if the Spanijh Troops had done all in the War with Ve-
nice, and the King of Arragon, with all his policy, was
not able to difpenfe with acting for him. It is not there-
fore furprifing that he was fo difficult, when a Peaie was
on foot, or ufed his endeavours to inflame the divifions
among the Princes.

As for King Ferdinand, fince he was become matter '< k^gf
of Navarre, it was his intereft to imbroil affairs, and A " j s ua>
cherifh in Italy, the hopes and fears of the feveral Parties,

it was found, James had fhown any ligns of repentance
" before his death, he gave him power to abfolve him :
" That however the abfolution fhould ferve for no o-
" thcr purpofe than his interment in Holy Ground.
'• Moreover, he ordered the Bifhop to injoin the King
" of England to undergo fome convenient or fuitable
" penance in the name of the deceafed King. "

Among many remarks that might be made on this

Brief, I fhall confine myfelf to this one. There was no to make himfelf necellary, and that a Peace might not

declaration of War between James and Henry before be concluded without him. He thereby tried to hinder

James's Letter dated the 1 6th of July, and received the Lewis from thinking of Navarre, and hoped at laft to

1 zth of Augujl, nor anyjioftility committed before the come to a Treaty which fhould leave him in quiet pof-

1 2d of Augujl, when Jama entered England. So the
King of Scotland cannot be faioho have violated the Truce
till that time. Now, he died the 9th of September ex-
communicated by the Cardinal of Tori, who was then
Ambaffador at Rome. Hence I think it may be infer-
red, that the Cardinal had excommunicated James without

feffion of his Conqueft. For that reafon, he "aded all
forts of parts, in order to attain his ends. One while, he
affifted the Emperor againft the Venetians, another while,
he follicited him in their favour. Sometimes he excited
the Pope and Switzers not to fuffer the King of France
to become matter of Milan ; and fometimes he offered
knowing the caufe, or hearing his reafons, and probably to affift the fame Prince to conquer that Duchy. This
upon a bare Letter fent him by Henry, that the King of was only deceit and artifice to preferve a diffention fo ad-
Scotland intended to break the Peace ; I fay, he only in- Vantagious to him. However, his policy be^an to fail
tended to break the Peace, fince there is no likelihood that him. - He had fo forfeited his reputation witlwefperft to
from the zzd of Augujl, when James entered England, fmcerity, that he was no longer trufted. It was merely
to the 9th of September, the day of his death, the Cardi- out of neceflity, or from a delire to breed fufpirion in their
nal, who was at Rome, could have been informed of the enemies, that the reft of the Sovereigns made any Trea-
afrual rupture, and proceeded to ah Excommunication, ties with him, which, they were fenfible-, they could not
I fay nothing of the fuppofition that James, flain on the rely on.

fpot, thowed any figns of contrition, efpecially as it was Henry VIII had with glory got clear of his firft Cam- Hcnr)Viir.
even uncertain whether the Body they would have inter- pain, but plainly faw himfelf indebted for his aood fuc-
red, was the King of Scotland's. I pafs over likewife cefs to Lewis's paflion, who had neglected the defence of
the limitation fet to the abfolution, that it fhould ferve his own Kingdom, by fending his belt Troops to recover
only for burying the dead Prince in Holy Ground, and Milan. The truth is, Henry, depending upon the Trea-
the Penance enjoined a living Perfon in the name of a ty of Mechlin, and the diversions, his A?lies were to make
dead one. Every Reader may make what reflexions he in feveral Provinces of Frame, had led into that Kin" -
thinks proper on thefe things. dom not above five and twenty thoufand Men ; too weak

Such being the fituation of the affairs of Europe at the an Army to give him hopes of great advantages, had he
end of the year 1513, it is not furprifing that the defigns been to deal with all the Forces of his enemy. For-
and interefts of the Princes fhould be different from what faken as he was by the Pope, the Emperor, the Kin" of
they were in the beginning of the fame year. It is Arragon, how would he have difingaged himfelf, if Lew
therefbre necellary, before we enter upon the recital of is XII had refolved to defer his Milan expedition to ano-
the events of the year 151.)., to mention how the chief ther time, and march all his Troops into Picardy ?

Thus Henry fhould have confidered, and in effect did
confider, that he was more indebted for the Victory of
Guinegajle, and the taking of Terouenne and Tourney, to
the circumftances of the time than to his prudence or
valour. He was therefore inclined to get clear of an af-
King of Arragon, and Switzers, were equally concerned fair, he had indifcreetly embarked in," without flattering
to oppofe it. And yet, as they had alfo their feparate himfelf any longer with the imaginary affiftance of his
interefts, he thought it would not be impoffible to divide Allies. It was ncceflary however to conceal his inclina-
them, by offering to each apart, or at leaft to fome of tion, in order to draw from France advantagious conditi-
them, advantages as great as thofe they could naturally ons in a Treaty. Such was the pofture of affairs in the
expect from their Union. Befides, he hoped, in treating beginning of the year 1514. But before I fpeak of thole lr ■ , r
with each in particular, to breed jealosies and fufpicions of England in particular, it is requisite to fhow what i:i\.""
among them, which would induce them to make halte fteps were taken by the Princes concerned in the troubles Gj '«'«*-
and treat with him for fear of being deferted. He had of Italy, becaufe that was then the chief point, on which
the more hopes of fucceeding this way, as molt of the all the other affairs did depend.

Princes with whom he was in War, were not over fcru- Leo X, being alarmed at the Negotiation, Lewis XII Uo x &;■
pulous, but rather very ready to facriricc their Allies to had renewed with the Emperor, concerning the marriage " >

ttt French

(l) fhll uffi n-s, that it wa; found by Tfae Lord Dnerts, and (howed to Sir William S<ott, King Jamei'% Chancellor, i'i to Sir J'A: F;r*ir. his z e

-Pnrrr, who knew him at firlt fi°ht. fol. 43.
(») -t'.in fays, it was conveyed to i'cW Monaftery in Surrey; and further adds, that he had feen it ther', after the BiflilUtion cf that Monaftery p. 1
wrapped in Lead, thrown into a largs room, amongrt aid Timber, stone, Lcid, and other rubbiih. p. 494,

No 37. V o 1.. I. 8 X f

r ; 1 4.

[firare/h and
Vtevn r,f

the I rincet

»/ Europe.

Sovereigns flood affected.
T-rwU XII. Lewis XII burned with defire to recover Genoa and
Milan. But he perceived, that to fucceed in that defign,
the Allies muft be divided, otherwife there was not even
a poffibility of undertaking it. The Pope, Emperor,



The H I S TO RY of E N G L A N D. Vol. I.

Of P.enie his fecond Daughter, ufed all poffible endeavours
to reconcile the Sivitzers to France, that Lewis might
be the lefs inclined to treat with the Emperor and the
Kino; of Arragcn. But he wifhed that Lewis would ra-
tify the capitulation of Dijon as to what concerned the
Duchy of Milan ; and on the other hand, exhorted the
Switzers to be fatisfied with a lefs fum than was promif-
ed by la Trimouille. This was the plan he had formed
for that reconciliation. In fhort, he had fo far gained his
point, that the King of France had offered a Truce for
three years, without however departing from his preten-
tions to Milan , and many of the principal Sivitzers
were fatisfied with it. But it was not poffib[e to perfwade

cefs of the War was a perpetual obftacle to his projected 1514..
agreement, palled a provilional Sentence, ordering that
both Parties fhould lay down their arms : That the Em-
peror mould depofite in his hands, Vicenza, and what-
ever was poffefled by the Spaniards in the Terrilsries of
Padua, and Trcvifo : That the Venetians fhould do the
like with regard to Crema, and pay down to the Empe-
ror fifty thoufand Ducats : But that this provifional agree-
ment fhould be deemed void, if the two Parties fhould
not think proper to ratify it ; but in ca<e they approved
of it, he promifed to pronounce a definitive Sentence
within a year. The Venetians did not think proper to rejcficdby
ratify the Sentence, being perfwaded that, in their pre- '*<■ Vene-

prolong* the

-jrute With

Lewis XII.

Art. Pub.

•lie f -ft
jlmjes to
make Peace
between the

that People to abate any thing of the Capitulation of fent Circumftances, a Truce was much more prejudicial
Dijon. They even debated whether they mould make than the continuation of the War. Thus the Pope's pains
a fecond incurfion into France, to revenge the breach of were ineffectual,
that Treaty. Thus the Pope's pains were fruitlefs, and
the Switzers ltill remained mortal enemies to France.

Ferdinand having advice of what was tranfacting in
Switzerland, was afraid of being deferted, whether Lewis
gave up his claim to Milan, or the Switzers accepted
The Truce he offered them. So, without communicating
any thing to his Allies, he fpeedily fent ghcintana his
Secretary to Paris, who renewed for a year the Truce
with France upon the fame foot with the former. Only
by a fecret Article, Leivis promifed not to invade the

Milanefe this year. In the publication of the Truce in
France, there was no mention of Milan. But Ferdinand

published it in Spain with that Article ; fo that the World

was at a lofs to know what to think of the matter.

Lewis made no fcruple to prolong the Truce, becaufe he

could not undertake to invade Milan and Navarre before

he had made a Peace with England. Befides, he was

very glad the World fhould think, the Truce, he had

prolonged with the King of Arragon, would be followed

by a Peace.

This was a very natural Confequence, and probably, it

inclined Henry feriouily to think of a Peace. But on

the other hand, Leivis was going to receive a great pre-

Ibt Pop? 1




Such was the fituation of the affairs of
Italy during the year 15 14. We muft fee now what
palled in England.

Henry, at his return from his glorious Campain, Pariiamat
thought only of Mirth and Diverfions. The Parliament in England.
however met the 3d of 'January, but there was nothing Hcrllert '
done of any moment with refpect to the publick affairs (1).
Before the end of the Sefllon, the King gave the Earl of -The Earl ,f
Surrey, the title of Duke of Norfolk, which his Father Surrt y <"*■
had enjoyed, and loft with his Life at Bofworth-field, N or fJ^ °*
fighting for Richard III (2). By this change, Thomas Charles
Howard Son and Heir of the new Duke, became Earl of B«ndon
Surrey. Charles Brandon Vifcount Lifle, one of the King's sJftolk.
Favorites, was alfo created Duke of Suffolk ; and Charles Act. Pub.
Somerfet, Earl of Worcejler. Margaret of York, Daugh- pj" f -38 '*
ter of the Duke of Clarence, Brother of Edward W , ob- Margaret of
tained likewife the title of Countefs of Sarum, as Heir clarence
to the Earl of Warwick her Brother, beheaded by Hen- ^"" e f ! '/

"17-TT 1 \ Salisbury.


Thomas Wolfey had now been fome months Prime Mi- Thomas
nifter, without receiving other particular marks of his Wolfey r'i
mailer's favour. But Wolfey was not forgetful of himfelf. m f d ^J^ p
The Bifhoprick of Lincoln being vacant, he fo ordered, p . 330—'
that the King demanded it for him of the Pope, who had 394-
ingroffed the Collations of all the Sees, by anticipated
refervations. Shortly after, Leiuis Guillard BifJhop of an d Admi-
Tournay, negle£ting to repair to his Bifhoprick, fince the "ff?"' /
City was in the hands of.^pe King of England, the Pope Touma).
readily fuppofed he had quitted his See, and gave the Ad- ?■ 584-
miniftration thereof to Thomas Wolfey, both in Temporals
and Spirituals. This was fuddenly and almoft at once
a great addition to the new Favourite's Income. Leo X,
not expecting much, either from the Emperor, or the
King of Arragon, eafily perceived, he might want the
King of England. In order to gain his protection, he had
difpofed of the Sees of Lincoln and Tournay in favour of
Wolfey, to win him to his Intereft, by prefents which coft
him nothing. But after having fatisfied the Favourite,
he mult teftify by fome mark of diftin£tion, his efteem
for the matter. To that purpofe, he fent him a Sword <n, e p c p e
and a Hat, confecrated on Chrijlmas-day , which the fends Henry
Popes were wont to prefent to Princes or Generals who am >ficrattd
had obtained fome fignal Victory over the Enemies of the //„,.
Church. p- 393.

Whilft the Pope, Emperor, and King of Arragon, " ali :
were labouring to accomplifh their projects, Lewis XII „,„«„„„
was not unmindful of his own affairs (4). Among all Kisser of Peace
He knew, if it fucceeded, the King of France enemies, none gave him fo much uneafinefs as the King ^ "™ iy *

of England, chiefly for two reafons. Firlt, Henry was Herbert,
young, greedy of glory, rich in ready Money, and more- Stow.
over always fure of Supplies from his Parliament, efpecially
in cafe of a war with France. Secondly, the Diverfion
he could and did make in Picardy, by means of Calais,
rendered all Lewis's future projects in Italy abortive. He
thereby kept the Forces of France fo divided, that it
was almoft impoffible to afTift one another in cafe of Ac-
cident. Thus, it was the King of France's great Intereft
to remove this Thorn from his Side, otherwife he could
not undertake to recover Genoa and Milan. Accordingly,
he had been very ferioufly endeavouring it, ever fince the
end of the laft Campain, by the Miniftry of Lewis of
Orleans Duke of Longueville, taken Prifoner at the Battle
of Guinegajle. It was this private Ambaflador who, in
his frequent Converfations with Henry, laboured by de-
grees to open his Eyes, by fhowing him how little he

Emperor and mdice by it, in that the Pope to break his meafures with

Venetians, re fp e ct to Milan, laboured with all his power to procure

bimUm?in a Peace between the Emperor and the Venetians. He

of their dif- delired above all things, for the good of his See, of all

fences. j ( , an j f n imfdf, that the French fhould never more

Gu,cc.ard. ^ foot ^ ^ Whilft t ] ie French were in poffeffion

of the Milanefe, Italy had never been free from troubles,

the Popes had been lefs regarded than before, and the

Florentines had preferved their Liberty. Thefe were fuf-

ficient reafons to make the Pope wifli, they might never

return. Befides, he had formed projects for raifing his

Family, which their neighbourhood might obftrucl. One

great means to attain his ends, was, to deprive Lewis XII

of the ailiftance of the Venetians, which would infallibly

happen, if it was polTible to find fome Expedient to make

their Peace with the Emperor. Laft year the Venetians,

preffed by the Spanijh Army, had agreed to make the

Pope Umpire, and the Emperor had accepted him. But

the affair had lain dormant ever fince. Prefently after

Ferdinand's renewing of the Truce with Lewis XII, the

Pope fearinT a Peace would be concluded between the two

Monarchs, at the expence of the Duchy of Milan, ftrove

to renew the Negotiation between the Emperor and the


would in vain expc£t the affiftance of the Republick to
conquer Milan. In fhort, with much Solicitation, he
obtained from both Parties an ingagement to ftand to his
arbitration, and to give him power to fettle the Terms of
the Peace as he fhould think fit. However, by a writing
under his own hand, he promifed not to pronounce Sen-
tence without both their confents.
DiKcM* It was vei 7 difficult to make this Peace, becaufe the
'file Peace. War (till continuing in the State of Venice and Friuli, the
leaft Succefs was fufficent to caufe the Parties to rife or
fall in their demands. When the Venetians found them-
felvcs preffed, they very willingly agreed, that the Em-
peror fhould keep Verona ; but then Maximilian would
have alfo Vicenza, Padua, and Trcvifo. When his affairs
were not profperous, he was ready to leave them thefe three
places, but then they could not think of making Peace
without Verona. Thus the Pope, finding the various Suc-


(1) In this Parliament it was enafted, That Surgeons (hould be difcharged of ConftabWhip, Ward, bearing of Arms, and of all Enquefts and
Juries ; by reafon of the continual Service and Attendance they give day and night, and at all hours, to their Patients.

(2) For his memorable Viflory over the Scot: at Flodden, he had a fpecial Grant from the King to himfelf and the Heirs male of his Body, of
an hororable Augmentation to his Arms; namely, to bear on the Bend thereof the upper half of a Red Lyon, (painted as the Arms of Scotland
are) pierced through the mouth with an Arrow. He was created Duke of ftcrjolk. Fit. I. 1513-14. His Father derived his Defcent (by the
Heirs femjle of Mowbray and Seagrave ) from •Thomas Brothvton, Son to King Edward\. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. U. p- 26S.

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