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Cardinal, to incline the Venetians to Peace. But thefe who could not indure a fuperior. During the late King's

fearing the Pope was laying a fnate for them, to take off life, he had been Prefident of the Marches bordering

the King from their Alliance, gave him immediate infor- upon England, where he had committed fuch outrages,


Prcjeels fi/r
bis llwfe.


Lewis pre

mation, and thereby rendered him very jealous of his
1 «J> Leo X was forming at that time grand projects in fa-
vour of Julian de Medici his Brother. His defign was
to become matter of Ferrara and Urbino, and to join thefe
two States to Parma, Placentia, Reggio, and the City
of Modena, lately purchafed of the Emperor, in order to
calt them into one State for this Brother, of whom he
had a mind to make a great Prince. Nay, it is faid,
he intended to add the Kingdom of Naples ; and to make
that Conqueft, had joined in a League with the Veneti-
ans. But as he faw the King of France would quickly
invade the Milanefe, he (hewed great tegard for him,
left he fhould make an enemy of a Prince, who, if he
came to be poflefled of Milan, would have it in his
power to obftrudt his defigns. Mean while, Lavis not
being pleafed with the Pope, prefled him to declare him-
felf, refolving to know for certain whether he was to
confider him as a friend, or an enemy. Leo, who per-
ceived his intent, amufed him with fair words, without
however being determined, becaufe his purpofe was to
regulate his conduct by the events of the War, he forelkw.
This did not hinder Lewis from vigoroufly continuing

that as fome fay, for fear of being called to an account,
he killed or caufed to be killed James IV, when he was
retiring out of the Battle of Floddon. However this be, TliDthcf
Hume ufed all his intereft to break Douglafs and the ^?j£
Queen's meafures, and propofed John Stewart Duke of^.er.
Albany for Regent. This Duke was Son of Alexander
Duke of Albany, Brother of James III, who to avoid the
Perfections of the King his Brother, was forced to fly into
France, where he died. He left there this Son, who being
married, and adhering to the Service of Lnuis XII ( 1 ).
had received many favours from that Monarch, and ac-
quired a great reputation. Though he had never been in
Scotland, he was however the young King's neareft Rela-
tion, and Hume had intereft enough to have him declared
Regent. Whereupon the States fent Deputies to offer
him the Regency, and to pray him to come inftantly and
govern the Realm in the King's name. Lewis XII dying
whilft thefe things were in agitation, Francis I, his Suc-
ceflbr, having great reafons not to difpleafe the King of
England, would not fufFcr the Duke of Albany to depart
till he had finifhed his affairs with Henry. For this caufe
the Regent arrived not in Scotland before May 15 ij.
During this interval, Scotland being without a Governor,

fans " t*f' the necefiary preparations for his expedition into Italy, the Diflenfions among the great Men much increafed

'h< kh fie where he intended to go in Perfon the next fpring. But every one having time to form his Cabals againft the Re-

Lanthotn at whilft he was thinking of means to relieve the Lanthorn- gent's Arrival.

Tr.„„ r wliVK h» fliii uj if /?,.„,„ ,,„i hv tlio heln fhe firft day of the year 1 5 1 5 was the laft of Lewis XII's

Affairs if




Tower, which he ftill held at Genoa, and by the help
whereof, hoped to become mailer of the City, he re-
ceived the news that it was furrendered by capitulation,
and immediately razed by the Genoefe. However, this
was not capable to deter him from his defigns upon

Before I clofe the year 1514, it will not be unfervice-
able briefly to relate what palled in Scotland this year.
James IV left two Sons, of whom the eldeft, called after
his own name, was not yet full two years old. By a
Will, made before he took the Field, he left the Regency


fife (2). But the death of that Prince made no alteration Out* if
in the fituation of the affairs of the Kingdom. The Duke i^K"?^
of Valots, who fucceeded him by the name of trancis I, King cf
plainly difcovered, by adding the title of Duke of Milan France.
to that of King of France, that he intended to purfue his ™"' nu
Predeceflbr's defigns. Meanwhile, he did not think fit Cuiccjri
openly to declare his intentions, till he had fettled his af-
fairs both abroad and at home.

By the death of Lewis XII, Queen Alary his Widow The S^m
was at liberty to difpofe of herfelf, and to follow her own P"T*£ l f
of the Kingdom after his death to his Queen, Sifter of inclinations rather than the politick views of the King her „«*'*„ rr)

Ddlc cf

-.nJ Admiral, Charles Smurfet Earl ct H r reefer, Tlvmat D:c-a.'ra Prior of St. Jebn's of JeruJtUm, Dr. Nittlci U'efl, Dun of Wir.dfr ; the Lords De!aviar, Hill.
Barnert t Konteaglei Sir Maurice Barklcy, Sir John Peebt, Sir William Sattdgs, Sir 'Thomas Bulleyn, &c. Rymer, Tom. XIII. p. 449. Baff, fol. 4S. She Scow,
embarked Qel.ber 2. After the Ceremony was over, all her Retinue were difmiiTed, except a tew Officers and Attendants, amon^rt whom, lass the Lord Herbert*
Herbert, was Mrs. Ar.n Bulky*, Daughter to Sir Thomas Bulleyu. Burnet's Ref. Tom. I. p. 43, 44. Before the Coronation was over, there were fotemn
Jufh and Tournaments held at Paris, by Francis de Vahis, Heir to the Crown, at which the Duke of Sujfdk, and the Marquils of Dsrfet came off with Ho-
nour. The King and Queen of France were Spectators J but the King was fo old and infirm, that he lay on a Couch. The Duke of Vakil out of envy t
caufed, it feems, a German of prodigious ftrength and lizc, to be privately introduced into the Field, in order to eppore the Duke of S-affM, who, thwMgh with
great difficulty, got the better of the German. Hcr&eit, p. 21. Hall, fol. 48, 49. Sine; p. 495.

(1) Lewis, when Doke of Orleans, killed the Duke his Father at a Tournament. Rapin,

(z) He died (lays the Lor.i lUrbert) after eighty days poireliion rather than enjoying of his Queen, leaving behind him no IiTue male, though otherwife of
that Efteem among his Subjects, for his care nut to oprrefs them with Impoutiens longer than his Neceiiiucs recuncd, that he was called Father cf bis Pespie,
p. 22. Sttiv, p. 496.

No. 37. Vol. I.




the H IS fO RT of ENGLAND.

Vol. I.


in England.




■:: Miami
France ard
England re-
ntite t
Du Bcllai.
Act. Pub.
. 47"-

p. 476.

jeeh Henry':
p. 49+.

Brother. Before her Marriage, fhe had conceived an
affection for Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, a moft ac-
complifhed Lord. It is even laid, the King had promifed
to marry her to him. But Lewis XII coming in the
way, and her Marriage with that Prince being to make
the Seal of the Peace between France and England, fhe
was under a necefilty to facrifice her love to the good of
the two Kingdoms. The Duke of Suffolk however wait-
ed upon her into France, though he was not of the num-
ber of thole who were appointed to conduct her. Mt-
xerai fays, the Duke of I'ahis, prefumptive Heir to the
Crown of France, caufed that Englijh' Lord to be nar-
rowly watched, for fear he fhould give the King a Suc-
ceflbr. This fhews that the Queen's inclination was no
l'ecret. The death of Lewis XII happening within three
months after his Marriage, the Queen Dowager was not
willing to run a fecond hazard, of being given to an-
other Husband not of her own chufing. Henry fufpecting
her deftgn, writ to her the beginning of February, deliring
her net to marry again without his participation. But the
Queen believed it would be eafier to obtain the King's par-
don when the thing was done, than his permiffion to do
it(i). So, in March, about two months after the death
of Lewis XII, fhe was privately married to the Duke ot
Suffolk. Next day, fhe fent word of it in a Letter to
the King her Brother, and taking the whole blame upon
herfelf, intimated to him that fhe had in fome meafure
forced the Duke to this rafh action. Henry fecmed at
firft very angry, but his anger was foon over. Their Peace
being made, they returned to Henry, and were very well
received (2).

The Parliament was then fitting (3), and as England
was in profound Tranquillity, the Houfes were only
employed in domeftick affairs, which are of little or no
conlequence to Foreigners. There were however three
Statutes palled this Seffion which deferve notice. It was
provided by the firft, That unwrought Wool fhould not
be exported out of the Kingdom, for the encourage-
ment of the Woollen Manufacture. This Act has been
often revived by reafon of its importance, and yet even
now, an effectual means is wanting to prevent the clan-
deftine exportation of Wool. The fecond Statute declared
all the King's fecond Letters Patents to be void, unlefs
mention was made of the firft. This was to prevent
the King from being furprized. The third was no lefs
neceflary. It frequently happened that towards the end of
a Seffion feveral Members went home, imagining, there
was nothing more of moment to be done. Then the
Factious took advantage of their abfence, to propofe and
pafs fuch Bills as probably would have been thrown out,
had the Houfe been more numerous. It was therefore
enacted, That the Members who abfented themfelves be-
fore the end of the SeiTion, without the Speaker's and
Commons leave, to be entred in the Clerk of the Par-
liament's Book, fhould lofe their Wages (4). I muft
now interrupt for fome time the recital of domeftick,
to fpeak of foreign affairs, which are to ferve for foun-
dation to what will hereafter be laid with refpect to Eng-

Francis I was too much concerned to renew the Al-
liance between France and England, to fail of perform-
ing the Article of the Treaty, whereby the Succeffbr of
him that died firft, was to acquaint the other whether
he defigned to prolong the time of the Alliance. As he
intended to pafs into Italy to recover the Duchy of
Milan, it was abfolutely neceflary to fecure the King of
England. To that purpofe, about the middle of March,
he fent to the firft Prefident of Roan, his Ambaffador at
London, a Commiffion to renew the Alliance with Henry,
as well as the bond for the payment of the Million, to
which Lewis XII was obliged. This was done by a new
Treaty, figned the 5 th of April, and exa&ly like the

After all the frauds ufed by the King of Arragon to
Henry, there was no room to hope for a perfect friend-
Ihip between them. However, Ferdinand, who was not
ealily difcouraged, fent to the King his Son-in-law a new

Ambaffador, to propofe the renewing of their Alliance. 1515.
It is likely, he did not believe, Henry had fo foon forgot
his deceits, but it was for his intereft that he fhould be
known to have an Ambaffador in England. This Am- His Amhrf-
baflador arrived in May, but was fuffered to wait in vain '";' ' ,
till Oclobcr without being difpatched : Nay, very proba- a idlr.
My he would never have fucceeded in his Negotiation, if
IVolfeys interefts had not caufed the King to alter his refo-
lution, never to have any thing to do with the King his
Father-in-law. I fhall fpeak more fully of this affair in
another place.

Whilft the SpaniJIi Ambaffador was waiting in vain at Henry r^x
London, Henry had two at Brujfls, who made no greater " *f "-
progrefs. He had not dealt very gallantly with the charts rh
young Archduke, in giving the Princefs his Bride to Arcbduh.
Lewis XII, without any Ceremony. Indeed, Charles
had not repaired to Calais the 5th of May lall year, as
he was bound by the Treaty of Lijle : but it could not
thence be inferred, he had renounced his Marriage, at
leaft before he was asked, whether he intended to con-
fummate it. Henry was afraid therefore, the Archduke,
having lately affumed the Government of the Low-Coun-
tries, and made a Treaty with France, would think ot
revenging the Affront put upon hiin. So, in order to
found him, or prevent the effects of his refentment, he
fent two Ambaifadors (5) to propofe the renewing of the
former Alliance between Henry X' 11, and Philip!, their
Fathers. But thefe Ambaifadors were fuffered to wait a Hit AmM-
eood while at Bru/Iels, without being much regarded, or . M "' J " ■■' * ' *

6 . . r M ' received.

receiving any anlwer. p . 4o6 _

The affairs of Europe were then in a fituation, which Francis I.
would not allow the young Archduke to ingage in any f'''^ ar ""
Party. It was neceflary, in order to take jult meafures, Milan,
to wait the Succefs of the war, Francis I was preparing Guicc'urf.
to carry into Italy. In all appearance, it would produce p^Sj^Jj
Events capable of altering the Interefts and Projects of
moft of the Sovereigns. Since Francis's Acceflion to the
Crown, he had fuffkiently fhewn that he intended not
to fuffer Maximilian Sforza peaceably to enjoy the Duchy
of Milan. On the other hand, the King of Arragon
was under apprehenfions for Naples and Navarre. Francis I
was a young Prince, full of Courage and Ambition, and
it could not be doubted that he had formed great pro-
jects. So the Eyes of all were upon him, to fee in what
manner he would begin his Reign. He was making pre-
parations, which difcovered he had fome great defign in his
thoughts, and did not take much pains to conceal that he
had Alilan in view. Mean while, he ufed for pretence
of his Armament, the Invafion Burgundy was threaten-
ed with by the Switzers. But the League he had lately Cuicciard.
renewed with Venice, and his offer to Ferdinand to pro-
long the Truce, provided the fecret Article concerning
the Milanefe was annulled, were plain Indications of his

All this was not fufficient to make Ferdinand perfectly Ferdinand
eafy. He was afraid of being deceived by Francis, and /•"■* "
that his preparations were intended for Navarre. To agalnft
prevent this danger, he rejected Francis's offer, and withal France,
made ufe of it to induce the Emperor and Switzers to Cttltcl " i
join with him for the defence of the Milanefe, intimating
there was no room to quellion, that the King of France
would turn his Arms that way. As for the Emperor, he
did not want much Sollicitation. He readily entered into
all forts of Leagues, becaufe he ever found means to
thrive at another's expence. There was more difficulty
with regard to the Switzers, becaufe Francis had among
them Adherents, who endeavoured to diffuadf them from
the League. But his Enemies prevailed in the end (6),
and the League was concluded between the Emperor,
the King of Arragon, the Duke of Milan, and the Swit-
zers. Ferdinand played one of his ufual artifices upon
this occafion. He perfuaded the Switzers, that to de-
fend the Milanefe, the fhorteft way was to attack the
King of France in his own Kingdom. For that purpofe,
he engaged to make a powerful diverfion on the fide of
Fontarabia, whilft the Switzers fhould invade Burgundy,
and the Emperor, by continuing the war in the State of

(1) The Lord Herbert fays, (he writ before her Marriage to the King her Brother, protefting, that if he would have her married in any place, fave where
her mind was, (he would /hit herl'elf up in fome religious Houfe. She let the Duke of Suffilt but the Ipacc of four days to obtain her good-will, and told
him, if he could not do it in that time, he (hould be out of all hopes of enjoying her, p. 21.

(2) He, with Sir Richard Wingfield and Dr. Weft, were deputed K> carry over Henry's Letters of Condolance to the Queen, and had not been long at Paris,
before he made his Addreffes to her. They arrived the fecond of May, and were publickly married on the thirteenth at Greenwich. The CJuten ( fay the French)
carried with her in Jewels, Plate, and Tapeftry of Lewis XII, to the value of two hundred thoufand Crowns : Among!* which was a gi eat Diamond called
le Mimr de Naples, which Francis would lain have redeemed at a great Price. Mrs. Ann BuUcyn iUid behind in the French Court. Herbert, p. 22.

(3) It met February 5. See Statute-BcL

(4) Thele Wages were levied by the Sheriffs, and the moft ancient Writs for Knights Wages extant are thofe of 2%, =9, 31 of Edward 1. The firft Statute
concerning them is, that of 12 Richard II ; namely, That the levying cf the Exfences of Knights Jhall ie, as hath been ujed before this time. The Wages in this
Reign were four Shillings a day for Knights uf the Shire, and two Shillings at leaft for Burgeffes, befides the Charccs of going and coming, and Fees for Writs,
®f\ " Jn this Parliament there was alio another Statute made, importing, That wheraas divers Felons and Muttherers did, upon feigned and untrue Sur-
mifes, get themfelves removed into the King's Bench, and could not by order of Law be remitted and feist down to the Jufticcs of Goal-delivery : That there-
fore tor the future, the Jullices of the King's Bench (hall have full power and authority, to remand and fend down the Bodies ur Indictments of all Felons and
Alurtherers, into the Counties, where the Murthers ur Felonies were committed. Stat. 6 Henry VIII. c. 6.

(5) Sh Edward Paymngs, and Dr. William Knight. Rymcr's Ford. Tom. XIII. p. 496.

(oj The reft of the Confederates engaged to pay them thirty thoufand Ducats a Months. Citistiard. 1. 12.


Book XV.



1 us.

tt-r Switaers

Francis f>af-
fis mm Italy.


The Switzers

tUir Milics.


^jr'«j the
Battle of

Genoa is
fubjedcd to

Leo X makes
bis Peace


Henry is
engaged in
nfw troubles,

Venice, hinder the Venetians from aflifting the common
Enemy. His chief aim was to defend Navarre, in cafe
Francis I had thoughts of turning his arms that way, and
then to hinder that Prince from becoming mafter of the
Duchy of Milan. His League with the Switzers was
equally fubfcrvient to both thefe ends. For if Francis I
invaded Navarre, the Switzers would divert him from his
purpofe, by making an inroad into Burgundy. But if he
really intended to conquer Milan, the Switzers, as next
Neighbours, and molt concerned, could not difpenfc with
aflifting that Duchy. What Ferdinand had forefeet), came
to pafs. Francis having ordered his Forces to file oft' to-
wards the Alps, the Switzers lent their Troops into Italy,
where they feized the two Partes, through which only it
was thought poflible to enter the Alilanefe. When Ferdi-
nand was affined the King of France was marching towards
Milan, he disbanded the Army levied for the defence of
Navarre, leaving the Alilanefe to be taken care of by the
Switzers. The very army Ferdinand had in Italy, under
the Command of the Viceroy of Naples, made no motion
to join them. The Emperor remained without acting at
Infpruck. Leo X, who had alio entered into the League,
gave them no fort of Afliftance. Thus the whole burden
ef the War fell upon the Switzers, without even the
other Allies fending a penny of the Money that was pro-
mifed them. But this was not ftrange. The Switzers
were no more exempted than the King of England, and
fo many other Princes whom Maximilian and Ferdinand
had ferved in the fame manner.

Mean while, Francis I, having found means to march
his Army through a place which fcemed impracticable (1),
the Switzers who guarded the Partes retired to Milan, and
Francis advanced alfo towards the fame City. When he
approached, he offered the Switzers a Sum of Money to
return home. This Negotiation was now in great for-
wardnefs, when they received a Supply of fifteen thoufand
Men of their Nation. This aid rendering them more
ftout, they refolved, by the Suggeftions of the Cardinal of
Sion, immediately to attack Francis, who lay encamped
at Marignano, little expecting their coming. They were
defeated, and ten thoufand flain on the fpot. After which,
they retired into their Country, leaving Francis mafter of
all the Milancfe. Maximilian Sforza, who had fhut him-
felf up in the Caftle of Milan, furrendered it by Capi-
tulation, and was fent into France, to live as a private

Before Francis I began his Expedition, Oclavian Fre-
gofa had brought Genoa under the Dominion of France,
and inftead 0/ Doge, ftiled himfelf Governor for the

Leo X had been in hopes that Francis would never be
able to enter Italy. He had joined in the League againft
him, but fo privately, that Francis knew nothing of it
till he came to Verceil. During the time between the
King's arrival in Italy, and the battle of Marignano, the
Pope was under great perplexities. He had fent an Army
into Lombardy, to fupport the Duke of Milan. But when
he heard Francis had furmounted the difficulties of the
Paffage, he fent orders to Lorenzo de Medici who com-
manded his army, to commit no Hoftilities againft the
French. At the fame time, he told the King, his army
was there only to guard Parma and Placentia. Mean
while, as the affair of Milan was not yet decided, he durft
rot make too many advances to the King, for fear of dif-
pleafing the Allies, who would have it in their power to
he revenged , if the King happened to be vanquifhed.
But, after the battle of Marignano, he was immediately
reconciled with him, and though he had grievoufly offend-
ed him, obtained however advantages which he could
fcarce have expected, had he taken his part from the begin-
ning. The Popes make Leagues, and undertake Wars
as temporal Princes, and when their affairs do riot profper,
difintangle themfelves as Heads of the Church, and Vicars
of Jefus Chrift. Though Leo X's behaviour to Francis
was fuch, that he deferved no favour from that victorious
Prince, he obtained however whatever he pleafed, and
among other things, the abolition of the Pragmatick Sanc-
tum, which the Popes his Predeceflbrs had hitherto in vain
demanded of the King of France (z).

Though Henry had not been able entirely to avoid the
Snares laid by the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of
Arragon, he had happily got clear, but with a firm refo-
lution never more to be thus over-reached. His affect-

*S ' S*

\ ■


ing not to mention them in his Treaty with France ,
plainly fhewed he did not much value their friendfhip.
But he was not fo fortunate as to perfift in this refolution,
fince it was his own fault that he engaged in a frefh War
with France, not fo much for his own, as the Inteseft of
others. His change may be afcribed to three feveral cau- Cmfaofit,
fes. The firft is, his Jealoufy of the glorious Succcf. of
Francis's arms in Italy. The fecund, to prevent the
growing power of that Neighbour. The third and prin-
cipal, IVolfey his Favorite's Intercft, who thinking to have
reafon to complain of the King of France would be reveng-
ed. The two firft need no farther Explanation. ' I 1
well known, that Princes are fubject to Paflions like other
Men, and that Jealoufy may induce them to run counter
to their Intereft. 'Tis known likewifc, that policy is as
it were the hinge on which almoft all their Actions turn.
But on this occafion, Henry proceeded upon a very wrong
policy, fince nothing was more capable of fecuring the
Peace of England, than the King of France\ Acquifitions
in Italy. The third caufe requires a more particular Ex-

Thomas IVolfey, Archbifhop of York, was Prime Mini
fter, and chief Favorite. But this does not fully exprcf,
the thing. It muft be added, that he fo abfolutcly go-
verned the King, that he turned him which way he pleaf-
ed. But he managed fo artfully, that the King alw;
fancied he took his own courfc, when he only followed
the Suggeftions of his Minifter. IVolfey had great Talents
for a perfon of his birth; but he had alfo great failings.
He was exceflively revengeful, greedy of Porteflions and
Honours, and intolerably proud. He no fooner favv him-
felf fixed in his mafter's favour, but l»e fought means to
remove from Court all thofe that gave him any Jealoufy
by the King's efteem for them. Richard Fox Bifhop of Hall.
Winchejler, the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, who had
been moft in favour, received fo many mortifications from
this imperious Prelate, that at length they quitted the
Court, not to be expofed to his Infults. Fox withdrew to
hisDiocefe the beginning of this year (3). The two Dukes
quickly followed (4), and Warham Archbifhop of Canter-
bury retired alfo at the end of the fame year. Thefe old
Minifters being thus removed, IVolfey became ftill more

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