M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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abfolute over the King, who hail only him to advife
with in his moft important affairs. The reft of the Privy-
Council were all the Favorite's Creatures. The Hiftorians
unanimoufly agree, that IVolf-y's Intereft was the fole rule
of the Counfels he gave the King, and as this Intereft
anfwered his reigning Paffions, Revenge, Greedinefs, Am-
bition, and Pride, the Reader muft not be furprized when
he fees him hereafter inducing the King to make fo many
falfe Steps.

Ever fince Francis I came to the Crown, he had been Fnncis I
thinking of recovering Tournay out of the hands of the " a ' !1 "'' "
Englifh. There had even parted in the beginning of the Tournay.
year a Treaty upon that fubject, but to no purpofe, be- Pol. vfrg.
caufe Henry demanded in exchange of Tournay, fome j? "i! c,t ; .
places in the neighbourhood of Calais (j), which Francis
did not think proper to grant him (6). But the greateft Wolfey is
difficulty came from IVolfey, who was far from advifing J& 4%
the King his mafter to refign Tournay, becaufe himfeU" Bi)
would have loft the Adminiftration of that Bifhoprick and
the Abby of St. Amand, which brought him a great Re-
venue. On the contrary, he had been very urgent with
Francis I, to beftow fome good Benefice on Lewis Guil-
lard Bifhop of Tournay, that he might fuffer him peace-
ably to enjoy his Adminiftration. Francis had promifed
him, but without intending to keep his word. Inftead of
aflifting him to keep the Adminiftration, he fecretly per-
fuaded the Bifhop to fue to the Pope for his reftoration,
and feconded his petition to the utmoft of his power. He
was of opinion, that when IVolfey ceafed to be Admini-
ftrator, the reftitution of Tournay would become much

Whilft Francis was ftill in France, employed in prepar-
ing for his Italian Expedition, the Pope, yet uncertain
of the Succefs of that Enterprize, did not much regard
the Bifhop's Sollicitations. But when he faw that Prince Herbert
mafter of Genoa, and entered the Milnnefe at the head of
a powerful array, he readily granted a Bull to GuilLird,
reftoring him to his Bifhoprick, and even allowing hire
to make ufe of the fecular Arm to obtain pofleftion. This
Bull, which facrificed the King of England's and hi> Mi-
nifter's Intereft, to thofe of the French King and tb,e Bi-

Bjh p of

[ ;rr.j).

(1) Between Mount Vifo, and Mount Cent's. Guicciard. 1. 12. Through the Valley of Barcchmae, Rcaue Sperviert, St. Pit, rjtrgatim, &c. P. Da.
Ttiei, Tom. VI. p. 351.

(2) See a full Account of thefe Tranfaftions in Biihop Burnet's Hifi. Ref. Tom. III. p. 8, &c.

(3) Upon his going away, he defired this only of the King, That be <would not fuffer the Servant to be greater than the Majier. To which the King
anfwered prefently, That it Jhould be bis care, that thofe ivbo lucre bis Subjects jbould obey, and net command. Herbert, p. 24.

(4) The Duke of Suffolk had borrowed large Sums of Money of the King, which he hoped would have been forgiven him ; but upon Wolfey's, calling
thofe that were indebted to the Crown to an account, the Duke withdrew from Court. Halt, Hollingjh. p. 839.

(5) The County of Guifnes or Ardrts. Herbert, p. 23.

(6) In May this year, King Henry few twelve hundred Carpenters and Mafons, and three hundred Labourers, to build a Ca(U» for the Defence of
Tiurnay. Stow, p. 497*

j fhop

73 2


Vol. I.

15 1 J. fliop of Toumav, would feem very ftrange, if the confide- Probably, under colour that his honour was concerned, he 1515,

ra'ety ic itb


ration of the time and circumftances did not make the rcprefented to him the neccflity of humbling the pride of

wonder ceafe. Leo X had given juft caufe to Francis to the French King,_ and uifinuated, how dangerous it was

complain of his Conduct, and faw that Monarch ready to

take pofleffion again of the Milanefe, and conclude a

Treaty with the Switzers in order to fend them back

into their own Country. It was therefore his Intereft to

appeafe him, by granting a favour he fo eagerly defired. may eafily be guefled , Maxi

Mean while, Henry was extremely offended at this Bull, ture-with joy. Befides that,

which reftored to the Bifhopiick of Tournay, a Prelate lies, he faw himfelf little able to preferve his Conquefts

who refufed to fwear Fealty to him, and on which the in Italy, he knew, which way foever he was treated with,

King of France and the Bifhop of Tournay might proceed he fhould always be furnifhed with Money. Whilft ll'ol- Henry „.

to raife a Sedition in the City. He therefore gave orders fey was projecting to negotiate with the Emperor, the "J^'f'^t

to his Ambaflador at Rome, to expoftulate with the Pope, Spanijb Ambaflador, who had heavily palled fome Months Fcriin™'

for England that France fhould grow too powerful. When Wolf.y
he had prepared Henry, he privately fent word to the "*"' pn
Emperor, that it would not be impoffible to difensatre ""? '£

r n ' n O c* t"C t.ir.pci jr .

the King his mafter from the interefts of France. It Herbert.

■imilian received this Over- Poi - v "&
beina: without aid and al-

and reprefent to him the confequences of his partiality.
Leo X could not help owning it. But at that very time
Francis gaining the battle of Marignano, and preparing to
make him feel the effects of his refentment, it was no
proper Seafon to incenfe him farther by revoking the Bull.

This convinced Wolfey that Francis was the real Author Amity.

at London, was looked upon at Court with a much Ad. Hub.
more favorable Eye. Nay, a Treaty was begun with X111 -_P- 5*o
him about renewing the alliance between England and Guicciaxi.
Spain, which being ended the 1 9th ol Oilober, contained
however only a confirmation of the antient Treaties of

of the Bifhop's reftoration. Mean while, the Pope, be

ing embarafied, chofe, upon the King of England's op-

poiition, to leave the affair undecided, by referring it to

the examination of two Cardinals, who, probably, were

ordered not to haften the conclufion. In the mean time,

Wolfey was uncertain whether he fhould keep the Bifhop-

rick of Tournay. And that was precifely what the King

of France wanted, that this uncertainty might induce the

felfilh Minifter to find fome Expedient to make himfelf requeft, or rather the Emperor's, feemed to him fo im

Mean while, the Emperor, willing to improve the pre- Emkiffy ,f
fent opportunity, fent to the King a Milanefe Ambafia- F "ncis
dor, to defire aid in the name of Francefco Sforza, who Hen"."
was in Germany, and had affirmed the title of Duke of He.birt.
Milan, ever fince Maximilian his Brother had refigned Pol> V "S-
his right to the King of France. Though Wolfey had
taken care to difpofe Henry . to a rupture with France, he
was not, it feems, fully determined. Francefco Sfrzu's

Francis pre.

to make
Wolfey a

amends, after which it was apparent, he would no longer
oppofe the refUtution of Tournay. At the fame tinit, to
preferve his friendfhip, which was very neceflary, by ica-
fon of his Credit with the King his mafter, he promifed
to afTift him in procuring a Cardinal's Cap. Wolfey was
extremely ambitious of that Dignity. After the death of

portant, that he defired to have the opinions of the Biflinp

of Winchejler, and the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk,

who to that intent were fent for to Court. The Council Henry ca'is

being met to debate upon this affair, Cardinal rWolJey'J""^"'

fpeaking firft, made a long Speech full of Refentment p i. viig.'

againft France, labouring to demonftrate how much it was Heib:rc.


Wbi taktl

revenge, and
finds Poly.

d jreVrr,:;! ::

the Tower.

Cardinal Bambridge, he was in hopes of fucceeding him for the intereft of England to oppofe her growing power (3).

T he Bifhop of Durham and all the new Counfellors ftrc-
nuoufly fupported the Cardinal's opinion. But the old ones
endeavoured to difluade the King from breaking the Peace
lately concluded with France, fince the new King had given
him no caufe, and advifed him rather to turn his arms

had promifed, had done him ill offices. Wolfey being in- againft Scotland. Henry, who was already prcpoflciTed, Hoary r<-

1 the Cardinalate, as well as in the Archbifhoprick of
York. He had even employed to follicite it in his name,
Cardinal Adrian de Corneto (1), the Pope's Collector in
England, under whom Polydore Virgil ferved as Sub-Col-
lecior. But Cardinal Adrian, inftead of ferving him as he

formed of it, was fo incenfed, that on fome flight pretence,
he committed Polydore to the Tcnccr. Then he caufed
the King to write to the Pope with his own hand, to de-
fire him to appoint another Collector m Cardinal Adrian's
room. The King's Letter was fo ftrong and paffionate,
that the Pope thought fit to comply with his requeft.
However in his Brief of advice, he told him, he knew very

Aft. Pub.
XIII. 0.515

a thing of fo little confequence. So Polydore came out
cf the Tower, where he had been about a year. This ill
Treatment was, doubtlefs, one of the reafons that induced
him to remember all the ill-qualities of Cardinal Wolfey,
in his Hiftory of England.

Wolfey II
made Cardi-
He perfifll ,n
bis deftgn to

be revenged

upzn the King
of France.
Pol. Vire.

took a middle way, infinuated, doubtlefs, by his Minifter :(""'" " "' A
And that was, privately to affift the Emperor and Fran- f r ,^, a ,jf r
ccfco Sforza (4). Whereupon, he fent orders to Pace{ 5), Poi.Virg.
his Ambaflador to Maximilian, to treat with them, and, *!'■*■ .
to promote the I reaty, returned him large turns of Mo-
ney (6). Thus was he gradually engaged, without fore-
feeing that thefe fteps muft neceffarily end in an open War,
well his anger againft Cardinal Adrian was inftilled into as Wolfey defired.
him by Wolfey. Mean while, Polydore Virgil continued There is in the Colletlion of the Publick Ails, a Paper, The D-,b
in the Tower, till at length Cardinal Julius de Medici, ihewing that the Cardinal did not forget himfelf in his "f M] } ln '*
and the Pope himfelf interceded for him, by Letters of Negotiations. It is a promife from the Duke of Milan's w™e!v."
Auguft the 30th, and September the 3d. As this was at Secretary, who, by virtue of an exprefs power from the Act. Pufc.
the very time that Francis was folliciting a Cardinal's Cap Duke his Mafter, engaged to pay the Cardinal a yearly p*, 11 ^". 5 ** 1
for Wolfey, Wolfey did not think proper to refufe the Pope Penfion of ten thoufand Ducats, to commence from the Herbetu

Day of his Matter's reftoration. It is true, this Paper
being neitlier dated nor figned, may be confidered only
as a draught of this Contract ; but it is however a proof
of the Cardinal's felfilh temper. The Emperor no fooner The Empe-
heard that Henry was inclined to affift him againft France, r,r ' s SmUJ-
Wolfey having at length obtained a Cardinal's Cap, was than he difpatched to England Matthew Skinner Cardinal hjj, Hcb * 3 *
tranfported with joy when he received the news by an of Sion, to negotiate a League with him. This is the stow.
Exprefs fent by the King of France (2). But though he fame Prelate, who, a little before, had encouraged the
was highly obliged to that Monarch, this favour begat Switzers to give Battle to Francis I.

in his bread much lefs Gratitude, than the injury he The Parliament met again the 1 2th of November. But Parliament
imagined to have received in the affair of Tournay, had as it was not yet time to lay before the Houfes the King's """•
caufed Refentment. He refolved therefore, in order to be refolution with regard to France, there was no mention
revenged, to endeavour to fet the King his mafter at of War, or any foreign affair. The Clergy in a Synod tte Clergy
variance with Francis, and caufe him to enter into a held at the fame time, returned an anfwer to the Pope '^"f ,bt
new League againft France. Herein he gratified three of concerning his demand of an extraordinary Subfidy, on s»bfiJy m
his predominant paffions ; his Pride, in letting Europe fee, pretence of an apparent War with the Turks. They Hall,
that Sovereigns themielves offended him not with impu- alledged, that they were fo exhaufted by the late War
nity; his Revenge, in creating Francis great troubles; with France, undertaken at the inftance of Julius II,
and his own Intereft, in fecuring the adminiftration of for the defence of die Church, that they were not in con-
the Bifhoprick cf Tournay. Indeed, a rupture between dition to grant a new Subfidy : That befides, by a de-
the two Kings was an effectual means to hinder Guillard's cree of the Council of Con/lance, the Pope could lay no
reftoration to his See. This is obferved by Hiftorians as impofition on the Clergy without the confent of a General
the principal Caufe of the alteration we are going to be- Council.

hold in Henry's Conduct. Jealoufy and Policy may have Whilft the Englijh were thus endeavouring to skreen Cardinal
had fome influence too, but lefs as true caufes, than as themfelves from the oppreffions of the Court of Rime , Woiiey'i
motives ufe*l by Wolfey to inflame the King's mind, they beheld one rifing in their own Body, like a new Herbert.

(1) Called by our Hiftnrians tie Cajielh Bilhop of Batb, and the King's Orator at Rome.

(z) in September. Hall, fol. 57. He was Cardinal by the Title of Manila? Catciha trans Tiberim ; or, Sarifti Ciriaci in Tennis. Rymtr's Feed.
Tom. XIII p- 529, 530.

(3) He Jikewife alledged, That Francis had broken the Treaty by favoring Ricbard de la Pole, Brother of the late Duke of Suffolk, a Fugitive and
Traitor; in allifting thole Scots which oppofed his Sitter Queen Margaret. Befides that, Francis with-held fome Goods and Jewels of Queen Mary.
Laflly, he laid, France might be hindered trom growing more powerful, without Eftuliun of Engtijb Blood, only by privately availing Maximilian.
Herbert, p. 24.. Pol. Virg.

(4) The Lord Herbert fays, the King, atter the Debate was over, beiBg inclined to the Cardinal, faid, He iu:uld binder tbe Dejigns of Francis iviibout
timing yet to an open Rupture, p. 2 e.

(5) Late Servant to Cardinal Bambridge, who wrote the Letter mentioned before, concerning Sil-vejler', having a hand in poiibning his Mailer.

(6) They were put into the Hands of fume Cenoa Merchants, who breaking, a great patt of the Money wis loft. Hall, fol. 59.

4 Pope.,

Pol. Virg.

Book XV.



He is tnjde
Lord Chan-
A«. Pub.
XIII.p. 5 J9
Dec. 2a.
The King
loads lim
•with Fa-

p. 507, 530,

Affairs of
Pol. Vug.

Aft. Pub.

J u| y 3-


Pope, whom they forefaw, it would be more difficult to
refill than him at Rome, becaufe he was fupported by the
King : I mean Wolfey. Since that Prelate was promoted to
the Curdinalate, he was c,rown more vain, proud, and im-
perious than ever. He never ftirrcd without a Prince's re-
tinue, always attended by a crowd of Domefticks, caufing
the Cardinal's Hat to be carried before him like a fort of
Trophy, and having it placed on the Altar when he went
to the King's Chapel (1). He was the firft Clergyman
in England that wore Silk in his Veftments, and ufed
Gold in his Saddles. In a word, he devifed all forts
of ways to diftinguifh himfelf. Every one took fuch
offence at his pride, that it was incefTantly talked of
with indignation. But no Man durft open his Mouth
before the King, llnce the old Bifhop of IVincheJlcr for
only glancing upon it, was fo ill received, that fhortly
after he withdrew to his Diocefe. The Archbifhop of
Canterbury was no lefs offended than the reft, to fee the
Archbifhop of York aft'ecf. thus fo great a diftinction.
But what gave him moil offence was, to fee the Crofs
of York carried before the Cardinal, though he was in the
Province of Canterbury. I have fpoken elfewhere of this
conti.fr between the two Archbifhops, which, after having
caufed violent quarrels, could be decided but by the King's
exprefs commands to the Archbifhops of York, not to have
the Crofs carried before them in the other Province.
But U / olfy, who thought himfelf much above his Prede-
certors, prepared to revive the conteft, in contempt of
thefe Prohibitions. JJ'arham, who was of a peaceable
temper, eafily perceived, that though he fhould attempt
to hinder it, he fhould not fucceed, becaufe JVolfcy had an
abfolute fway over the King. So, not to have continu-
ally this objeeff. before his Eyes, he defired the King's leave
to refign the Chancellorfhip, and retire to his Palace.
His requeft was immediately granted ; and the fame day
the King gave the Seals to Cardinal JVolfcy. In all ap-
pearance, he had created JVarham fo many mortifications
only to oblige him to quit his Office, with which he de-
fired to be inverted himfelf. To fupport the fplendour of
his dignity with more State than any other before him,
the King loaded him every day with frefh favours, Pre-
bends, Wardfliips, and the like, which continually in-
creafed his Revenues. Befides the Archbifhoprick of York
and the Chancellorfhip, he had in Farm, upon eafy terms,
the Bifhopricks of Bath and JVells, and Hereford (2), held
by Italians refiding at Rome. But this was not fufficient
to fatisfy him. I muft now, before I clofe the year 1 5 1 5,
briefly mention the affairs of Scotland, the Knowledge
whereof is requifite for the better underftanding the events
related hereafter.

Alexander Duke of Albany, who had been declared Re-
gent in 1513, arrived not in Scotland till May 151 5. He
found the Kingdom full of Factions and Divifions, which
made him fenfible, the Adminiftration committed to him
would prove very troublefome. But what gave him moft
uneafinefs was, that the King of England was but too much
concerned in what parted in Scotland, and fomented thefe
diflenfions to the utmoft of his power. Under colour that
Scotland had been fometime without a Regent, Henry VIII,
as Uncle of the young King, had taken the Title of Pro-
teelor of Scotland, and by virtue thereof, his Ambartadors at
Rome demanded of the Pope the Ecclefiaftical Preferments
of that Kingdom, which he beftowed on his Creatures.
But as foon as the Duke of Albany was arrived, he writ to
the Pope, in the young King's name, fharply complain-
ing of the King of England's Incroachments, and the Court
of Rome's condefcenfion. He even threatned the Pope in
his Letter, not to apply to him for the future upon any
account whatfoever, if this Grievance were not fpeedily
redreffed (3).

The Duke of Albany, though of Scotch Extraction,
was a ftranger to Scotland (4), from whence the Duke
his Father had retired in 1483. As he defired, in the
beginning of his Regency, to be informed of the State
of the Kingdom, he unhappily applied to Hepburne Bifhop

of Murray, a hot and revengeful Man, who took this oc-
cafion to be revenged on his Enemies. The Bifhop', be-
ing Prior of St. Andrew's, had been cledted Archbifhop
of that Church in the beginning of the prefent Reign,
But he was forced to refign the Archbifhoprick U
man Bifhop of Murray, who was armed with the Pope's
Bull. However, Forman would never have ventured to
make ufe of this Bull, had he not been fupported by
Alexander Hume a potent Lord before-mentioned. By
his credit and authority, Forman was inftalled in St. An-
drews, having rcfigned the Bifhoprick of Murray to Hep-
burne, and promifed to pay him a certain Penfion.
Hepburne finding lie had a fair opportunity to bo revenged,
gave the Regent fuch a Character of Hume, that when he
came to Court he was looked upon with a very ill Eye.
Hume being naturally very proud and high-fpiritcd, re-
folving to let the Regent fee, no Man fhould flight him
with impunity, went over to the Queen Dowager, and
perfuading her that the King her Son was in danger,
advifed her to carry him into England. The Regent
hearing of this plot, fuddenly went to Sterling Caftle
and fecured the young King's Peifon. But to hinder his
Enemies from putting an ill conftruclion on thisadtion, he
renewed his Oath of Allegiance to the King, and com-
mitted the care of his education to three Perfons of great

Alexander Hume and his Brother William feeing their
Plot was difcovered, fled immediately into England, and
were quickly followed by the Queen ami her Spoufe the
Earl of Angus. Whereupon, the Regent fent Ambartadors
to Henry to juftify his conduct, and at the fame time fo
artfully treated with the Fugitives, that he prevailed with
them to return into Scotland. But the Queen being big
with Child, was forced to ftay at Harbottle Caftle in Nor-
thumberland, where fhe was delivered (5) of a Daughter,
called Alargaret (6). The fequel of this affair fhall be re-
lated in another place.

The death of King Ferdinand {j), in February I 5 16,
broke the meafures taken by Cardinal JJ'olfey, to ingage
all Europe in a War with France. Thus, notwithftand-
ing the Cardinal's projects, Henry was forced to remain
in peace, becaufe the interefts of the reft of the Princes
were not agreeable to his, or rather to the pafiions of his
Minifter. But though Europe was peaceable for fome
time, it will be however necertary to relate in each year
of this Peace, the fituation of the affairs of the principal
States, in order to fhew the occalion of the following

Nothing remarkable parted in England in the beginning
of the year 1516, except the Birth of a Princefs, whom
the Queen brought into the World the eighteenth of Fe-
bruary, and called Mary{ 8). Cardinal JVolfcy commonly
called the Cardinal of York, ever mindful of what could
procure him any advantage, caufed thofe who had ma-
naged the King's Money, to be called to a ftrict account.
The moft part however were fpared. But thofe were
feverely punifked who had not the addrefs to make the
Minifter their Friend (9).

After Ferdinand's deceafe, the Kingdom of Arragon
came of courfe to Joanna his eldeft Daughter, already
Queen of Cajlile. But that Princefs was incapable of go-
verning her Dominions by reafon of her defect of under-
ftanding, which had obliged the King her Father to keep
her confined. So the Adminiftration of thefe two King-
doms with all their dependencies, could not be difputcd
with Charles of Aujlria, 'Joanna's eldeft Son, and Sove-
reign of the Lew-Countries. But as that Prince lived in
Flanders, Ferdinand had left by his Will the Regency
of Arragon to Alphonfo his natural Son Bifhop of Saragojfa,
and that of Cajlile to Cardinal Ximenes, till Charles
fhould come himfelf and affume the Government. Mean
while, when Ximenes would have taken pollcffion of the
Regency of Cajlile, Adrian Florentio, Doftor in Divinity,
who managed the Prince of Aujlria's affairs in Spain, pro-
duced Letters Patents from his Matter, conftituting him



A«. Pub.


King of


Birth if







Chjrta c

ceeds Ferdi-

Affairs cf

(1) He is laid by Canendijh, to keep eight hundred Servant;, amnng whom were nine cr ten Lords, fifteen Knights, and ftrty Squir.-s. The Hat
w.;s bcrn by fome principal Perfcn before him on a great height. He had befides, his Serjeant at Arms and Mace, and two Gentlemen, carrying two PUlan
of Silver, befides his Crofs-bearer. Herbert, p. z+. Pol. firg. See Slew, p. 501. Burnet's Ref. Tom. (II, p. 21.

(2) The Bifhopricks of Bath, Wmcejicr, and Hertford, the Incumbents whereof, Adrian At Corneto, Silvefler Gigks, tee. b'ing Strangers, who had been
frnt here upon Legations, King Henry VII, a frugal Prince, chofe rather to reward them upon th.ir return with Preferments that all him n.thu);. than to
impair his Treafure by making them Prefents in Money. And now living abroad, to fave the Charge of Agents, and Trouble of making Reams by them,
were willing to let the Cardinal have the Revenues at eafy Rates, with the Dil'pofal of the Ecdiliaftical Preferments annexed to them.

(3) He alfo writ to the King of France, defiring to be included in the Treaty concluded at London, April 5. 1 515. Rymer's Fad. Tom. XIII. p. 50S, 51 :.
(4.) He was born in the time of his Father's Banilhment, and fuch a Stranger, that he could not ("peak the Country Language. Hubert, p. 26.

(5) Oclober 7.

(6) Her Husband, the Earl of Angus, left her, and returned into Scotland. She ftaid about a Year in England. Hall, fol. 58.

.(7) In the fixty third year of his age. He left the ftile of Catholick to his Succeffors. Though he had vaft poffefiinns, was much inriched from the

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