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that of Scotland, began their Eajhr that very day, and con-
Sequendy at the fame time with the Jews. But the Church
of Rome deferred it till the Sunday following. Since that
time, there have been fome alterations which produced dif-
ferent cuftoms in the Churches. Whereas for a long while

which it was the Emblem. But the Scotch Priefts fhaved
the fore-part of the head from ear to ear. Bede docs not i.
tell us how this matter was decided ; but very probably it
was determined in favour of the Romanijh.

The difpute about Eajler being thus ended to the dis-
advantage of the Scots, Colman and all his adherents re-
tired into Scotland, not being able to prevail with them-
felves to fubmit to a decifion that appeared to them fo
unjuft. Thus is it in matters of religion, things that
feem at firft perfectly indifferent, become at laft of the
greateft confequence by the pride and uncharitablenefs of

a Cycle of eighty-four years was every where made ufe of the Clergy. Cedd Bifhop of the Eajl-Saxons, who had Bede, 1. 3 ,
to find the precife time of Eajler, the Church of Rome in-
vented a Cycle of nineteen years, much more proper for

that purpofe, and obliged all the Churches under her juris-
diction t© conform to the fame. Altho' without doubt

this was the belt method, and calculated neareft the truth ;

yet as it was unknown to the Britons and Scots, who held

but litde correfpondence with Rome, they ftuck to dieir old

Bede, !. j. By thefe various manners of finding Eajler-Day, it
c »5> Sometimes happened in OJivy's court, that whilft the King

was celebrating the Pafchal Feaji, the Queen, who follow-
ed the cuftom of the Church of Rome, was ftill keeping

Lent. This confuiion made Ofwy defirous of fixing Eajier-

Day Co, as all fliould keep it at the fame time. At the

opening of the Council, having made a fhort fpeech upon

that head, he ordered Coleman to alledge what he had to

lay in defence of the cuftom of the Scotch Church. Colman

faid, it had been all along the practice of his predeceffbrs,

and of thole by whom he was ordained in Scotland : That

Columba, Aidan, and Finan had always kept to the old

way ; but if their Authority was not Sufficient, he could

alledge that of St. John the beloved Apoflle. After he had

enlarged upon this Argument, Agilbert, Bifhop of Paris,

was defired to fet forth v/hat was to be faid againft Colman %

aflertion. But the Bifhop having excufed himfelf on ac-
count of his unskilfulnefs in the Englijh tongue, requefted

that // "ilfrid might be allowed to fpeak the fenfe of the

Church of Rome. Wilfrid, having the King's permiffion,

anfwered Colman with great warmth. He explained the

manner of fixing Eajhr pradtifed by the Church of Rome,

and affirmed that all the Churches in the World conformed

to it, except only the Scots, Pifis, and Britons, who ftill

perfiited in their foolifh obftinacy. Colman replied, Talking
• in that manner very much reflected on the memory of St.

John, who would never have eflabliflied a cuftom that was

chargeable with folly. JFilfrid, being fenfible he had fpoke a

little too freely, endeavoured tojuftify St. John, by faying

he was obliged to retain fomething of Judaijm, for fear of
giving offence to the Aftatick Jews, as St. Paul upon the

like account had circumcifcd Timothy. He concluded with

aliening, that the Church of Rome exactly followed what

was prelcribed by St. Peter and St. Paul in this matter.

It appears from the fore-cited paflage of Socrates, that it
was as difficult for JFilfrid to prove that the cuftom of the

Church of Rom: had its rife from St. Peter, as for Colman
to make out, that the practice of the Church of Scotland
came from St. John. Befides, the Cycle of nineteen years
then made ufe of by the RomaniJls, was moft affuredly in-
vented after the time of St. Peter. But as Colman and the
reft of the Scotch party knew little of what palled abroad,
and as their aim was not fo much to bring the RomaniJls
to their cultoms, as to perfuade them to let them go on
peaceably in their own way, they perfifted in appealing
to the authority of St. John and Columba. But JFilfrid,
alter juftifying St. John in die manner above-mentioned,
demanded of Colman, with an air of triumph, whether
he pretended to compare Columba with St. Peter the
prince of the Apoftlcs, to whom our Saviour faid, Thou
art Peter, and upon this Rod will I build my Church f
Hiilory informs us not what anfwer Colman made; for
it mult be remembrcd, we know nothing of this Coun-
cil, but what we have from the Partifans of Rome.
However this be, Ofwy fecmed to be convinced St. Peter
had fome prerogative above the other Apoftles, fince he
declared at laft for the cuftom cftablifhed by St. Peter at
t< 5 S' Rome, before that of St. John. Bede fays, he was brought

to it by being told, that as St. Peter had the Keys of hea-
ven, he would refufe him entrance if he obftinately held
out againft the Apoftle's own inftitution. Ofzvy's decla-
ration immediately gained a majority of Voices for the

(I) An Ecclejiaftical Day begins at fix a-clock the Evening before.

(i) EJdiui lays, he was made Biihop at the rcqucft of the ^uartejgjinar::, c

(j: Where he remained three years. Ettttim, p, "

been interpreter to both parties in the Synod, was the only t-
one of the Scotch party, that thought it his duty not to
leave his flock for a thing of fo little moment, though
fie was of a contrary opinion to the Romanijh. Tuda
fucceeded to Colman's See, and Eatta was made Abbot
of Lindisfarn in the room of him that went off with

Thus was the ftorm raifed by this controverfy appeafed
at laft, to the great fatisfaclion of the Pope and his party,
who were very fenfible, that their fuccefs in this affair
would greatly contribute to the eftablifhing the Papal au-
thority over the northern Churches, as it really did. The
Church of Northumberland had been governed for thirty
years by Aidan, Finan, and Colman, whom their adver-
faries could charge with nothing, but their firm adherence
to the cuftoms of their anceftors in relation to Eajler. Af-
ter Co/man's retiring into Scotland, the government of
the Church of Northumberland was always put into the
hands either of Saxons or foreigners bred up in the princi-
ples of the Church of Rome, the Scots being entirely ex-

Tuda dying foon after, Alfred King of Dcira was de-
firous of having JFilfrid his preceptor made Bifhop of
1 ork, the See whereof was then at Lindisfarn. To that
end he ordered him to go into France to be confecrated
by Agilbert Bifhop of Paris. But JFilfrid making a long EJdius.
ihy in France, Chad then Abbot of Lejlingham was made Bcdc -
Bifhop of the Northumbrians {2). Chad being gone into Malrnft." 1
Kent to be confecrated by Deufdedit Archbifhop of Canter-
bury, and finding he was lately dead, applied to JFina,
Bifhop of JFinchejier for confecration, and then returned
into Northumberland. Bede tells us, he was a very reli-
gious perfon, without pride or ambition, and one that
accepted of the cpifcopal dignity purely in obedience to tha
King's order.

In the mean while, JFilfrid being returned into Eng-
land, remained fome time at Canterbury, to take care of
that Diocefe till the arrival of Theodorus, whom the Pope
had made Archbifhop. After a few months fray at Can-
terbury, he went on to Northumberland; where finding
Chad was made Bifhop of Lindisfarn, and not daring to
complain of the inconltancy of the King of Dcira, he re-
tired to his monaftery at Rippon (3). Some time after,
Theodorus in his vifitation of all the Churches in England
coming to York, feverely reprimanded Chad for being con-
fecrated by the Bifhop of Winchejla r 'had humbly fub-
mitted to hiscenfure, and without endea . ; uring tojuftify
himfelf, did all the Archbifhop required ol him. Theodo-
rus, charmed with his modeft Behaviour, conSecrated him
anew ; but ordered him to return to his Monaftery (4),
and make room Sor JFilfrid whom the two Kings of Nor-
thumberland had defigned for the Bifhoprick of Tori or
Lindisfarn. Though Bede does not fay for what reafon
Chad was fent back to his Monaftery r.iLer his Second con-
secration, yet it is plain Theodorus was gained by the two
Kings, who were Sor JJllfrid. And indeed there Seems
to be no reaSon Sor depofing oS Chad, ":nce all the defects
of his former ordination, fuppofing there were any, were
removed by the latter.

JFilfrid was a Man oSa very proud and haughty tern- N m!T>.
per, one of" thoSe thai are ;or domineering where-ever p-_ "
they come, and cannot bring themtdves to uSe towards ' '
others that condefcenfion they expect Srom all the world.
His pride for Some time was Supported by his i.itereit with
the two Kings oS Northumberland. But at length Ojwy
being dead, Alfred his Son depoSed, and Egfrid who had
no opinion of this prelate, in poffcifion of the throne,
JJllfrid found he had not that refpeel fhown him, as in
the reign of Ojwy. This gave him great uneafinefi, and
not being able to iorbear Ihowing it, perhaps in too in-


p. -62.

14. M*l".fh. p. 250.

;.i Mtlmfiurj ir.js. that he retired to LicbfcU. DcPtntif. p. x6i,


Book III.



folent a manner, he incurred the King's difpleafure. Some
time after, Theodoras coming again into Northumberland,
Egfrid complained to him of Wilfrid (i), and let him
know, that inftead of edifying the People, he brought a
great Icandal on religion by his pride and arrogance. The
King did not accufe him without ground. Hiftorians are
all agreed, that Wilfrid was exceflive proud ; that he af-
fected to live in a royal manner; chat he never went abroad
without a numerous retinue ; and that he was ferv'd in Gold.
Theodoras, finding this a fit opportunity to improve the
rights of his See, and leffen thofe of York, which had been
dignified with the title of an Archbifhoprick in the time
of Paulinus, was refolved not to let it flip. Accordingly,
without hearing what Wilfrid had to fay for himfelf, he
depofed him, and obtained the King's leave to divide Nor-
thumberland into two Dioceles. Bofa, who rehded at York,
was Bifhop of the firft, containing the Churches of Deira.
Over the other See, which continued fixed at Lindisfarn,
and confided of the Kingdom of Bernicia, was placed
Eatta. As Egfrid had for fome time conquered Lincoln-
Jhire from the King of Mercia, he made a third Bilhoprick
of it, of which Eihedus was the firft Bifhop.

Wilfrid enraged at his difgrace, fet out immediately for
Rome, to lay his cafe before the Pope. Tbeodorus not liking
his going thither, fent a Monk to inform the Pope of the
reafons of his depofing him. However, fearing Wilfrid
might gain the Pope to his fide, on account of the fervice
he had done the Church of Rome at the council of Whitby,
he wrote to Ebroine, Mayor of the Palace to the King of
M *'j nfl '" France, to flop him in his journey. Wilfrid, informed
of this, refolved to go by the way of Fricjland (2), where
Adalgifus the King hofpitably received him, and difcover-
ed to him that Ebroine had dcfired him to detain or mur-
der him. He is faid, whilft he ftaid in Friefand, to make
a great many converts. At length, taking his leave, he
went on to Strasbourg, from whence he was fafely con-
ducted to Rome by the King of Aujlrafia.
Spelmnn Agatho, who was then Pope, having heard Wilfrid's

Cone. Vol. I. complaints, held a Synod upon them, who unanimoully
P- 1 S7- declared that Wilfrid lhoukl be reftored to his Bifhoprick.
/ ' ', id having thus fucceeded in his Suit, returned home,
and prefented to the King the decree of the Synod at Rime,
with a letter from the Pope. But Egfrid had fo little re-
gard to this decree, that after he had upbraided the Bifhop
for procuring it by bribery, he put him in prifon, where
he kept him a whole year, and would not then have re-
leas'd him, had it not been for the preffing inftances of his
Aunt Ebba, and upon condition he would never more fet
foot in Northumberland.

Wilfrid, meeting with all thefe difcouraging circum-
ftances, withdrew to the Monaftery of Glajfenbury, where
Berthwald the Abbot gave him a fafe retreat; but it laftcd
not long, for Ethelred King of Mercia, and Uncle to Berth-
wald, defired him todifmifs him, on account of the King
of Northumberland. In this perplexity Wi Ij rid fled for re-
fuge torAdelwalch King of Si/Jfex, who was converted du-
ring his imprifonment in A/ercia, but his fubjeiSs were
ftill idolaters. This Prince having granted him his pro-
tection, defired him to endeavour the converfion ol the
people, in which he happily fucceeded. In a little time
the South-Saxons, as well as the inhabitants of the Ifie of
Wight, embraced the Chriftian Faith, by the pains and
Eddius. inftruclions of Wilfrid. At leaft this is what the writer
of his Life relates, though to fpeak the truth, it is very
difficult to clear up the Chronology of thefe facte. Wilfrid
remained fome years in Sujfex, where he was made Bifhop
of Self ey, as will be feen hereafter.

During his abfence, Theodorus having taken a third
journey to Northumberland, erected a new Bifhoprick at
Richard. Haguljlad [or Hexham,] of which Thumbert was the
Hagulftad. firft Bifhop. This he did to make amends for Lincoln now
in the hands of the Mercians. Some time after Theodorus
went thither once more, and called a council, wherein he
got Thumbert to be depofed, for daring to take it ill that
the Archbifhop of Canterbury fhould exercife his jurifdic-
tion over the Churches of the North. It was indeed con-
trary to the regulations of Gregory I ; and the Pall fent to
Paulinus firft Bifhop of the Northumbrians, plainly fhewed,
it was not the intent of the court of Rome that the Churches
of the North fhould have any dependance on Canterbury.
But Aidan, Finan, and Colman, not having vouchfafed to
demand the Pall of the Pope, York or Lindisfarn had only
the bare title of a Bifhoprick, which thefe three Scotch
Prelates never minded, the lording it over the Church be-
ing what was far from their thoughts. And therefore
Theodorus finding he was the fole Archbifhop in England,
embraced the opportunity to extend his jurifdiftion over
the North. For that purpofe probably it was that he de-
pofed Wilfrid, from whole temper and character he ex-

pected oppofition, that he divided York into three Bifli^n-
ricks, on pretence it would be more convenient for the
people; and laftly, that he depofed Thumbert, who had
openly cenfured his ufurpations.

The fame Council that depofed Thumbert, chofe in his 685,
room Cuthbert a Monk of Lindisfarn, who was the only
perfon that oppofed his own election, out of an excel', of
modefty and humility. The Bifhop,, who ail judged him
worthy of the Epifcopal character, found it a very difficult
matter to bring him to a compliance; and at laft were
forced to confent he fhould remain at Lindisfarn, where
he had liv'd a long time ; for which rcafon Eatta was tran-
flated to Haguljlad.

Some time alter, Theodorus being grown very old, and
finding he had not long to live, was touched with remorfe
for what he had done to Wilfrid., and wanted to be recon-
ciled to him. To this purpofe he interceded for him fo
carneftly with Alfred, fucceilbr to Egfrid, that he was re-
called. The Bifhoprick of Lindisfarn being then vacant 6S6.
by the voluntary refignation of Cuthbert, Bofa was tran-
flated thither, and Wilfrid reftored to York.

Cuthbert being return'd to his Monaftery at Lindisfarn, 6S7,
died foon after. In proccis of time, his body being remo-
ved to Durham, became fo famous for miracles, that
among all the Englijh Saints he had the greateft veneration
paid him.

Wilfrid was no fooner fettled in his See, but he under-
took the annulling all that had been done during his dif-
grace. He attempted the uniting again to York the Bifhop-
rick of Haguljlad, and claimed the revenues that had been
taken from his Church, and appropriated to that Bifhop-
rick. In fine, he pretended that all the regulations of
Theodorus were null and void ; and perhaps he was in the
right ; but his haughty way of proceeding made him meet
with oppofition from all quarters. Even Alfred his Pupil
and Sovereign, not being able to bear any longer his impe-
rious temper, drove him once more from his Church.
Thus this reftlefs Prelate was reduced to feek for fhe'tcr -03,
from Ethelred King of Mercia, formerly his enemy, but
now his friend. Mercia being then divided into four
Bifhopricks, and Leicejler, one of them, happening to be
vacant, Ethelred promoted Wilfrid to that See, which how-
ever he enjoyed but a very little while. His haughty tem-
per was fo difpleafing to the King of Mercia, that he dif-
poiTefTed him of it in a few months. Not content with in-
curring the difpleafure of the Kings of Mercia and Nor-
thumberland, he took occafion alio to fall out with Berth-
wald, Archbifhop of Canterbury, and by that means for-
feited his protection, which he then flood in great need of.
The two Kings his enemies laid hold of this opportunity to
humble him. They rcquefted Berthwald to call a coun-
cil, in order to examine into the life and actions of Wil-
frid. The Archbifhop, as matters ftood between him and
Wilfrid, readily complied with their defire. Accordingly a Eddius. vit.
council was held at Onejiresfield in Northumberland, where Wilf " c ' 49 '
Wilfrid was obliged to appear, and was charged with
crimes that deferved degradation. However, the Bifhops
unwilling to carry matters to that extremity, endeavoured
by intreaties and threats to induce him to rcfign his Bi-
fhoprick of his own accord. But nothing could bring him
to that ; he told them, it was a great piece of ingratitude
in the Englijh to ufe him in that manner, after all the fer-
vices he had done the Church. The Services he boafted
of were, his contributing the moft of any towards fixing
Eajler-Day, according to the ufage of Rome, his introdu-
cing the Roman Ritual into the Churches of the North,
and his bringing the Scotch Monks to conform to the Rules
of the Order of St. Bcnediil. Upon thefe accounts, faid he,
you ought to reward me, injlead of 'threa tiling to depofe me un-
j'lftb f cr imaginary crimes. But if you will dare to go on,
know 111 appeal to the Pope againjl your proceedings. None
other has power to condemn me, and he it is alone I acknow-
ledge for my Judge. The Council not regarding his ap-
peal, unanimoully depos'd him. However, this did not in
the leaft humble him. Tho' he was feventy years of age,
he refolved to go to Rome for redrefs. The Pope, always
favourable to thofe that appealed to him, convened a Synod
of the neighbouring Bifhops, wherein Wilfrid, upon his
fingle reprefentation of matters, was fully acquitted. After
which, the Pope gave him recommendatory letters to
Berthwald, and the Kings of Mercia and Northumberland,
requiring them to reftore Wilfrid in purfuance to the de-
cree of the Synod.

As foon as Wilfrid was returned to England, he waited ,
on the Archbifhop, who finding he came with the Pope's
recommendation, began to relent, and promife his friend-
fhip. On the other hand, Ethelred King of Mercia, who
was now turned Monk, promifed Wilfrid his interceffion:
But Alfred at firft feemed inflexible. He faid he could fee

(1) By the Irrigation of his Queen Ermtr.burga, fays Eddius, p. 63.

MJUJmi.in V,t. JVilf. lays he went firft to France, where he was way-laid, and bis company and equipage plundcr'd.

N° 4. V o l. J. X




Vol. I.

c. 58.

Bcdc, 1. 5,
C. 1).

1.5. C.2.

i. I. c. 3.


no manner of reafon for reftoring, upon the Pope's letter;
and the fentence of a foreign Council that knew hut little
of the matter, a man that hail caufed lb many difturbances,
and after having been banifhed feveral times, had at length
been lawfully depofed by a Synod. But he was not long
of this mind. Soon after falling fick, it was put into his
head, that his dillempcr was a punimment from God, for
his difobedience to the Pope's orders; and this made fo deep
an impreffion upon him, that he vowed to reftore Wilfrid,
in caie he recovered. Death prevented him from per-
forming his vow ; however, he ordered Britbric, whom
he left Guardian to his Son Ofred, to fee it put in execu-
tion out of hand.

Altho* Alfred had been pofitively promifed, the affair
of Wilfrid fhould he foon ended, it was not poffible to think
of it 'immediately, by reafon of a civil war railed by
Edulph, who had ufurped the crown. Wilfrid behaved
upon tiiis occafion in fuch a manner, as feemed to deprive
him of all hopes of ever being reftored. As he did not
doubt but Edulph, who was then befieging the King and
Britbric in Bamborcugb Caftle, would fucceed in his de-
figns, lie went in all hafle to him, in order to make him
his friend betimes, and fecure his protection. This pro-
ceeding had like to liave proved his ruin. Edulph, know-
ing lie was hated by die Northumbrians, to do them a plea-
fure, gave him a very ill reception, forbidding him ever
to appear in his prefence. On the other fide, Britbric in-
formed of Wilfrid's conduct, loft all kindnefs for him.
However, after the war was ended by the death of the
Ufurper, Britbric was prevailed upon, tho' with fome
difficulty, to confent Wilfrid fhould be reftored. To this
end a council was held near the river Nydd, where it was
agreed WilfridiaaxM be Bifhopof Huguljlad, with whichhe
was obliged to be fatisfied. Jobn, then Bifhop of that Sec,
was removed to York, vacant by the death of Bofa.

Thus Wilfrid's affair, after many difficulties, was at
length determined. Jobn in 721 refigned his Bifhoprick,
and. retired to the monaftery of Beverly, of which he was
Abbot. He was canonized after his death, and became
very famous, by the name of St. John of Beverly. He was
fucceeded in the See of York by Wilfrid the Younger, his
chaplain. To Wilfrid the Elder, fucceeded in his See of
Haguljlad, Acca one of the Pricfts that had attended him
in his journey to Rome, where he became a great proficient
in Church-Mufick, which, fays Bede, 'twas impracticable
for him to learn in his own country. Wilfrid the Younger
was fucceeded in the See of York by Egbert, Brother to
Edbert King of Northumberland.

It was neceilary to be thus particular about the eftablifh-
ment of the northern Bifhopricks, the fucceffion of the
firft Bifhops, and the alterations occafioned by Wilfrid;
without all which, it would be difficult to give a diftinct
notion of the Churches of thefe parts. Hence alfo may be
feen, how the Archbifhop of Canterbury had opportunity
of exercifing his jurisdiction over all England, contrary to
the regulation of Gregory I. To which, the enterprifing
genius of Theodcrus, and the depofing of Wilfrid, likewile
contributed. Had this laft continued in the See of York, he
would doubdefs have obtained the Pall, and by that means
put a flop to Theodorus's proceedings.

The dignity of Archbijhop of York, and Metropolitan of
the North, vanifhed with Patdinus. After that Prelate
left Northumberland, and the Northumbrians deferted the
Faith, the Monks lent for from Scotland by Ofwald to
inftruct the people, were contented with the bare title of
Bifhop, without applying to the Pope for the Pall, whole
jurifdiction diey did not acknowledge. Afterwards Wil-
frid, fucceffor to Colman, having been depofed, the Bi-
fhoprick of the Northumbrians was divided into four,
namely, York, IVhithern, Lindisfarn, and Haguljlad.
This divifioh was a frefh obftacle to the Bifhop of York's
defiring the Pall, his See being fo confiderably leffened by
it. Befides, Bofa, John and Wilfrid the Younger, who
were fucceffively Bifhops of York, were pious and good
Men, who thought of nothing lefs than afpiring to more
honourable titles. But Egbert, who was Bifhop of York,
whilft his Brother fat on the throne of Northumberland,
having more ambition than his predeccflbrs, improved the
' refpect they had for him at Rome on account of his birth,
and procured the Pall with the Archiepifcopal dignity : By
which means he acquired a jurifdiction over the three
other northern Bifhops, who became his Suffragans. From
that time the Archbifhops of York began to be upon a
Level with thole of Canterbury, and to infift on Gregory's
regulation, whereby it was ordered, there fhould be an
entire equality and independency between the two Arch-
bifhops. On the other hand, the Archbifhops of Canter-
bury pleaded the jurifdiction excrcifed by Theodorus over

the North, and all the reft of England. Hence arofe a

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