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cf Chrift, and Works of Supererogation of thu Saints, had a power of d. drib-run;* Indulgences on certain Conditions prelcnbed by him, to the greateft
and moft profligate Sinners for a plenary Remirlr.in of Sin, (as it is piict.ied at this day in Portugal, c^f..) Thefe Indulgences are fuppol'ed at
riift to reach only to relaxation of Penances or Ecclcfiaftic.il Dilcipline. Ur'jun U, in the beg : nning of the Xlth Century, w:;s the firft that granted

t a full Remiffion of all Sins to thjle who fhould take ai Arms for the recovery of the Hily-Lir.J from the Inridels. Which Cuftom was kept
up by his SuccelTors, (bme of wh. ir n extended the Benerit of their Indulgences t) fuch Pcrlbns who bein^ unwilling or unable to go, maintained a
Soldier in thea roam. At length thefe Spiritual Favours were difttibutcj to thofe who took Che Field ae,ain:c the Enemies of HJy Church or He-

• reticki.



Book XV.



20. HENRY VIII.



737



«s»;



Mirtin
Luiher be-
gins to ap-
pear.
Sleidan.



Tkl P-jpe
continues to

JottciteJa



But, by an accident which at firft fcemeJ of no confe-
quence, the Archbifhop of Mcntz, who was commiffioned
to appoint the preachers in Germany, happened to affign
Saxony to the Jacobins, whereas in the former Crufades,
the Augujiints had been employed in that Office. The
injury done to thefe laft, rouzed their jealoufy. They nar-
rowly examined the Behaviour of the Preachers as well
as Collectors, ridiculed them, and afterwards publickly
complained of them. At length, Martin Luther, an Au-
gujiine Fryar and Profcflbr in Divinity in the new Uni-
verfity of IVirtemberg , publifhcd fomc Writings againft
them, not without fatyrical remarks upon the Indulgences
themfelves. This boldnefs drew upon him Enemies, who,
by their oppofition, obliged him by degrees to inquire
more carefully into the grounds of thofc Indulgences. In
fhort, he was convinced, they had no foundation in the
Holy Scriptures. From thenceforward, he ufed his utmoft
endeavours to undeceive the Publick concerning the hi-
therto received opinion of the papal Power. Hence fprung
the Reformation which fpread it felf afterwards through
Germany, and fcveral other States of Europe.

The Pope at firft did not much regard Luther's re-
prefentations. He never imagined that the papal power,
which feemed to ftand upon unmoveable foundations,
could be prejudiced by a fingle Fryar. So defpifing this
inconfiderable oppofition, he continued without interrupti-
on to fell his Indulgences. He every where publifhed,
that a powerful effort was going to be made upon the In-
fidels, and exhorted all Chriftians to contribute, accord-
ing to their abilities, towards fo ncceffary a War, which
would procure them, befides many temporal advantages,
deliverance from the pains of Purgatory, provided they
would qualify themfelves for the Indulgences. There was
however one thing which very much cooled the zeal of
many Chriftians for the CrufaJe. It was difcovered that
the Pope had beforehand difpofed, for his temporal con-
cerns, of the Money which was to arife from the fale of
the Indulgences. For inftance, he had affigned 10 Mag-
dalen de Medici his Sifter, Wife to Francifco Cibo, natu-
ral Son of Innocent VIII, part of the Money to be raifed
in Germany* Mean while, he continued his Sollicitati-
Aft. Pub. ons in all the States of Europe. He forgot not to write
XUl-p-592- to Henry VIII, exhorting him to join his Forces with
thofe of the other Chriftian Princes, and to excite him
to this good Work, by great commendations of his con-
ftant zeal for the defence of the Holy See, and the exal-
tation of the Faith. All thefe encomiums ended in de-
manding two hundred thoufand Ducats for the pretended
War againft the Infidels. But it does not appear, the
King complied with his requeft. The Turks were then
employed in Egypt and Per/in, and the Crufade was foun-
ded only upon a bare conjecture that after ending thefe
Wars, they would invade Chrijiendom. A Man muft
have wilfully fhut his Eves, not to fee, it was but a
pretence to fill the Pope's Coffers. Befides, in the prefent
fituatiorii of the affairs of Europe, Henry had no great oc-
calion for the Pope.

Mean time, Cardinal JVolfey perceiving, the League of
mealy about London would come to nothing, becaufe Francis was not
BifBop- (JifpQfgd to commence a new War with any of the Con-
federates, dreaded his making uCe of this time of Peace
to move the affair of the Bifhoprick of Tourney. On the
other hand, he plainly faw by the time, paffed fince that
bufinefs had been put into the hands of the Commiffio-
ners, that he was greatly regarded, as having an abfolute
fway over the King his Mafter. Indeed, nothing could
be expected from the King but through his means, and
for that reafon all the Princes ftudioufly made their
ft. p. 591- Court to him, to gain him to their interefts. We find
in the Colletlion of the Publick Ails, that Charles King
of Spain affigned him this year an annual Penfion of
three thoufand Livres, though he had yet received no
Services from him. And therefore it was for thofe he
hoped to receive for the future. Mean while, Jfolfey
was uneafy about Tournay. As the Pope and the King
of France regarded him only for the fake of what he
could do for them, he was in danger of lofing the refpect
they fhowed for him, in cafe they fhould ever come to
_ , . . ftand no longer in need of him. He beir,an therefore

Be begins to 6 . . 5 .

tnatiixtb privately to intimate to trancts 1, that it would not be
Francis j- impoffible to pel fvvade Henry to reftore Toumav for a

tnitrtjhring r . ^ V



}U demands
Monty of

Henry,

who denies
bin.



Wolley 1



rick of

Tournay.



atton
tj Henry



47l -.



fum which fhould be agreed upon, provided he himfclf 1517.
was recompenfed for the Adminiftration of the Bifhop-
rick. I fhall relate next year the fucccC; of this Nego-
tiation.

Henry enjoying this year great Tranquillity, refolved ']'"'■
to fee what the Emperor intended with refpeit to the Cut ti
rcfignation of the Empire, which he had caufed to be men- Emperor
tioned to him. Maximilian being in Flanders with the King r,ff[ r '-rt<-
of Cajlile his Grandfon, Henry fent the Bifhop of Win- *X;
chejltr, with Doctor Cuthbert Tunftal, to renew the Nc- ,: "
gotiation with him, acquainting him withal, if he would H -' r ' j: '"
appoint a convenient place, he would come and confer
with him in perfon. The Emperor, who had never in-
tended to refign the Empire to him, and ftill lef. at that
time, very civilly anfwered, that to fave the King the
trouble of croffing the Sea, he would come himfelf and
confer with him in England. But when the Ambaffo
dors preffed him upon the affair they were charged with,
they found he fought only to evade his own offer. On !
while he faid, he would refign the Empire to Henry, but
firft would try to obtain of the Diet, that himfelf and
Polterity might preferve the title of King of the Romans.
Another while, he talked of making Charles hi:; Grand-
fon Emperor, Henry King of the Ramans, Ferdinand
Brother to Charles, King of Aujlria, and himfelf onlv
Marfhal of the Empire. Thele Alterations convinced
the Ambaffadors, nothing was to be expected from the
Negotiation; and acquainting the King, he was fatisficd
Maximilian had no other defign than to draw Money
from him.

There was this year an Infurrection of the London r "f"
Apprentices againft foreign Tradefmen, wherein fome H ,n
perl'ons loft their Lives. But it was appeafed by the pu- Stow,
nifhment of fome of the Seditious, who were hanged in ""WoifR-
the principal Streets of the City (1).

This fame year the Sweating Sicknefs made great ra- tteSm «.
vages in the Kingdom, and efpecially at London. Muft '"/ ■' " ''■,'
of thofe that were feized with it, died within three hours, s .^ w "_
and no cure could be found. As this Diftemper was pe-
culiar to England, it was called Sudor Anglicus, or the En-
gl ifh Siveat (2).

The affairs of Scotland were ftill in great difordcr, by Again f
reafon of the Factions in the Kingdom. Alexander Hume j ,c,tl - lnd '
and his Brother William, after feveral Pardons, were at Herbert- '
laft beheaded (1). After the death of the two Brothers, PoL Virg.
the Duke of Albany, hoping Scotland would be in perfect
Tranquillity, refolved to take a Journey into France,
promifing to return in few Months. But being detained
there longer than he expected, by accidents mentioned
hereafter, the affairs of Scotland fell into very great con-
fufion, becaufe of the Dillenfions of the great Men, which
were inflamed by thofe who defigncd to take advantage
of them.

Mean while, the Pope eameftlv pufhed the affair of , - j ^_
the pretended War, contriving, with the Ambaffadors re- L:o X fci
fiding at his Court, projects which would have required L -S' ; "

r-, 1 „i n • r 11 1 it ■ lollieite tbi

more Zeal than Princes ufually have, and greater Union Cro&oe.
among them. To execute his defigns, he fhould have Guicciard.
amaffed vaft Sums of Money, and that was the fecret in- Holkngfh.
tent of the League propofed by the Pope, of which he was
to be Head and Director. To that end, he cxhaufted,
if I may fo fay, the Church's '1 reafures, to incour; •
the Faithful to exchange their peiifhing riches for evei -
lading advantages. This affair was carried fo far, tii.-.t
he fent Legates to all the Courts, to excite the Sovereigns
to join their Forces together, for the Deftruction of the
Infidels. There was not one but what outwardly fhowul
an extreme defire to apply himfclf to fo holy a work,
provided he could be fecurcd from being difturbed by his
Neighbours. But that was the thing which rendered the
execution of the project very difficult, becaufe they had
no Confidence in one another. They had no more tor
the Pope himfelf, who, fince the beginning of his Ponti-
ficate, had but too plainly difcovered, that the concerns
of Religion were not what affected him moll. So, in
feeing him act with that Zeal, they could not help fuf-
pecting, that the defire of inriching himfelf by the volun-
tary Contributions of Chriftians, by the fale of the Indul-
gences, by the Tenths of the Clergy, and by the Boun-
ties of the Sovereigns, was what moil fired his Zeal. Ne-
verthelefs, not one of them fhowed any averfion to the



tint Flacc.

reticles. Great Sums were r3ifcd by this means, but feldom applied to the ends for which they were intended- Leo X refo'ving to fe-Uow fo goo.I
Precedents, opened a Generat Mait for Indulgences, the beneht whereof was to extend even to i he Dead, whole S»>jl<, upon payment ot fo much
Money, were immediately redeemed out of Purgatory. People had likewife the Jiberty ot eating E^-gs and White-mials on Fart Days, 3nJ of cfiulin^
their Confcflbr, and the like. Guiceiardini fays, That the Powers for releafing Souls out of Purgatory were openly played for in Taverns. 11. i j.

(1) The chief Author of this Infurrection (which began April 28. ) was one "John Lincoln a Broker. He drew up a Pjpjr full Ooa
againft the foreign Merchants, which he got Doctor Bele, a noted Preacher, to read in his Pulpit on Eafter Tttefday \ whcreup.n the Mob ailWnbhd,
and committed fe\erarl Outrages. The Reader may fee a full account of this Infunccfion in Hat/, fill. S9 - -63. lUU:n7jh. p. S40, bee.

(2) This Difiemper continued from July till the middle of December. Many Knights, Gentlemen, and OtTieejs ci the King's Coil died thereof,
as the Lord Clinton, Lord Grey of Wilton, and of the common lint of People fo many, as in fome Towns it l'wept aw^y half, in others a tht-J
of ihe Inhabitants. Hall, fo]. 63. Herbert, p. 2S ..-. - There was alio fo great a Drougth this year, that it u'd not rain from 'lie beginning J
September, till the May following. And the Froft was id hard in the Winter, that Holies and Caits could pah over the Tbamtl on the Ice be-
tween Weft'n'njlr ard Lambetb. Stotu, p. 505.

(3) On the 16th ot Olhbir, 1516. Herbort, p. 17. The llth ; fays Bvcbais.

No 37. Vol. I. 9 A defign



73*



Tie HIS70RT of ENGLAND.



vol. r.



i Pupa

fc' " :• L'lU-

< .'

ufe to tee
'' ' !
Auicria.
Jvlezerai.



Negotiation

oh<jUi "t uur-
n.iy.

Hertert.
Stow*
Pol. V.tg-



Virg.



', , Mi he mould be taxed with not having a due
,.: F , Re] i 11. But they gave only Words, whereas
the Pope wanted Deeds. Hence the Pope's project of an
univerfal Lea; ie had not, as will hereafter be feen, the
Succefs he expected. However, the project, though chi-
merical, ferved for pretence and a cloak to many other
defigns. The Emperor, defiring to have one of his
Grandfon chofen King of the Romans, ufed the pretence
of the imaginary War Chriftendom was in danger of from
the Turks, to fliow the neceffity of continuing the Im-
perial Dignity in the Houfe of Aujlria, there being no
other in Germany, able by its own ftrength to withlfand
their Arms. Charles King of Spain made ufe of the fame
pretence for the fame purpofe. Belides that, as he wanted
fome years of Peace, he ftrenuoufly infilled upon the pro-
ject of a general Truce, that the Chriftian Princes might
be free to unite their Forces againft the Turks. Francis I,
plainly law, by the defenfive League made againll him,
that a pretence was only fought to invade him, and take
away the Duchy of Milan. So, a general Truce could
not but be advantagious to him in his prefent Circum-
ftances. Befides, he had in view the recovery oi Tour-
nay, which could be accomplifhed but during a Peace.
Henry VIII, knowing that the Pope, the Emperor, and
the Kings of France and Spain had joined in a League
againll the Turks, was apprchenfive that League covered
fome defign againft him. For that reafon, he would not
refufe to enter into the fame ingagement, for fear of giv-
ing them a pretence. Thus the chief Potentates of Eu-
rope being concerned to improve the Crufadc, or at leaft,
not to reject it, the lelTer Powers were alio obliged to
follow the Torrent. This gave the Pope great hopes he
fliould at laft effect his defigns. But as in truth, not
one of the Princes thought the thing practicable, the pro-
ject was ftill very far from being executed.

Whilft Leo X, fed himfelf with thefe hopes, Francis
was thinking much more feriouily of means to recover
Tottrnay, than of the affairs of the Crufade. On the o-
thcr hand, Cardinal V'clfey was afraid of lofing the Ad-
miniftration of the Bifhoprick, becaufe he faw no likeli-
hood of ("owing difcord between France and England, at a
time when all the Princes of Europe fhowed a defire to
live in Pc-i.ce. He could not therefore keep the Admi-
niftration, if Guillard, the true Bifliop, would take the
Oath to the King, to which he feemed inclined. This
made him embrace the fecret offers ot Francis, to make
him ample amends,, if he could induce the King his ma-
iler to reftore that place to France. Francis was very
fenfible, that before all things the Cardinal was to be fa-
tisfied, not only in order to recover Tournay, but to pro-
cure it as cheap as poffible. This was the fubjeit of a
private Negotiation between them, before Henry was in-
formed of it. To fucceed, Francis fpared neither Flat-
teiies nor Promifes, nor Prefents. If Polydore Virgil may
be credited, thefe Prefents were very confiderable. But
however, it was agreed between them, that the Cardinal
ihould be recompenfed for the lofs of the Adminiftration,
with an annual Penlion. That the King of France fhould
give Henry fix hundred thoufand Crowns for Tournay.
But as this Sum was a little too large, an Expedient, men-
tioned hereafter, was found to reduce it to a much lefs.
Upon thefe two Conditions, the Cardinal undertook to
obtain his mailer's Confent to the King of France's de-
l-res. One of lefs AlTurance than the Cardinal, and not
fo fecure of the King's Confidence, would doubtlels, have
been greatly embarraffed, fince the Bufinefs was to con-
\ince the King of the contrary, to what hitherto he
had been endeavouring to make him believe, namely, that
Tournay was no longer neceffary. When Francis I,
would have treated of the reftitution of Tournay, JVolfcy
had reprefented to the King, that both for his own and
England's Intereft, it was of very great confequence to
keep that place, which was moreover a perpetual Monu-
ment of his Victories, whilft it fliould be in his hands.
Now altering his Tone, he undertakes to perfwade, and
indeed does perfwade, him, that the place is of no ufe,
and the maintainance of the Garrifon far outweighs all
the advantages he can receive from thence. That it
was better to yield it to the King of France, who ear-
neftly fued for it, and, to obtain it, fcrupled not to con-
defcend to make Prefents to a Minifter. That nothing
could be more honorable for the King, than to fee that
Monarch make the firft advances to procure his Friend-



616.

610.



fhip, and render it perpetual, by the marriage of die Dau- i^it,
phin with the Princefs Mary, which alfo he propofed.
That therefore the prefent opportunity fhould be improved
to receive a good Sum of Money in lieu of Tournay,
which being fo remote from Calais, would infallibly be
loft upon the firft rupture between the two Crowns.
That hereby the King of France would be obliged to be
his Friend, and their Union would render them Umpires
of Europe. That this Union was the more neceffary, as
it was time to think of oppofing the growing power of
the Houfe of Aujlria, who poffeffing the Empire, Spain,
the Low-Countries, the Kingdoms of Naples and Sici-
ly, were infallibly going to render themfelves very for-
midable to all the Sovereigns, The ftrength of thefe rea-
fons was too manifeft for Henry to refill them. All he
could think ftrange was, that the Cardinal had not fooner
propofed them, but till then had rather ufed directly con-
trary arguments, to hinder the reftitution of Tournay.
But, as it has been remarked, JVolfcy had fuch an afcen-
dent over him, that he could perfwade him Pro and Con
as he pleafed (i).

Henry having agreed to what the Cardinal propofed, Fmiaffy t r
the next thing was to treat upon the matter. As foon France «
as Francis I, was informed of it, he fent a folemn Am- „ en , ry '

Herbert*

baffy to England, confifting of Admiral Bonnivet, Stephen Hall.
Poncher Bifhop of Paris, and M. de Villeroy Secretary of Aa - Pul -
State (2). For form's fake, fome time muft be fpent in X'j'-P- 60 ^
this Negotiation, though the King of France and the Car-
dinal had already agreed upon the chief Articles, by the
mediation of Villeroy, who had been in London ever fince
the beginning of jfuly, whereas his Collegues arrived not
till two months after. The French Ambaffadors had full p. 611,
Powers to treat of the renewing of Friendfhip between
the two Kings ; of a League with the Pope and all
Chriftian Princes who defired to be included in it, for
the defence of Religion and the Church ; of a Marriage
between the Dauphin and the Princefs Mary Daughter of P '
Henry ; of the Reftitution of Tournay, St. Amand, and p.
Mortagne ; and of an Interview of the two Kings. More-
over, they brought Francis's Letters Patents, whereby he
promifed to pay to his good Friend the Cardinal of York,
an annual Penfion of twelve thoufand Livres, in confide-
ration of his relinquifhing the Adminiftration of the Bi-
fhoprick of Tournay. As the Treaties concluded upon
thefe Articles were not ready till the beginning of Oclo-
ber, I fhall briefly mention another affair, tranfacted about
the fame time.

The Pope was ever intent upon the Bufinefs of the
Crufade, from whence he hoped to draw great Sums. He
writ laft year to all Chriftian Princes, to notify the Vic-
tory of Selim Emperor of the Turks, over the Mamalacks
of Egypt, whofe Empire he had utterly deftroyed. The A q_ p,^,
beginning of this year, he caufed the College of Cardinals XIli.p.603.
to fend a Letter to Henry, reprefenting to him, the dan-
ger Chriftendom was in, after the Victory by the Ottoman
Emperor over the Soldan of Egypt, who, according to the
bed advices, was flain in battle. The Cardinals exhorted
the King to undertake the defence of Religion jointly with
all the other Chriftian Sovereigns, with the Pope and fa-
cred College, who were ready to facrifice to that end, their
own, as well as the Church's Treafure. The plain
meaning of all this was, that the King ought to contri-
bute largely towards the Crufadc, his Country being too
remote from Turky to fend Forces thither.

Some time after, the Pope fent Legates a Latere (3) to Campeius ft
fevera! Courts (4), with orders to exhort the Sovereigns J"" " Le -
to accept and preferve a five years Truce, enjoined by his f"' ] £ a ~ _
Apoftolick power. They were likewife to ufe their en- land,
deavours to perfwade them to unite all their Forces, and Herbert,
make war upon the Turk. Cardinal Laurentius Campejus xui.p 6c'6.
was appointed for England, and already departed from 6so.
Rome in the beginning of May, to go and execute his Hal,<
Commiffion. But IVolfey deemed it a very great affront, w , f
that the Pope had not thought of him for this Legatefhip. bimfrlf
So, whilft Campejus was on the road, he fent a trufty r :r -" t '»'*•
Meffenger to Rome, to reprefent to the Pope, that by §'^[' l0 ' t% '
fhowing fo little regard for a Cardinal, actually in Eng- Hollingfh.
land, and the King's Prime Minifter, he put it out of his Po1 - v ' r S'
power to do him any fervice : That whatever he fhould
fay to fupport what the Pope required, would be of no
weight, fince he fhould be confidered as one whom the
Court of Rome durft not truft with the Legatefhip : That
it was rather the Pope's Intereft to make ufe of him to



(1) loiydcrc Virgil obferves, how artfully the Cardinal managed this Affair : He began with making the King a Prefent of fome part of wha*
Francis had given him, that he might thereby incline the King to accept of the friendly Overtures of the Fremb King. Hav;ng thus prepared the
wav, he uli:d the Arguments above-mentioned for the Reftitution of Tournay. Whereupon the King laid, He law plainly now Wolfty wou.d govern
both h mfelf and the King *S Frar.ce. Pol. Virg.

(2) And Frar.cn dt Rrcbccavaid. With no lels than twelve hundred Perfcns in their Train. Sipteiri. 3°- Hi'irrt. p. ji. Ball, fd. 6c.

(3) There are fi t:r forts of Legates. I. They whom the Prpe lends to pnf.de at General Ccuncils t- The Pepe'; perpetual Virars in Countries
rrni^ie trom Rime \ thus before the Reformation, the Archbilhcp of Canterbury was Lcgotui natui slftf.chcee fctlis. 3. 'lh<\ who for a certain t:mc,
end in certain places, arc delegated to convene Syr.cds tor rcltorjng Church-difcipline and other emtigcrcies. 4. *1 ft 1. rre c f Legate is g:\rn to
the Pope's extraordinary Ambntiadors, to Emperors and King*, who ate called legal: a later*. At iteler.t nor.fi Let Ca;a:fid.s luvc this Chaia&er«

{•!■) To England, France, Spain, and Gcrrrany. Hall, fol. 64.



6



obtain



Book XV.



21. HENRY VIII.



739



151S,



Aft- Tub.

Xll/p.6u6

May}!.



Campnus j
Entry into
London.
Hill.



Aft. Pub.
XHI.p.609



lb 1 Levafei
Cemm'jfiitn,



Cardinal
Adrian, de*

fifed*



Aa. Pub.
xiiip.607



p. 609, G22

62J.



LeoX

Ivljhrl to
m.<k' in of-
Jen/inje
1. ' tgue •'
patrtjl tbe
Twk.



621.



obtain his defires, conficlecing the Confidence the King
honoured him with, and that, without his affillanre, the
prefent affair would be in danger of mifcarrying. Leo X,
eafily perceived by this reprcfentation that IVolfey mull be
contented. So by a Bull of the 17th of May, he joined
him with Campejus in the fame Commiffion ( 1 ), giving
them both an equal authority, knowing, ( fays lie in the
Bull directed to IVolfey) your great Credit with the King,
and haw eafily you can perfuiade or dijjwade him. Moan
while, Campejus arriving at Boulogne, IVolfey found means
to detain him there till he had received the Pope's an-
fwer. For which reafon it was the zcjth of 'July before
the Italian Legate made his Entry into London. As he
had but a very poor train, IVolfey fent him twelve Mules
with Coffers richly covered. Hut fome of thefc Coffers
happening to fall, during the Proceflion, and being over-
turned and broken, were found to be empty (2), to the
great Sport and Laughter of the people, who derided this
external Pageantry. There is in the Collection of the Pub-
lick Ails, a Bull of Leo X, with extraordinary powers to
the two Legates, authorizing them to grant a plenary In-
dulgence to the faithful of both Sexes, who fhould be pre-
fent at the Mafs, which either of the Legates fhould ce-
lebrate in the prefence of the King and Queen, or at



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