M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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leaft at the Benediction, provided they contelled their
Sins, or defired to confefs, and were penitent.

The Legates Com million confilted of two points. The
firft was, to try to obtain of the Clergy an Aid of Mo-
ney for the War againlt the Turk. But the Clergy ftood
their ground againlt all their attempts. The fecond was,
to perfwade Henry to join in the projected League with
all the Chriftian Princes for the defence of Religion
and the Church. The Pope's defign was not to under-
take a War againft the Turk, but only to heap up Mo-
ney on that pretence. Thus tlie League he was medi-
tating, was folely to make the world believe he really
intended to war againlt the Infidels. After which, he
had a very plaufible excufc to lay Impofitions upon all
the Clergy, and draw Money from the Sovereigns, and
their Subjects, to bear the Charges of this pretended war.
With this League therefore he was to begin, and upon
that the Legates were commiffioned to treat with the
King, who feemed inclined to agree to it, though he
might eafily forelee the League would fignify nothing.

As Cardinal JVolfey's Credit increafed in England, it
became likewife greater at the Court of Rome. He had
caufed, as was before obferved, Cardinal Adrian de Corncto
to be removed from the Office of the Pope's Collector in
England. But this flight punifhment not fufficing to fa-
tisfy his revenge, he had fo ordered it, that the King
writ to the Pope, defining him to deprive Adrian of the
Cardinalate, and of the Bifhoprick of Bath and Wells,
which had been conferred on him. Leo X could not help
thinking it very ftrange, that the King fhould make fuch
a requelt, without alledging any reafon. However, with-
out giving him a pofitive denial, he contented himfelf
with faying, he would give him fatisfaction at a more
proper Seafon. In 1517, there was a Confpiracy againlt
the Pope, wherein Cardinal Adrian being concerned, was
committed to Prifon. Guicciardini affirms, he was never
more heard of, and that it is not known what became of
him (}). But there is in the Colleclion of the Puhlick Aels,
' a Letter of Cardinal 'Julius de Medici, dated the 5th of
July 1 5 1 S, notifying to the King, that in a Confiftory
held that day, Cardinal Adrian was depofed and ftript of
all his Preferments, intimating withal to the King, that
it was on his account. But it is more probable, he was
punilhed for his Crime againlt the Pope. However this
be, a few days after, the Pope gave Cardinal IVolfey the
Adminiltration of the Bifhoprick of Bath and JVells,
fuppoilng he wanted it to maintain ttie Dignity of Cardinal.

The Negotiation of the two Cardinals proceeded very
flowly, fince it was not fufficient to incline Henry to the
League, but the reft of the Sovereigns were alio to give
their content. Accordingly, the Pope follicited to the ut-
moft of his power all the Potentates, magnifying the dan-
ger to which the Chriltian Religion was going to be in-
fallibly expofed. In fhort, every Prince returning him
the fame anfwer, namely, that it was neceflary all the
Sovereigns fhould unite in this affair, he fent a Bull to
his Legates in England, impowering them to conclude be-
tween the Emperor, and the Kings of France and Spain,

a League againft the Turk. His intent was, tint the tj*3.
League fhould be offenlive, elfe it would be of no ad-
vantage to him, unlefs the Turk really intended to invade
Chriftendom, which was hitherto thought to l> very mi-
certain. But Leo was too well known, for the Princes
to he thus taken in a Snare which tended only to I ■
the Pope matter of their own, and their pcoj
So, pretending zealoufiy to enter into his project, they
contented themfelves with concluding togelhci a defenl
League foi the protection of the Pope, the Ho]
and their rel'peclive Dominions, agaiiift all Ji. - ulei . and
particularly againft the Imp ror oj th< 1 Tli

Pope wiis declared Head of the League, pro idi I In
tilled it within fuch a time. But, the I'rcaty made •
mention of what each of the Allies was to furnifla. All
which fhows, this League, according to the Intention
the Parties, was only to caft a milt before pcopli
to give the Pope fome fatisfaction, and perhaps to frighten
the Turks.

This was not what the Pope defired. He could ha- ■■
wifhed, all the Princes of Christendom had joined to tl
in an offenfive League againft the Turk, and ingaged to it
fend their Forces to Conjlantinoplt, to attack the Otto:,..
Emperor in his Metropolis. In that cafe, he knew, J;
the moft remote would have been eafily induced to fur-
nifti their quota in Money. Since the Frentick Zeal for
Crufades was over, the Popes had loft no occalion to
rekindle the fame zeal, which had formerly procured (o
many advantages to their Predece'iors. But the People j,
well as the Princes were entirely difcouraged, becaufe it
was too vifible that the Crufades had been profitable to
none but the Popes. So, for once, the Chriftian Princes
were contented to make a defenlive League, to fhow on-
ly, they were ready to defend Chrijlcndom againft the
attacks of the Infidels, deferring to take other meafurcs
till they fhould be obliged. Leo X feeing he could ob- A:l p.s.
tain no more, approved and ratified the League the - 1 ft "'' ''■? ,j y '•
of December, after which it was never more mentioned.
All the terrible preparations of the Turks to fall upon
the Chriftians, as was affirmed, entirely vanifhed, as foon
as the Pope found, his Artifices could not produce the
effect he expected.

Whilft thefe things were in agitation, Cardinal IVolfey, Several
jointly with the French Ambaffadors, was employed in Tr """'*e'
preparing the Treaties, agreed upon, to he figned. France and


The firft related to the marriage between the Prin- j, j>„,_ „/•
cefs Mary and the Dauphin, which was to be folemnized Marring,

as foon as the young Prince fhould be full fourteen years h ff a "">
old, each of the two Kings promifing to pay five hundred ar 'd m

and Miry.

thoufand Crowns, in cafe it was his fault that the Mar- p- 624.64.1.
riage was not compleated. Mary's Dower was to be
three hundred thirty three thoufand Crowns of Gold, one
half to be paid on the day of Marriage, and the other
within a year after. The jointure was to be as grc.it
as had ever been afligned to any Queen of France, and
particularly to Ann of Bretagne, and Mary of England,
Wives to Lewis XII.

The fecond Treaty was upon the reftitution of Tournay, II. Treaty
for which Francis I, ingaged to pay Henry fix hundred ,: "■'*' Tour *
thoufand Crowns of thirty-five-pence Tournois each, be- £. 6+ j.
fides fifty thoufand Livres Tournois due to him from the Hall.
Inhabitants (;). But out of thefe two fums Francis was
to keep back the Princefs Mary's Dower. As to the
payments, he obliged himfelf to pay fifty thoufand Livres
upon taking polTeffion of the place, and then twenty-five
thoufand Livres every fix months tUl the whole fum
was paid (6).

The third Treaty concerned the Outrages which mighl
be committed for the future againft the Peace, by the " .
Subjects of either King, and contained certain regulations Ac:. Pub.
to procure fpeedy reparation. XIIl.p.649.

By the fourth, the two Monarchs agreed upon an in- ]v Tr . „

terview in the Village of Sandinfelt, between Ardres and a!


j p. 6-9.

Thefe Treaties being figned the 14th of Osfsber, Cantitl
the French AmbafTadors gave Cardinal IVolfey their Maf- Wolfey «
ter's Letters Patents, whereby he bound himfelt to pay
him an annual Penfion of twelve thoufand Livres Tour-
nois, to fatisfy him for the lofs of the Bifhoprick of Tcur-


ft; At the requelt of King Iltnry, and the King of f rar.ee. HMinglb. p. 845.

■ Z) In Cbeapjide one ot the Mules broke loofe from her Lender, and overturned her own and two or three 01" rhe ether Mules Carriages ; which
fell with fuch violence, that l'everal of them unlocked, and there tell out of them old Hole, torn Shoes, pieces of roalted Meat, bits of Bread,
Eigs, and inch vile Baggage. Halt, foi 64.

,3 Polyiire Virgil fays. Adrian bequeathed a rmgnincent Palace in Rem:, to the King of England his Patron, which was called the i
Palace, and is now potfeffed by the Family of CcUnnj.

;4J Lord Herbert lays, this Treaty is lingular in its kind, and an excellent Precedent for Peace to future Ages ; and therefore recites it more a
large, becaufe (as he lays) it leems to have been the Rule by which tier.ry framed his Actions many years alter. See p. 31, ot the Camp, ti ;t.
Vol. it.

(5) The who'e was but fifty thoufand, whereof part was paid. See Rymtr, p. 64a. Our Hiitorians lay, the Arrears that remained da; were
twenty three th >ufand Livres. Hall, foi. 6 c j and o'niu, p. 507.

'if*) lnurnuj was d;livcrod up ta the King of France on Fair* S. 1519. Hall, ijU 67,




Efpoutjfs of
the Dauphin

xuitb Mary.

Death of [be
Emperor %

Francis and
Charles af-
pirc to the


Vol. I.

The Pope's

Death of
Lorenzo de


Tbc Pope
laps Flo-
rence, and
governs it
by a Legate.

He annexes
tie Dueij
of Urbino
to the

The Eleilor
meets to
chufe an
Pol. Virg.

Henry af-
fires to tie

King °f

Spain is


As foon as the two Kings had ratified the Treaties,
and folemnly fwore to the Peace at London and Paris,
the King and Queen of France, acting in the name of
the Dauphin their Son, affianced the Princefs Mary, re-
prefented by the Earl of IVorccJler (1) her Proxy. This
Ceremony was performed at Paris the 21ft of Decem-
ber (2).

Europe enjoyed then a profound Tranquillity. But upon
the death of the Emperor Maximilian (3), the 12th of
'January 1 5 1 9, new troubles arofe. By his death, France,
Spain, Italy, Germany, England, Scotland, the Low-Coun-
tries, were ingaged in Wars no lefs fatal to them than
the former. As foon as Maximilian was in his Grave,
the Kings of France and Spain openly declared them-
felves Candidates for the Empire, and began to cabal
among the Electors to obtain their defires. This threw
the Electors into great perplexity. On which fide foever
they turned, they faw for themfelves, for Germany, for
all Europe, advantages and inconveniencies which deferr-
ed their whole attention. It would have been the inter-
eft of Germany to keep the ballance even between the
two Monarchs who afpired to the imperial dignity, and
to reject both. But by chufing one of the Competitors,
fuch fuperiority would be given him as could not but be
fatal to all Europe, and particularly to Germany. I fball
not farther infift upon the reafons which the Electors
had to chufe one or reject both. It is well known, on
thefe occafions, the publick good does not always ferve
for rule and foundation to form decifions of this nature.
Leo X wifhed, as it was indeed his intereft, the Electors
would agree to chufe one of their own Body. Charles
being pollefled of the Kingdom of Naples, and Framis
of the Duchy of Milan, the election of one of thefe Mo-
narchs could not but one day difturb the peace of Italy,
and prove deftrudtive to the papal power. Accordingly
the Pope ufed his utmoft endeavours to perfwade the
Electors to take that courfe. But however, he was for-
ced to act privately for fear of making the two Candi-
dates his Enemies, by openly declaring againft them.

VVhilft the refolution of the Electors was impatiently
expected, Lorenzo de Medici the Pope's Nephew, was
feized with a diitemper that laid him in his Grave. By
this unexpected accident, that branch of the Family of
Medici was reduced to the Perfon of the Pope, fole law-
ful defcendent of Co/mo the Great, who firft acquired the
Sovereignty of Florence. Some endeavours were ufed to
perfwade the Pope to reftore his Country to liberty ; but
he did not love the Florentines well enough to fuffer them
to enjoy fo valuable a blefling, of which he had taken fo
much pains to deprive them. Refolving therefore to keep
that State, he fent Cardinal Julius de Medici natural
Son of Julian his Uncle, to govern in his name. Short-
ly after, he annexed the Duchy of Urbino to the Church,
and razed the Walls of the Capital, for fear la Rovere
mould think of recovering it.

The Electors being affembled to proceed to the Elec-
tion of an Emperor, Francis and Charles fent Ambaffa-
dors to the Allembly to manage their concerns. The
Pope would have a Nuntio there too, who had orders
privately to endeavour to caufe them both to be rejected ;
but however, to conform himfelf outwardly to the difpo-
fition of the Electors. Henry VIII perceiving the difficul-
ties which would occur in the choice of either of the
Candidates, fent Richard Pace to the Diet to try whe-
ther there was any thing to be expected for him. But
as he thought of it too late, his Ambaffador found the
affair fo advanced, that he did not think fit to expofe the
King's honour. He writ to him therefore, that indeed fome
of the Electors (4) fhowed an inclination to favour him :
That the Pope would have likewife fupported him to the
utmoft of his power, had he declared fooner ; but that
matters were fo ordered, that the Election would infallibly
be over before proper meafures could be taken to accom-
plifh his project. And indeed, a few days after, on the
28th of June, Charles King of Spain was declared Em-
peror, by the name of Charles V, or rather of Charles
Qdnt, as he was then , and ftill is called to this
day (5).

The Election of Charles was a terrible mortification icio.
to Francis I. All the World immediately thought, the 7 "'•"?,'> 5 /
jealoufy between thefe two potent Princes would infalli- 5^™™/ «-
bly occafion bloody Wars ; and this opinion was but too cafiemi of
well confirmed by experience. Befides the King of France's %£""' *'"
jealoufy, which was, doubtlefs, one of the chief caufes of charlti -.-•
the following rupture, there were differences between Fra ici
them of very great importance, and extremely difficult Ciueaarf.
to adjuft. Francis I, had pretenfions to the Kingdom
of Naples. Moreover by the Treaty of Noyon, Charles
was bound to reftore Navarre to Henry a" Albret, with-
in four months after figning the Treaty, and this Article
was yet unperformed. On the other hand, Charles, as
Heir of the Houfe of Burgundy, believed he had a law-
ful title to the Duchy of that name. He pretended that
after the death of the laft Duke his Great- Grandfather,
Lewis XI had unjuftly feized it, upon a bare Allegation
that it was a Male Fee, though the contrary was evident.
He had fuffered his title to lie dormant during liis Mino-
rity. But after he was of Age he had thoughts of revi-
ving it, and the imperial Dignity lately obtained, helped
very much to confirm him in that refolution. The Du-
ally of Milan was another caufe of difputc, which would
naturally beget a War between thefe two Monarchs. It
could not be denied that it was a Fief of the Empire,
and yet Lewis XII had feized it, and Francis I, re-con-
quered it, and was now in pofleffion, without eithcr's be-
ing inverted by the Emperor Maximilian, or fo much
as defiring it. Charles therefore could alledge it was his
duty to maintain the rights of the Empire, and endea-
vour to difpoffefs the King of France of that Duchy.
The Duke of Gueldres afforded another occafion of
quarrel between thefe two Monarchs. He was a p r o-
feffed Enemy to the Emperor, and France protected him
openly. Finally, the Treaty of Noyon gave Charles a-
nother caufe of complaint. He pretended, Francis had
extorted from him fo difadvantagious a Treaty, by
threatening War when his affairs neceffarily required his
prefence in Spain, to take poffeffion of his Kingdoms :
That therefore the Refignation of the Kingdom of Na-
varre, and the Penfion of a hundred thoufand Crowns,
to which he had been ingaged, under the fpecious pretence
of a maintainance for the Princefs his future Spoufe, were
nothing elfe but the price of a Peace he had been made
to purchafe.

But though thefe two Monarchs looked upon each o- j„ rr „ji, c r
ther with a jealous and envious Eye, and wanted not tie Prinai
pretences for a War, neither of them durft however be- '/ Euro r e -
gin before he had founded the reft of the Sovereigns.
And how they flood affected will alfo be neceflary to
know, for the better underftanding the Sequel, the inter-
efts of Princes giving to Hiftory a perfpicuitv, which
without that affiftance is fought for in vain.

Leo X was equally afraid of the two Monarchs, being o/Leo X.
fenfible, to which fide foever the Ballance inclined, Ita-
ly muft be in danger. If he could have fet them at va-
riance without making Italy the feat of the War, he
would freely have done it. But that was not poffible.
Much lefs was it in his power to ftand Neuter. The
reafon is, becaufe he could not hinder the contefts about
Naples and Milan from being decided by Arms, and
therefore could not avoid interpofing in a quarrel, which
would fo nearly concern him. He took therefore the
courfe which beft agreed with his temper, and that was
to be referved and manage both the Monarchs, till he
found it his intereft to declare himfelf. But through all Mezerai.
his difguifes, he difcovered however fome partiality to the
Emperor, in the grant of a difpenfation to hold the Em-
pire with the Kingdom of Naples, though that was direct-
ly contrary to the Terms on which he had given him
the inveftiture of that Kingdom. Francis complained of
it, but the Pope excufed it as not having in his power to
refufe, without involving himfelf in troubles from which
it would not have been eafy for him to be delivered.

As for Henry VIII, the pofture of affairs between 0/( H
Charles and Francis might have rendered his Reign very VIII.
glorious, had he not entirely given himfelf up to the in-
terefted Counfels of Cardinal JVoljey. He had it in his

(1) Rapin milbking iho N.ime for the Title fays Somerfet. He was accompanied in hit Embafly to Frame by Nicolas Weft Biihop of Ely, the

Lord St. Join, Sir Nicolas Vaux, Sir John Pechy, and Sir Thomas Bulleyn. Hall, M. 66.

(2) This year was inltitutcd the College of Phyfttians in London. King Henry's Charter for that purpofe bears date Oclober 23. By the Ap-
pointment, in this Corporation, or College, are included the Phyficians in London, and feven miles round that City. The Phyficians nafTjed in the
Charter, are, John Chamber, Thomas Linacre, Fcrnand de Victoria, Nicolas Halfelvell, John Francis, and Robert Yaxley. Rymcr's Feed. Tom. 13,
p. 654.

(5) He was King of the Romans, and called Emperor, though never crowned by that Title. Some (ay, the reafon was becaufe he declined the
Charge arid Hazard of going into Italy to receive the Imperial Crown— M the Pope's hands. He l'pent his lcilure-hoars in foelry, wiiting the
Hilrory of hi; Lite in Daub Vcrfe. As Knight of the Garter, his Obfequy was folemnly kept in St. Paul's, by our King and the Knights of that
Order. Herbert, p. 34.

(4) The Electors of Mentz, Cologne, and Triers, flood fo aft'efied, that Tace thought if our King had put in fooner, he would have craried it.
Herbert, p. 33.

(5) Inllead of fpending his Money in bribing the Electors, as Francis did, particularly the Marquifs of Brandenburgh, he la'd it out in raifing nu-
merous Forcer, which he brought to Frar.cfort. Whereupon the Majority of the Electors {vise, the Archbilhops of Mentz. and Cologne, the Count
Pttlal ,, and the Duke of o'aaflry, J being thereby terrified and over-awed, agreed to chufe him. There were then but leven Electors, which, to-
gether with the four ju(t now mentioned, were the Archbifiiop of Treves or 'Triors, the Marquifs of Brandenburgh, and the King of Bolsemia. See
Guicciard. I. 13. The E'eftorate 'if Bavaria was appointed in 1648, and that of Brunp.iM-Luntnlmgb.liir.ntr, j n 1693.

5 power

Book XV.



1 5 1 9. power to preferve the peace of Europe, by keeping the
Ballance even between the two Rivals, without fuffeiing
it to incline too much to either fide. This was his
grand intereft as well as the Kingdom's, and accordingly
this was his refolution. Hence it was that he frequent-
ly ingaged in one or other fide, but not always as the
intereft of Europe, the welfare of his Realm, and his
own Glory required. Thus whilft he thought to follow
the maxims of good policy, he ferved, without perceiving
it, to gratify the paffions of his Minifter, as will be ken
Both Mo- Charles and Francis were fo convinced of the advanta-
nanbstry 10 g es to <^ e rea p e j f rom t ] K . King of England's Friendfhip,
%'manarf tnat tnev neglected nothing which they thought would
Wolfey. procure it. The beft or rather the only means to that
Herbert. en j was t0 g a ; n Cardinal Wolfey to their interefts. And
therefore, they fpared neither Flatteries nor Promifes, nor
Prefents, to make him their Friend. They took occafion
fometimes to write to him, on purpofe to ftile him Their
Friend, Their Father. In their Letters they extolled his
Virtue, his Prudence, his Capacity, in fuch affected Terms,
that he mutl have been blind not to fee, they had farther
Their Ca- views than to exprefs their efteem for him. Wolfey made
'4T" "";"'!' good ufe of thefe Teftimonies of their Friendfhip, to ob-
Ctedit, ' ferve to his Matter how formidable he was to thefe two
Monarchs, fince they did not difdain even to carefs his
Minifter. But withal, it ferved him to infinuate how far
liis own merit excelled that of other Minifters, frnce it
was univerfally known. All this produced the effect he
expected. Henry deemed hirnfelf the Arbiter of Europe,
and remained fo perfuaded of his P'avorite's Capacity, that
he no longer faw but with his Eyes, or acted but by his
•He Cdrdi- Thus Wolfey was then at the top of the Wheel. He
rat's Pre- was Favorite, Prime Minifter, Lord Chancellor, Admi-
famm,. niftrator of the Bifhoprick of Bath and Wells, Archbi-
fliop of York, fole Legate a Latere, Campejus his Col-
legue being recalled. He had a Penfion from the Em-
peror, and the King of France, and received an immenfe
profit from his Chancellorfhip, by the Privileges annex-
ed thereto by the King. Befides this, the King never
ceafed making him Prefents, and giving him continual
occafions of increafrng his Incomes. On the other hand,
the Pope, the Emperor, the King of France, and the Re-
publick of Venice, ltrove with emulation to gain his Good-
Will, and feemed, as I may fay, to glory in their depen-
AS. Pub. dence upon him. The beginning of the year, Francis I
Xin-p.691. f ent n \ m Letters Patents, whereby he confented, that he
fhould alone regulate the Ceremonies of his Interview with
Henry, giving him thereby an authentick Teftimony of
his confidence in his probity, upon a point of which
Kings are commonly very jealous. Mean while, the ad-
vances fuch great Princes made the Cardinal, did not
argue fo much their efteem for him, as their fear of lofing
Henry h the Friendfhip of the King his Mafter. Francis I, to
Godfather to gj ve }f mr y a f rem mark of his refpect, defined him to
jLotJ Sw. ftand Godfather to his fecond Son, afterwards King of
Herb.rt. France by the name of Henry II. Thefe things demon-
it rate Henry's happy fituation, and how glorious his Reign
might have been, had he wifely improved thefe Advanta-
ges. But unfortunately for him, inftead of acting for hirn-
felf and his own Glory, he laboured in effect for his Fa-
vorite's interefts.
Cardial It would have been hard to conceive to what height

Wol'fey'a the Cardinal's Pride was carried, if all the Hiftorians
had not taken care to defcribe it, and all in the fame
Colours. The Legatefhip of Campejus fetting that Car-
dinal upon a level with him, he could not long bear
Aa. Pub. that equality. By his credit at Rome he had caufed him
Xiii. p-734- to be recalled ( 1 ), and hirnfelf appointed fole Legate,
Burnet." 8 w ' tn P ower to ^ifi* tne Monafteries, and all the reft of
the Clergy (z). To obtain this Coinmiilion, he had
taken care to defame to the Pope all the Clergy of the
Kingdom, intimating, how neceffary it was to commit


the reforming of them to his care (3). But this was ijio.
only to increafe his Authority, and fubject the whole
Church of England to his Orders. When he faw him- "- -If!"
felf inverted alone with the Dignity of Legate, he let
loofe, if I may fo fay, the Reins to his Vanity. He faid iv \
Mafs after the manner of the Pope hirnfelf, riot only Bi- "

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