M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fhops ferving him therein, but Earls and Dukes giving him ' ^
Water and the Towel. When he walked into the City, nX'gih.
two Crones were carried before him by two of the tail-
eft Prielts that could be found, mounted on the higheft
Horfes. One of thefe Crofies was that of Legate, and
the other that of York. At firfl thefe things ferved on-
ly for diverfion to the People, who paffed their jefts up-
on this external Pomp (4). Put prefently after, were felt
much more grievous effects of the Power affumed by the
Legate. A new Court of juflice was erected, tailed the Tbt J
Legate's Court, the jurifdiction whereof extended to all c "". "
actions relating to conference; that is, properly fpeak- p«j.Virg.
ing, to all the actions of Life, fince there is fcarce any Herbert.
but whcie Confeience may be fome way concerned. One Hullul E< h -
John allien, being made Judge of this new Court, com-
mitted numberlefs Rapines and Extortions, under co-
lour of reforming the Manners of the People, though he
was hirnfelf a Perfon of an infamous Character (5). Strict Herbert,
enquiry was made into the Life and Manners of every
Body, which gave occafion to the new Judge to opprefs
all that obftinately refufed to compound withhim. Par-
ticularly, he pretended that his Jurifdiction readied to all
Suits arifing from Wills or Marriage- Contracts, and drew
to his Court numberlefs Caufes, without the King's Judges
daring to oppofe it (6). On the other hand, the Legate
treated the Clergy with inconceivable rigour, and confer-
red all the Benefices of the Kingdom on his Creatures,
without troubling hirnfelf about the Rights of the Churches,
the Monafteries, or the Patrons. This is what had ever
occafioned violent quarrels between the Kings of Eng-
land and the Court of Rome, and given birth to the fa-
mous Statute of Presmunire, daily violated by the Legate,
the King fufferin , in him things which he would not
doubtlefs have aliuwed in the Pope hirnfelf, and being
informed no farther than the Cardinal plc.fed. At laft,
the Archbifhop of Canterbury, feeing fo many oppreiTions,
thought it his duty to acquaint the King, who feemed
furprized, and charged the Archbifhop to tell the Cardi-
nal, that it was his pleafure he fhould amend whatever
was amifs(7). The effect of this Remonftrance was, that HcrVnt.
the Cardinal ftill more hated the Archbifhop for whom he VrA vir s-
had already conceived an averfion, for fubferibing hirnfelf H '" 6
in one of his Letters, Your Brother of Canterbury (8). But
fhortly after, one John London a Prieft (9), boldly accuf-
ing the Judge of the Legate's Court, it was not polTrble
to hinder the affair from coming to the King's know-
ledge. As the Judge was convicted of numberlefs Mifde-
meanours, the King fo reprimanded the Cardinal, that
from thenceforward he became, if not better, yet more
wary at leaft.

The Grandeur, Riches, Power, and Authority enjoyed Cardinal
by Wolfey in England, were not capable of fatisfying his %v ' olfe ' r ">'
Ambition, whilit there was ftill one ftep higher to which p'.'pedom by
a Churchman could afcend. He had begun fome time " ; «™ >f '*»
fince to take meafures to become Pope, when the See SXnrfa
fhould be vacant, and the King of France had now of-
fered him the Votes of fourteen Cardinals. But fince
Charles was elected Emperor, Wolfey thought him molt
capable to procure him the Papacy, and probably, conti-
nued a private Negotiation with him. For that purpofe,
he gradually difengaged the King his mafter from the
Intereft of France, to turn him to the Emperor. Mean
while, he believed he could not, without too much dif-
covering hirnfelf, hinder the Interview of Francis and
Henry, which had been deferred till the year 1 520 (10).
But he well knew how to prevent the ill-effects this In-
terview might produce againft the Emperor his new friend.
Befides, he could not think of lofing the pleafure of ap-



(1) John Clarke, Doftor of Law, was fent to Rome for this purpofe. The Pope's Ommlffun to We/fey is dated June 10. 1519. Herbert, p. 31.

(:) By Virtue of his Lcgatine Commillion, he might fummon the Archbilhop of Canterbury, and all other Bilhnps within the King's Dominions, to
affemble at his Convocation. He might fuperintend and con-eft what he thought irregular within their Juiiidiclions ; appoint all Officers in the Spiritual
Courts, and prefent to all Ecclefiaftical Benefices; cunftitute Matters of Faculties and M Ulers of Ceremonies, to advance his Dignity, and exercii'e a vifirato-
rial Power over Momfteries and Colleges, and all the Clergy, exempt and not exempt ; and this for one whole year, from the date of the Bull. Fidda
Life of Wolfey, p. 100. Rymer, Tom. XIII. p. 734.

(3) The Clergy were fo defamed by the Cardinal's Information, that they were termed, Dati In repnbum fenfum, given up to reprobate Safe, and the
like, in the original Bull among our Records, which Lord Herbert fays, he Ihould have inferted at large, but that it is too long and infamous to the
Hierarchy and ail religious Pcrlons, p. 31. Compl. Hijl. The Cardinal intended to vifit all the Monafteries in England, that discovering theii
corruptions, he might the better juftify the Defign he had to fupprefs moll of them, and convert them into Bilhopiicks, Cathedrals, Cullegiate Churches,
and Colleges ; but was diverted from his Delign. However, he led the way, to the total Supprellion of them that followed alterwaid,. Burners Ref.
Tom. I. p. 20.

(4) Infomuch that Polydore Virgil fays, it grew to a left, as if one Crofs did not fuffice for the expiation of his Sins.

(5) He was thought to be guilty of Perjury. Herbert, p. 33. Pol. Virg.

(6) He had a great number of Spies and Informers dilperl'ed every where, to let him know what Livings became vacant, that he might nil them up imme-
diately ; and what Perfons of note died in every Town or Parilh, that he might cite their Executors to prove the Wills in his Court, Ibid.

(7) Polydort Virgil fays, the King replied to the Archbilhop, That he jhould not ba-ve heard oftbefe things but by hi* ; idJinc, tlat no Mar. is ft
blind anywhere as in hn own Houfe ; therefore, I pray you, (fays he) Father, go to Woliey, and tell him, if any th.ng be amjs thai te amend it. Her-
bert, p. 33.

(S) When the Bearer of the Letter informed the Archbilhop what offence the Cardinal had taken at hi; Subfcription, he faid. with fome lliew of Re-
fentment, Peace, knvuoeft thou not that the Man is inebriated Wltb Profperity. Hollingfh. p. 848.
(9) Rapin, by miftake, calls him a Priejl of London. Sec Herbert, p. 33.
(roi Both Kings in the mean while agreeing, not to cut off their Beards till they faw one another. Herbert, p- 34*

No. XXXVIII. Vol, I. 9B paring



742



Tie HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



r 519. pearing before the Court of France with a magnificence
little inferior to that of a King, and of feeing himfelf, in
the prefence of the Englijh, honoured and careffed by the
King of France, and his whole Court, as he would pro-
bably be. This was an opportunity which a perfon fo fond
of pageantry and orientation could not neglect.
Affairs of The Emperor had reafon to carefs Cardinal Wolfey.
Spain. j_j e j^j met j n Sp a { n w j tn unexpected difficulties. The

Cajlilians and Arragonians were bent to preferve their Pri-
vileges, which were continually attacked by the Emperor's
Flemijh Counfellors. On the other hand, the Emperor,
on pretence of the Crufade publilhed by the Pope, having
demanded a Tenth of the Clergy, that demand had cauf-
ed throughout Spain Troubles which very much embarraf-
fed that Prince. There had been ulfo an Infurreclion in
TttEmpmr Auftria which was not appeafed without difficulty. In
and King of fhort, the King of France was privately labouring to raife
% Court the Emperor troubles in Naples, Sicily, Navarre, and to
Wolfey'i withdraw his Allies from him. All this made Henry's
Friattjbif. F r iendfhip f ncceffary to him, that it is no wonder he
fhould endeavour to win the Cardinal to his fide, fince
the Minifter's Credit was the only way to gain the ma-
iler. The King of France ufed the fame method, which
exceedingly increafed the Cardinal's pride; who feeing
himfelf courted by tliefe two Monarchs, had it in his
power, if I may fo fay, to fet what price he pleafed upon
his Services.
Affairs of Whilft all the World was impatiently expecting the
Scotland. e ff ec ~t of the Jealoufy between the Emperor and King
of France, the affairs of Scotland ftill lemained in the
fame fituation, that is, in extreme diforder becaufe of the
Regent's abfence. When he went from Scotland lie
hoped to return in kw Months, but was not fuffered to
France en- f ]j w his Inclination. Francis I, forefeeing the want he
Tat" the Duke m 'ght have of England, had made a private Treaty with
cf Albany Henry, promiiing to detain the Duke of Albany in France.
in France. Thus Henry obtained by another way, what the Parlia-
ment of Scotland had plainly refufed him. It was very
eafy to conceive, why he oppofed the Duke of Albany's
return. His delign was to throw Scotland into trouble and
confufion, to have an opportunity to interpofe in the affairs-
of that Kingdom, under colour of fupporting the Interefts
of the young King his Nephew. He could not therefore
execute it better, than by fomenting Difcord among the
Nobility, which the Regent's prefence might have reme-
died. But the War which afterwaids broke out between
Charles and Francis, and wherein he was but too much
concerned, prevented the profecution of his deiigns againft
Scotland. Probably this fayed the Kingdom, which o-
therwife was in great danger of being eonquered by the
Englijh.
Difcovtry f Before I clofe the year 1 5 1 9, I muff not forget to re-
Mexico ar.d mark, that this year the Emperor received the news of the
cw-Spais. ^jfcoyejy^ an j beginning of the Conqueft of Mexico and
New-Spain. The mention of this particular is the more
neceffary, though it feems foreign to our Hiftory, as it
was the Gold and Silver wherewith the new World fur-
nifhed Spain, that contributed moft to render Charles V fo
powerful as he will hereafter appear. Befides, Money
growing more plenty, by the Trade carried on by other
Countries with Spain, the Reader mult not be furprized to
find hereafter more numerous Armies, greater magnificence
in Princes Courts, and the Dowries of Princeffes much
larger than before. But Spain firft improved the Gold
and Silver of the new World, and was thereby enabled,
hi the Reigns of Clxtrles Vth, and Philip lid, to afpire to
Univerfal Monarchy (1).
K20, The Confidence placed by Francis I in Cardinal Wol-
Ti-c Regain- ley, in giving him power to regulate his Interview with
'*' Henry, would have been very honourable for that Mini-
' . tie ftetj 'f> on 'he other hand, this proceeding had not fhewn
iiis little efteem for him, as believing him liable to Cor-
'' w j ',;'• motion. Be this as it will, Wolfey, by virtue of Powers
XHl.p.705. received from the two Kings, made the 12th of March
Marcl iz. 1 5 20, a Regulation, importing, among other things, " that
V* " the Interview fhould be on the 4th of 'June (2) be-

Huiiimft. " tween Ardres and Guifncs ; That the King of Eng-
" land fhould go towards Ardres, as far as conveniently
" he could (3), without palling however the Englijh Pale,



" and the King of France fhould meet him at the place 152ft
" where he fhould flop." Hence, he fo ordered it, that
Francis paid the firft Vilit to Henry. But he affigned for
reafon, that the King his mailer having crollcd the Seas,
on purpofe to do his Friend honour, it was very juft.,
Francis fhould in fome meafure make him amends, by
advancing, to receive him, a little beyond the Limits of
his own Territories in fome open place appointed by De-
puties on either fide. The reft of the regulation concerned
the fafety of the two Monarchs, their Queens, the Queen
Dowager of France, Sifter of Henry, Louifa of Savoy Du-
chefs of AngouUme, Mother to Francis I, the Trains of
the Princes and Princeffes who were to affift at the Inter-
view, the place where the two Kings were to meet and
confer together, and laftly, the Diverfions which the two
Courts were to take.

During the time between the Regulation and the Inter- FrancisfMi
view, Francis caufed the Cardinal to be founded, to know ^"^ '"
whether, by his means, he could not prevail with Hcnry\,^ t „ u p,
to reftore Calais for a Sum of Money. This propofal was, Herbert,
doubtlefs, attended with fecret promifes to the Cardinal,
anfwerable to fo great a Service, fince he did not think
fit to reject it. He durft not however fpeak of it directly But h, dares
to the King ; but tried fo to manage, that others fhould m Mgfi "
infpire him with the thought, that in cafe the King ad-
vifed with him upon it, he might give his opinion more
ireely. To that end, in his Conveifation he would fre-
quently turn the Difcourfe upon Calais, and fay, as it
were accidentally, What have we to do with this Calais,
that [lies on the Continent and] cojls us fo much ? It zuere
to be wi/hed we were honejlly rid of it ! This artifice fail-
ing, he never ventured to make the King fo extraordinary
a propofal, and the rather as, being rd'olved to engage
with the Emperor, he was not fo defirous to oblige the
King of France.

The time of the Interview approaching, Henry{\) came Henry fat
to Canterbury the 25th of May, in order to pafs his IVhit- TJ'Z'*'
funtide there, and then proceed to Calais. But next day jt e Emperor
news was brought him, that the Emperor was landed at ' r " T " *
Dover. This arrival furprized the whole Court, and per- u n er '
haps the King himfelf. But the Cardinal had no reafon Stow".
to be furprized, fince the Emperor had the 29th of March Holling*.
laft, promifed by Letters Patents dated from Compojiella,
to give or caufe to be given him by the Pope, the Bi-
fhoprick of Badajos (5), within two months after the Con-
ference he was to have in perfon with the King of Eng-
land, as appears in the Collection of the Publick Aits. Hence Aft. Pub.
it is plain, the Emperor's Journey to England had been xm.p.7:^
refolved ever fince March, at leaft between the Emperor
and the Cardinal. But it is uncertain whether the King
was informed of it. However this be, the Cardinal was
commiffioned to go and welcome the Emperor at Dover,
where the King came alfo on the morrow. Then the
two Monarchs went together to Canterbury, where Henry
fent for his Queen, who was extremely glad to fee
her Nephew the Emperor, having never feen him before (6).
The Emperor's aim in this vifit was to diffuade the King Hniiinglt.
from the Interview with Francis ; but he could not fuc- Po1 - V "S-
ceed, Henry making him fenfible, he could not recede
with honour. But very likely he had alfo in view, the
fecuring of Cardinal Wolfey, in order to gain, by his means,
the King to his Intereft. It is the common opinion, his tit pnmifct
Journey was not fruitlefs, but that he could obtain the * p °*>f-
Cardinal's favour, only by promifing to ufe all his Credit woliey.
to raife him to the Papacy, in cafe Leo X died before him.
Though the Emperor had not obtained all his defires, he
departed however very well fatisfied with his vifit. Henry
having promifed not to enter into any Ingagement with the
King of France to his prejudice (7). On the 30th ofHalL
May, Charles proceeded to Flanders, and Henry to Ca-
lais^).

I fhall not ftay to defcribe the Interview of the two The Inter.
Monarchs between Ardres and Guifncs, as regulated by ""** y*.
the Cardinal. Whilft it lafted, there was nothing but Henry.
Entertainments, Tournaments, Balls, Mafquerades, and Herbert,
other Diverfions, wherein the two Courts mixed to their ?J 0W /
mutual fatisfaction. Every "thing on both fides was fo HolUngfli-
magnificent, that the Aflembly was called, the Camp of
the Cloth of Gold (9). But amidft all the pleafures which

the



(1) Htrnando Cortes, Undertaker of the Expedition to America, going, in the year rerS, with about four hundred Foot, and fifteen Horfe, and feveri
little Fkld pieces, into many populous but divcrfly affected Kingdoms, did fo deXteroufly behave himfelf, that playing the part fometimes of an Ambaffa-
dor, and fometimes of a Soldier, he prevailed himfelf of all. And in conclufion, notwithftanding the opposition of his Countrymen and Enemies, laid a
Foundation of a greater Dominion than any Man before him did. Herbert, p. 34. See Don Ant. de Softs Hiji. of Mexico.

(2) Within four days after the end of May. Ryn.tr, p. 707, (3) A Mile. Ibid.

(4) He fet out from Greenwich. May 21. Strut, p. 50S.

(5) In EJIremadura ; worth five thoufand Ducats yearly. The Town of Badajos is deemed one of the Bulwarks of Spain. The Earl of Galkivay, who
commanded the Britijh Troops in thole parts, had his right hand (hot off here.

(6) The Emperor law iikewife the Queen Dowager of France, Henry's Siller, once propofed for his Wife, at the light of whom (fays Pelydore) he was
fo lad, (me being a celebrated Beauty) that he could not be perluaded to dance. Herbert, p. 36.

(7) The Treaty of Commerce made between England and Germany in 1506, was alfo now confirmed. Rymer's Fatd. Tom. XIII. p. 714, &c.
(3j Seethe Lilts of the Noblemen and others that attended the King and Queen, in Rymcr's Feed. Tom. XIII. p. 710,711.

(9) The King caui'ed a Building 32S Foot fquare to be erected, from which a private Gallery reached to tjie Caflle of Guifnes. The parts of
rhis great Building were artificially framed in En.rJ.ind, and afterwards taken afunder and brought home. The Model whereof, Lord Herbert fays,
vtm at Greenwich in his time. The, two Kingi met, on the. 7th of June, \n the Vale 0/ Ajidrtn, and alighting, walked hand in hand to a Tent



Book XV.



20. HENRY VIIL



743



TrfJty be

tween them.
At\. Pub.
X11I. p.719,
June 6.



Henry gctt
to fee the
E*nf>erur at
Graveling.



returns bit

Vifit.
Hall.

StiAV.

Holiingrti



the two Courts took together, the affairs however were
not neglected. The following Articles were agreed upon
by the two Kings at their Conferences : That after Francis
fhould have paid the million of Crowns, according to
the late Treaty, he fhould give Henry an annual pen lion,
lor life, of a hundred thoufjnd Lb/res Tournois ( 1 ) ; That
in cafe the Dauphin fhould become King of England by
his marriage with the Princefs Alary, the penfion fhould
be continued to Mary and her Heirs for ever j That the
differences between the Kings of England and Scotland,
(hould be referred to the arbitration of Louifa of Savoy
the King of France's Mother, and the Cardinal of Tori:
The two Kings parted not till the 24-th of June, af-
ter palfing about three weeks together, in continual Di-
verfions.

Henry being returned to Calais, was plcafed before he
repafTed into England, to repay the vifit received from the
Emperor at Canterbury. To that cn<\, he came to Grave'
ling the 10th of 'July, and returned the lame day to Calais.
Tit Emperor Q n tne morroW5 t j 1L . Emperor, with the Lady Margaret
his Aunt, Governefs of the Low-Countries, came to fee
Henry at Calais, and flayed three days with him. Thefe
mutual vifits made Francis extremely jealous, and not
without reafon. Probably, in thefe Conferences were laid
the firit foundations of the Alliance afterwards concluded
between the Emperor and Henry. In a few days after,
Henry returned into England.
Later of the The greateft Princes very juffly courted Cardinal Wol-
nS tl ibt~ fa' He abfolutely governed his matter, who, in thepre-
Cardinal. fent fituation of his affairs, could make the ballance in-
Afl Pub. c Ii n e to which fide he pleafed. The Senate of Venice
jjly'j." 7 * 4 ' forefeeing that a War would foon break out in Italy, en-
deavoured beforehand to make IVolfey their Friend, by
(hewing a great efteem for him. There is in the Col-
lection of the 'Publick Acts, a Letter from the Doge to
the Cardinal, to congratulate him upon the Interview of
the two Kings, as a work of his confumniate VVif-
dom (2).

But this was only words, whereas the Pope, who found
he fhould quickly want the Cardinal, thought he mult
gain him by fomething more fubftantial. He granted
Spanilh i>ie: him, as appears in the Collection, on the 29th of July, as
p- 7'4> 7*5- penlion of two thoufand Ducats upon the Bifhoprick of
Palencia in Spain, and conftituted him perpetual Ad-
miniftrator of the See of Badajos, without prejudice to the
Benefices he had or fhould have for the future. There is
no doubt, this was done with the Emperor's Confent,
who endeavoured by degrees to gain fo powerful a Mini-
ffer, whole Credit was very necefiary in the prefent litua-
tion of his affairs. He had left Spain full of troubles, oc-
caiioned by the grecdinefs of the Flemings, who only
fought to inrich themfclves at the expence of the Spa-
niards. This had even obliged him to depart with fome
precipitation, for fear ot being embroiled in affairs which
might have prevented his going to receive the Imperial
Crown. He had left for Governors in Spain, Adrian
Florentio Bifhop of Tortofa, and the Conftable of Cajlilc.
But he was no fooner gone, than fevcral Lords, and fome
Cities of Cajlilc joined in a League for the defence of
their Liberties, and expulfion of the Flemings. This
League was followed by an open Rebellion, which very
much embarralfed the two Governors. Mean while, ha-
ving drawn together a body of Troops, confuting partly
of the Garrifons left in Navarre, they formed a good
Army, and at length defeated and reduced the Male-con-
tents to obedience.
He Emperor Whilft thefe things pafled in Spain, the Emperor was
hammed, prepaiingfor his Coronation, which was folemnized the
2 1 ft of October (1).

Luther's defection made then great noife in Germany.
Leo X endeavoured to excite all the Princes of the Em-
pire againlt the Doctor, who had boldly appealed to a
General Council, notwithstanding Pope Pius the Seconds
Bull. In fliort, after fruitlcfs trials to win him by pro-



The Pope
pr.ints the
Cardinal
JPenfiont upon



Troubles
Spain.



Tbt Pope
Jollicites the
Elector of
Saxnny
agarnfl
Luther.



mifes, or frighten him by threats, he publifhcd a Bull of 1520.
Excommunication again'ft him and tu^ Followers. Bui '' " "■""■'■
Luther, regardlefs of thefe Thundei , rem , ed hi t\ I b "">

to a Council in very harfh Terms. The Pope exafperatcd
that a fingle Monk fhould thus dare to brave him, defire 1
the Elector of Saxony, then at Cologne, to put him to
death, or fend him to Rome. The Elector refuting, the
Pope's Nuncio ordered Luther' Books to be publicity
burnt at Cologne, and Luther, in revenge, caufed the
[Pope's Bull and the] Decretal to be openly burnt at
Wtrtemberg, and publifhcd a Manifesto in defence of hi
proceedings. He found himfelf fuppoited by the Elector
Ins Sovereign, who eairieftly defiled to fee a Reformation
in the Chuich.

Mean while, the Duke of Wtrtemberg, who at the In- ' ; "■' !
ftance of Francis I, had forfaken the League of Swabia, 7 r ,'"^*S*

j ■ *- 1 - 1 » • • . °.. 'lofts bit Uj-

was driven out ol his Dominion , and the Emperor pur-,,.. .-,.
chafed them. As the King ol I ance was not then in
condition to protect him, hi v/a forced to fubmit to the
Emperor's Terms, with. mi hopes of being reflored.

'1 he trouble, (fill continued among theSi fs, who were T> Ma in
divided into two Factions, whereof Andrew Hamilton, and 5 '
George Dottglafs (4) Earl of Arran were the Head . '
During the year 1520, the Hamiltoniam found mean to
conftrain Archibald Douglaf Earl of Angus, one ot tl
left by the Regent to govern in his abfence, to relinquifh
his Poll. Alter which they would have taken away his
Lite. But with fourfcore Men he heat, in the Streets of
Edinburgh, above a thoufand of his Enemies, and drove
them out of the City. All this ferved only to exafperate
more and mora the Factions 1 nother, fo that

at laft Dottglafs received into his Party all the friends 0/
the two Humes, beheaded by the Regent, in order with
their affiflance to withstand his Enemies Thefe were
the 1 ! : , caufed by the Regent's abfence, whom the

Kin gland hindej-ed from returning into Scotland.

Mean while, the Truce between the two Kingdoms was A«. Pu.h.
I irther prolonged to the 9th of April ncx- year, by the
King of France's mediation, and the Council of Scotland ~
politively promifed to fend an honourable Embafly to the
King of England to defire a Peace (,).

The poJture of affairs in the beginning of the year i 52 r.
1 521, did not promife the long continuance of the Peace
of Europe. Four Sovereigns enjoyed almolt the who:. ,



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