M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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to be fecret till the time of Performance. Thus was Hen- out Children. And that was fufficient to give the Car-
ry perfwaded by his Minifter to opprefs his Ally the King dinal occafion to mifconltrue all his proceedings. When
of France, who had done him no Injury. The only he believed he had fufficient evidence againft him, he be-
thin? he could complain of, was, that Francis had lately gan with depriving him of his two principal fupports ;
permitted the Duke of Albany to return into Scotland, namely, [Henry Percy] Earl of Northumberland his Fa-
doubtlefs becaufe he perceived the Cardinal was medita- ther-in-law, whom he fent to the Tower on fome pre-
ting fomething againft him. It is in vain to inquire tence (7), and [Thomas Howard] Earl of Surrey (8) his
what intereft Henry had to declare againft France, and Son-in-law, on whom he conferred the Government of
caufe the ballance to incline to the Emperor's fide : No Ireland, to remove him from London. Prefently after the
other can be found but the Cardinal's, who wanted to be Duke was apprehended (9) and accufed of High-Treafon.
Pope at Francis's coft. The death of Leo X, haftened The jubilance of his .Impeachment was, That he had Hall,
by Poifon, as feveral affirm, and happening during thefe feveral times confulted the Monk concerning the fuc- ""£"*'
Tranfaclicns, has made fome fufpedt that Wolfey was ceffion to the Crown, and affected to make himfelf popu- Hol'ling'lh.
concerned in it, and the more, becaufe he afpired to be lar. The Duke confeffed he had talked fometimes with
Succeffor to a Pope much younger than himfelf ; but no
proof was ever produced. Certainly Henry would have ac-
quired more glory in continuing Umpire of the Peace
between the two contending Monarchs, and procuring



the Monk ; but denied it to be with the intent he was
charged with. However, he was condemned to die as a
Traitor, which he could not bear to hear when the fen-
tence was pronounced (10). Aly Lord of Norfolk, cried Ha „



Tranquillity to all Europe, than by all the Conquefts, he, you have faid as a Traytor fhould be faid unto, but

his Minifter flattered him with (3). 1 was never one. My Lords, continued he, addreffing

Hitherto Cardinal Wolfey had pufhed his Fortune to himfelf to the Peers his Judges, / nothing maligne for ivhat

fuch a height, that it feemed difficult to make any ad- you have done to me, but the eternal God forgive you my

dition to it. And yet all this was not capable to fatisfy death, and I do. I fliall never fue to the King for life,

him. His Legatefhip had been prolonged for two years, howbeit he is a gracious Prince, and more grace ?nay come

xiu.p.734, tne beginning of this year. But he thought himfelf to be from him than I defire. My Lords and all my Fellows I

739 ' too much above all other Legates, not to have a different defire you to pray for me. When he faid he would not



Bull to en

tart'e the
Legate's
Power.
Act. Hub.



foe to the King for Life, his meaning was, he thought
it would be fruitlefs, knowing he was the Cardinal's vic-
tim, who had an abfolute fwav over the King. Indeed,
the Minifter had fo ordered it, that though all the Peers
of the Realm had a Right to affift at the Trial, there
were prefent only one Duke, one Marquifs, feven Earls,
and twelve Barons (11); and probably, he had fecured thet



Commiffion from theirs. In April he procured from
Leo X a Bull, impowering him to make fifty Knights,
fifty Count Palatines, as many Acolyths (4) and Chap-
lains, forty Notaries Apoftolick, who fhould have the
fame Privileges as thofe made by the Pope ; to legiti-
mate Baftards, give Degrees in Arts, Law, Phyfick, and

Abbey oj Divinity, and grant all forts of Difpenfations. In a word,

St. Albans not content with all the Riches he poffeffed, or with the Majority. All the favor the Duke received was to be be-

wtlf" means he had to increafe them incefiantly, he caufed alfo headed, inftead of dying the death of a Traitor (12).

p. 760, 775. the rich Abbey of St. Albans to be given him this year This execution was attended with loud murmurs among

in Commendam. the People, and fatyrical Libels againft the Cardinal,

It is no wonder, if, being arrived to fo high a degree wherein was faid among other things, that it was not

and Death of Grandeur and Riches, his pride increafed in proporti- ftrange the Son of a Butcher fhould delight in fhedding

a/ the Duke on. Though the King's blindnefs for him was incon-

°f Bucking- ce ; vea b]e, it was not fo with the Courtiers, who faw but
too plainly how grofsly he milled his Mafter, who placed
fo great confidence in him. But none dared to take no-
tice of it, fuch was the dread of his haughty and revenge-
ful temper. The Duke of Buckingham, Son of the Duke
of the fame Name, who in the Reign of Richard III,



Herbert.
Hall.
Stow.
Hollingfh



Blood. But this was all the revenge that was taken
for this injuftice. He was too deeply rooted in the King's
mind, to fear thefe murmurs, which befides never reach-
ed the King's ears, all about him being either Spies or
Creatures of the Cardinal.

The King was then wholly intent upon one affair, Affairs of
namely, the War he had refolved to make upon France, ^t"*'



nan.
Herbert



(1) On Augu/I is, being attended by four hundred and fixty horfe. Hull, fo). 87. Stow, p. 514.
(z) Tfce Emperor met him a mile out of Town. Hall, fo!. 87. Herbert, p. 43.

(3) Wolfey ftaid thirteen days at Bruges. He returned to England, and landed at Dover Novemb. 17. Hall, fol. 88.

(4) An inferior Church-Servant in Pupilh Countries, who, under the Subdeacon, waits on the Pricfts and Deacons., lights the Candles, carries the
Bread and Wine, and pays other fervile Attendance.

(5) Cbarlei Knevct his Steward, who was turned out of his place by the Duke, upon the. Complaints of his Tenants, was the Perfun that informed
againft the Duke, and told the Cardinal all the Particulars which were alledged againft him. The firft thing that incenfed the Cardinal, was his
ipeaking againft the Interview of the two Kings as an idle Expence, though no Man made a greater Figure there than himfelf. Herbert, p. 4.1. Tne
reft of the Witnelles againft the Duke were, Gilbert Perke his Chancellor, and jfhn Delaconrt his ConfelTor. Hall, fol. 86. The words above-me»-
tioned were fpoken by the Duke to George Nen.il Lord Abergavenny, who, for concealment, was committed to the Tower, as was alio Henry Pole
Lord Montague ; and sir Edward Nevil, the forefaid Lord's Brother, was forbid the King's Prefence. Hollingfh. p. 863.

(6) One Naotas Hopkins, Prior of the Cartbujian Monaftery of Hintor?, near Briflol. Hall, fol. 85, 86.

(7) For claiming certain Wards, which he W3s forced to relinquilh. Herbert, p. 40.

(8) The Cardinal bore the Earl of Surrey a Grudge for having drawn his Dagger at him on fome occafion. Hcflingfb. p- 855,
(9 By Sir Hemy Marncy Captain of the King's Guard ; and brought to the 'lower, April 16. Hall, fol. 85.

(10) By the Duke ot Norfolk, who was for the time conftituted High Steward. He was brought to his Tryal May 13. Hall.

(ilj Namely, the Duke of Suffolk, the Marquifs ot Dorftt, the Earls of U crceflcr, Dcvonjhire, EffiX, Shrewsbury, Kent, Oxford, and Derby ; the
Lords St. 'John, Delaware, Ettziuarren, IVilhuglby, Broke, dbbam, Herbert, and A'cr/ey. Hall.

(12) He was exec ited on Tower-bill, May 17. 1511, and was buried in the Church of the Augaflines in Broadflreet, London. Edward Staf.-d
defcended of Edmund Earl of Stafford, who married Ann, Daughter of Thomas of IVoodfock, Son of Edward 111, lefl ( by Alamort his Wife, one of
the Daugluers of Henry Peny Eail of Nt-rthmbcrhnd) one Son, lienry, and three Daughters; Elizabeth married to lbom.11 Howard Duke of Nor-
folk; Catherim tn Ralph Nemil Earl of M'ejttnor+jnd ; and Mary to George He-ail, Lord Brrgaver.ny. With this Duke ot Buckingham, cralfd that
great plate of Hi c b-Co:il:abre of England, Hereditary in his Family. Dagdale's Bars*. Vol. I. p- '?'



Book XV.



20. HENRY VIII.



1521.



Buchanan.

Hal!.

Hollinglh.



Progrtfs of
Ibc Refor-
mation in

Germany.
Slejdan.



as if his Glory and Grandeur had depended upon the ruin
of that Kingdom, whereas his true intereft was to fupport
France againft the Emperor, who was now grown too
powerful. He was already formidable to all Europe, even
without the affiftance of England, how much more by his
Union with that Kingdom ? This was owing to Cardinal
Wolfey's Ambition, whofe Counfels to his mafter were al-
ways felf-interefted. Probably, France was going to be
reduced to a very fad Condition, it being hardly poffible
for her to refift fo potent enemies, who were to invade her
from feveral quarters. Francis I, imagined however he
had (till one refuge by means of the Scots, who could
make a confiderable diverfion in England. The Congrefs
of Calais having plainly difcovered Henry's partiality to
the Emperor, he made no doubt of its being an introduc-
tion to a rupture. In this belief, though he had ingaged
to detain the Duke of Albany in France, he thought proper
to keep him no longer, not thinking himfelf bound to
perform a promife , the motive whereof was now no
more, namely, the mutual Friendfhip between him and
Henry. He permitted therefore the Duke of Albany to re-
turn into Scotland, or rather fent him back, in hopes he
would employ part of the Englijh Forces on the borders
of the two Kingdoms. He very juftly expecSted this Ser-
vice from a Prince who was devoted to him, and looked
upon his fettlement in France as much more folid than
that in Scotland, where his Regency was to laft but few
years. The Duke therefore departed for Scotland, and
arriving the 30th of Oclobcr 1521, after a four year's
abfence, refumed the Regency. As he intended to ferve
France to the utmoft of his power, his firlt care was to
oblige the Earl of Angus, the Queen's Spoufe, to quit the
Kingdom, deeming him one of the King of England's
principal Adherents, and yet the Earl took refuge in
France.

Whilft the Chriftian Princes were all employed in their
Temporal concerns, the Reformation made great progrefs
in Germany by means of Luther's Writings, which were
read with great eagernefs. Luther was fatisficd at firft
with attacking the Sale of Indulgences, then the Indul-
gences themfelves, and the Pope's power to grant them.
This naturally led him to examine the Grounds of the
papal Authority ; and being perfuaded there was nothing
to fupport it in Scripture, he writ upon that Subject with-
out any regard to the Roman Pontiff. He attacked like-
wife in his Writings the Celibacy of Priefts, Monaftick
Vows, and private Maffes. Though at the time I am
now fpeaking of, namely, the beginning of the year 1521,
he had preached and wrote againlt the Pope but three
years, he had gained many followers, and ftill more Ene-
mies, not only by his novel opinions, but alfo by his fharp
and fatyrical Stile, wherein he threw off all Ceremony
with refpecT: to the Church of Rome. The Book that
made moft noife was entitled, Concerning the Babylonijh
Captivity. In this Book the Popes were not fpared.

In the feveral Anfwers which appeared as well againft
this as the other Books of Luther, the Decretals of the
Popes, and the Works of Thomas Aquinas were urged in
favour of the papal Authority. This gave him occafion,
in his Replies, to ridicule thofe, who in defence of the
papal Power, alledged the decifions of the Popes them-
felves, and the Teftimony of Thomas Aquinas, who was
canonized for carrying the Pope's Authority as high as
poflible. Befides, he did not (hew much regard for that
Author's Writings ; which, probably, was the chief thing
that incenfed Henry VIII againft him. As Henry had
much ftudied the Works of Thomas Aquinas, and from
thence properly had acquired all his Theological Know-
ledge, he could not bear to fee his favourite Author thus
contemned ( 1 ). He thought himfelf therefore a match
for Luther, and able to confute his Writings. But as Leo X
had by a Bull exprefly forbid the reading of his Works,



749
15:1.



■ 1



and as an Anfwer neceflarily fuppofed the perufal, Cardinal
IVolfey applied to the Pope for a Power to permit fuch
to read them, as defired it with intent to confute them.
This was granted him by a Brief dated the 17th of April *?■■ f'i
1521, the Pope little thinking who the Perfon was that XUi '' : -
was going to fupport his Caufc.

Henry finifhed in September his Book againft Luther, Henry
entitled, Concerning the feven Sacraments. He defended In
dulgences, papal Authority, the number of Sacraments, and l
otherArticles combated by Luther, proceeding upon Thomas H
Aquinas's Principles as upon undeniable Truths. Very pro- |~ i',„j„
bably he was aflifted by Cardinal IVolfey in compofine this tbipope;
Work, which was piefented to the Pope in full Con-
fiftory(2). Leo X, who was ftill living, received it with
great Joy, and fpoke of it in the higheft (trains of Flat-
tery, making no fcruple to compare it to the Works of
St. Augujiine and St. yerom. This is no wonder. A
Book compofed by a great King in defence of the papal
Authority, could not be too much efteemed by a Pope.
A few days after, Leo affembled the Cardinals, to confult
with them, after what manner he fhould requite the King
of England's Service to the Church. After a long debate, «■'• ~
they refolved at laft to honour that Monarch with the '/,'
glorious Title of Defender of the Faith (3). In conlequence Defender of
of this refolution, the Pope ordered a Bull to be drawn, theFaiih.
conferring that Title on Henry, and all the Kings of Eng- xfn. Pub '-6
land his Succeflbrs (4). I (hall not repeat here the mag-
nificent encomiums the Pope gave the King in this Bull,
and in a Letter of thanks for his Book (5). It may be r- 758.
eafily imagined, he fpared not the moft extravagant ex-
preffions to flatter a Prince, who was fo fond of being flat-
tered, and of whom he ftood in need, his Nuntio being
then at Calais, negotiating with Cardinal IVolfey a League
againft France (6).

I have already fpoke of this League which was really
concluded at Bruges. Henry founded his joining with the
Emperor upon Francis's having been the Aggreffor, by
encouraging Robert de la Mark to take Arms. But be- *P> f" nc
fides that Francis denied he was concerned in that under-
taking, and had even obliged Robert to defift, it was
evident the Emperor had prevented him, by joining in a
League with the Pope, though their League was not
fo foon made known. The fecret attempts upon Com),
Milan, Genoa, and the open War in the Milanefe, by
which the King of France loft that Duchy, were dear
evidences that the League was concluded before Robert
de la Mark's affair. Henry pretended alfo to have againft
Francis another caufe of complaint, which however had
no better Foundation ; namely, that contrary to his pro- Halt,
mife, he had permitted the Duke of Albany to return into I' "*i\
Scotland. But if it is coniidered that the Duke arrived not
in his own Country till the 30th of Oclober, and that the
League of Bruges was figned the 24th of November, it will
be eafy to perceive the League was already refolved before
Henry could know that the Duke of Albany was returned in-
to Scotland. But though, upon the firft notice, he had
taken a hafty refolution to join with the Pope and the Em-
peror, was that a juft caufe to proceed to a War, which
would probably ruin France? The truth is, thefe were only
pretences to cover the injuftice of a War undertaken by
Henry for the Cardinal's intereft, and perhaps without know-
ing himfelf the real motives of that Miniiter's proceedings.

Mean while , Henry perceiving the Duke of Albany Heiry W:
would embarrafs him if he continued in Scotland, attempt- ! e '",, D ~ l

I r J ■ I'l-r T. s/ Albapv to

ed a fecond time to drive him Irom thence. To that gt tut rf
purpofe, he fent Clarenceux his Herald, with orders to ' 1C
upbraid him with breach of promife, and with returning
into Scotland to marry the Queen-Dowager, and deprive
the young King of the Crown. The pretended reafon of
this laft charge, was, that the Queen-Dowager being de-
firous to have her Marriage witli the Earl of Angus an-
nulled, the Duke of Albany had feconded her fuit at the



1322.
H of) .

Reaf-.ns for



Buchanan.
Herbert.



(1) IVolfey alfo much read Thomas Aquinas, and was therefore called Thamiftirus. Pol. Virg.

(2) The manner of Delivery was thus: Dr. John Chrit Dean of Windfor, our King's Ambaflador, appearing in full ConGftory, the Pope knowing the
glorious Prelent he brought, firlt gave him his Foot and then his Check to kits j after which he received the Book, and m.d; a Speech. This Copy,
richly bound, is kept in the Vatican, where Lord Herbert fays, he remembers to have feen it. The Book is dedicated to the Pope._ " In this AdJrels
•' your Holinefs may be furprifed (fays the King) to find a Perfon bred to war and the Bufinefs of State, engaged in a Controversy of this Nature, with
*' a Man that has ipent his whole time in the Improvements of Learning." Some have thought that this Bock was oampoied, at leaft in part, by
Fifuer Bilhop of Rxbejltr, Stephen Gardiner, and Sir Thomas Moor. Herbert, p. 38. Fiddes, p. 251.

(3) It was debated whether he mould be ltiled Proteclor ; or Defender of tbc Roman Church ; or, of the Apeftolick Set ; or, the AprftolicaJ, cr Orthodox
King. But Defender of the Faith was at laft pitched upon. This Title had formerly been enjoyed by fome of our Kings his PicdecetTorr. Spelman.
Fuller in his Church- Hiflcry fays, there went a Tradition, that Patch, the King's Fool, perceiving the King very jocund one day, alked him the icafon,
and when the King told him it was becaufe of his new Title, Defender of the Faith, the Fool made this arch Reply, Prithet, good Harry, let thee and I
defend one another, and let the Faith alone to defend itfelf Fiddts Life of IVolfey, p. 148.

(4.) The beginning and end of this Bull is engraven from the Original, with the very hand-writing of the Cardinals to it, in the XUIth Volume of the
Ftedera, p. 7c6.

(5) Among other expreflions in this Letter, there are thefe words: Sluafi reputantes, mn fine permiffu dit'ino, trupijft adiierfus Chrijl: Eccltfiam, Lutcria-
r.am banc Imputatem, ut ipfa mapre fud cum Gloria talem Propugnatorem i& Defenforem fortiri poffit. Rymer'r Feed. Tom. XIII- p. 758.

(6) This year 1521, Muflcets were invented, which du Bellay fays were firft uled in this War. This year alfo, it being obferved there was a

great decay of Tillage and Husbandry, occafioncd by the many lnclofures made by the Nobility and Gentry, who, within fifty years, had turned moft of
their Lands into Pafture, and kept them in their own hands ; from whence, among other inconveniencies, it followed, That the nurr.her of Huftnndmen,
and P.rlbns capable of defending the Country, was very much leflened j many Towns and Villages were depopulated , and t-he Prices of Wool and Meat
were very much enhanced, as being engrofled by Perfons who were not obliged to fell : To remedy all this, the King revived the Statutes made againft
lnclofures, and iffucd out his Commiflions to Juitices of Peace, and other Magiftrates, to fee them put in execution. Stem; p. 512. H-.'.'.'^fj. p. S62.—
The Sea oversowing the Dikes of Holland, drowned feventy two Villages, and above a hundred thoufand People.— — Alfo there was (b grot a dearth in
England, that Wheat was fold for twenty Shillings a quarter. Stew, p. 514.

No. 38. Vol. I, 9 D Court



75 o



Tie HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



1522. Court of Rome ( 1 ). The Duke anfwcred he was returned
into Scotland, by the invitation of the great Men: That
he had never done any thing to give occafion to fufpect
him of afpiring to the Crown, neither had he ever any fuch
thought : That indeed, he had countenanced the Queen's
fuit, but without any defign to marry her, having a Wife
of his own.

Henry was not fatisfied with fummoning the Regent,
'., but fent alfo a Letter to the Parliament of Scotland, con-
.,.,:. taining the fame Accufations againft the Duke of Albany,
and a charge to the States to expel him the Kingdom.
the p,tn, a- The Subftance of the Parliament's anfwer was : That
what had been reported to his Majefty concerning the
Act Pub. Duke of Albany's return into Scotland, to take forcible
Mii.i>7»i. pofleflion of the King's perfon, was utterly falfe : That
Feb. 11. t j ie rjuke did nothing with regard to the King, that
could breed the leaft fufpicion, fince he did not fo much
as ofFer to change any of his Domefticks, without the con-
fent of the States, and that it was with the Queen's advice
and confent, that they had taken care of the Guardian-
fhipand Education of the King: That they could not be-
lieve the Duke had ever intended to put away his Wife,
and marry the Queen, or that the Queen had any thoughts
of efpoufing the Duke: That as for the Treaty with the
King of France, to hinder the Duke of Albany's return into
Scotland, it was never communicated to them, neither had
they any knowledge of it : That they could not help think-
ing fuch a Treaty very ftrange, fince they rather imagined,
his Majefty mould have follicited the Duke to return to
defend the King his Nephew againft his rebellious Subjects,
whereas they faw with grief, it was he who fomented the
Rebellion : That if it continued thus, they did not fee
how it was poflible to keep a good underftaiiding between
the two Kingdoms: That however, if he would be pleafed
to fend away the Bimop of Dunkeld from his Court, and
without interpofing in the affairs of Scotland, leave to the
Regent and States the care of governing the King-
dom, a Truce might be concluded till the Embaffy that
was to be fent to him, was ready. But that, in cafe he
would have no Truce, unlefs they expelled the Regent,
they would endeavour to defend themfelves in the beft man-
ner they could.
r. f Queen Margaret, to whom the King her Brother had
'. likewife writ upon thefame fubiecf, fent an anfwer, fharply

Letter I tbt „ , . r . , . . r . J . . ..

fCi„ g Ur expoftulating with him for giving ear to the report con-
Bntbtr. cerning her Marriage with the Duke of Albany. She freely
Herbert. owned, it was with her confent and advice that the Duke
was recalled, adding, if he had not been fo unkind a Bro-
ther, file fhould have had no occafion to feek the protection
of a Stranger.
iU'yWi Henry could not expcS any other anfwer, fince he
; . was confeious to himfelf, that his accufations againft the
V t .'"Regent of Scotland were only affected pretences to com-
!«nd plain indirectly of the King of France. He ordered how-

Buchanan. ever tne Lord Dacres (z) to march into Scotland with
five hundred Men, and proclaim on the Borders, that if
Hollingfh. the Scots made not Peace with him by fuch a time (3),
it fhould be to their peril. But he did not fupport this
Bravado (4). His fole aim was to furnifh his Party in
Scotland with a pretence to refufe to ferve the Regent, in
cafe he attempted to make a Diverfion in England in fa-
vour of France. And in this he was not difappointed. In
Oclober following, the Regent of Scotland railing an Army
to make an Inroad into England, was no fooner come to
the Borders, but many of the Lords refufed to attend any
farther, alledging, they were unwilling to engage the
the Tttgtzt Kingdom in an unneceffary War with England. The
' " oppoiition the Duke of Albany found in his Army, con-
vincing him he fhould be able to do nothing confiderable,
he propofed a Truce, which the EngliJ!) gladly accepted.
For, Henry's aim was only to terrify the Scots with a
dread of the Succefs of a War with England during the
Minority of their King. So, the Duke of Albany feeing
it was not in his power to ferve France as he defired, re-
turned about the end of Oilsber to Paris, in order to take



frefh meafures with the King. Thus Henry attained his 1523.
ends, in avoiding a rupture with Scotland, as a War with
that Kingdom could not but extremely incommode him,
in his prefent Circumftances.

Meanwhile, Francis I, having had fome Intelligence Francis «a
of what palled at Bruges between the Emperor and the '';
Cardinal, and defiring to convince Henry how directly rgainitte
contrary to the League of London his proceedings were, ''•/''•
fent him Letters Patents (5) inferring the Article of the xii'l.p.764.
Treaty, whereby they were ingaged mutually to aflift one rcb. 23!
another. Then he recited what the Emperor had done
againft him, as well in Italy, as in Champagne and Flan-
ders, and fummoned him to perform the Treaty he had
folemnly fworn. Henry in anfwer fent a Herald to pro- Henry pn-



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