M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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claim War againft him (6), alledging, he was obliged to ™"™' ur " r '
it by the fame Treaty of London, becaufe Francis, had Hrft stow'.
attacked the Emperor, and moreover had dilappointed him Hollingft.
with refpect to the Duke of Albany (7). Thus War was Vjl Vlr & -
once more declared between France and England, upon
very frivolous, not to fay unjuft occafions. ButWolfey
had the art of perfuading the King his matter to whatever
he pleafed.

Henry having without caufe proclaimed War ityunil / VT*' 1 *"
France, did not dare to call a Parliament to demand a i'i™4.
Subfidy. For he could alledge neither any juft caufe, nor Herbert.
any neceftity for undertaking a War deftructivc to the S* *'
Englifo Merchants. However, Money mult be raifed,
and it was the Cardinal'b Bufinefs, who had embarked
him in the War, to find means. The Expedient he Hall,
thought moft proper was, to order the Sherifts to fend a Lift
of the names of all above fixteen vcars old, with an exact
account of what each perfon was worth in Land, Stock,
Moveables, and Money. This was fuch a Survey as was
formerly taken in the reign of William the Conqueror,
and had given fo great caufe of complaint to the Nation (8).
This was followed by a general Loan of the tenth of his Hj "'. ,,
Lay-Subjects, and a fourth of the Clergy, according to uUn # •
the true value of their Eftatcs, beiides twenty thouland
pounds which the King borrowed of the City of London
in particular. Thus one InjuiHce commonly draws on
another. This War was manifeftly unjuft, and became
ftill more fo by the means employed to maintain it.
Thefe kinds of involuntary Loans, to which certain
Kings of England have fometimes forced their Subjects,
are a manifeft violation of the privileges of the people, and
tend directly to arbitrary power. If the King may oblige
his Subjects to furnifh him with Money, when he fhall
think neceffary, though it be by way of Benevolence or
Loan, it may be affured, he will very feldom, or per-
haps never think himfelf obliged to call a Parliament. It
is true, Henry was neither the firft nor laft that ufed this
extraordinary method to raife Money. But, though he
was fo fortunate as to receive no prejudice by it, fome of his
Succeffors who were pleafed to imitate him, were not fo

This general Loan made a great noife over all the Mmau gi
Kingdom. Every one openly exclaimed againft the Car- S^jfjT
dinal, who was the Author. But he little regarded the
people's clamours, becaufe he was fupported by the King.
However, though at firft he had given orders to exact
Loans with the fame rigour, as if they had been a Tax
impofed by the Parliament, he met with fo many obfta-
cles, that he was apprehenlive of railing in the Kingdom
Commotions not to be appeafed at his pieafure. So, the
Tax was levied much more gently than at firft was in-
tended. This caufed fo great a miftake in the Cardinal's
Calculation, that the King was forced at laft to recur to
the ufual method of a Parliament to maintain the War,
as we fhaH fee prefently. The London Merchants were Tie London
the moft ftrenuous oppofers of the levying this Tax. They ^J^."
were required to declare upon Oath the real value of their °j- jx .
Effects ; but they firmly refufed it, alledging, it was not
poffible for them to give an exact account of their Effects,
part whereof was in the hands of their Correfpondents in
foreign Countries. At length by Agreement, the King

(1) She was offended, it terms, at his leaving her at Harbotlle, and very much nettled at the Lave he bore to a certain Scotch Lady. Shealledgcd, among
other things, at the Court of Rtmi, that (he heard her Hufbind James IV was living three years after Floddenfield, and therefore not dead when lhe married
the Eurl, fo much d,d that report prevail. Herbert, p. co.

(2) Warden of the Weft- Manba. Uirhc t.

(3) By the full of March. Hollingjhtad, p. S72.

!.'.) King Henry fitted out alio fix Ships, under the command of Cor iftofher Coo, to guard England againft the Infults of the Scots and Frer.cb. Stow, p. 514.
Hall, fol. 91.

(0 Dated February 13. Bymer's Feed. Ti m. XIII. p. 766.

(6) In the end of Much. Whereupon King Francis ordered all the Effects of the Engl ijb Merchants at Bourdetux and elfewhere to be feiacd. And Henry
did the fame by the French and Scotch Merchants in London, and moreover caufed them to be impriloncd. Hall, fol. 92, 93.

V 7) At this time, Ann Bulleyn, who h.<d lived in the French Court ever iince her going over with Mary, King Henry's Sifter, r.nd Wire of Irar.rXII, re-
turned to England. Herbert, p. 4.6. Barna'a R ( f. Turn. I. p. 44. Fiddes, p. 268. ■ Du Tillet, p. 397.

(S) Sim gives an account of this Survey from an original Warrant directed to the Conllable of a Hundred, who was commmJed to charge the Conrtables
of every Harifh within the laid Hundred to appear perfonally before certain Commifiioners, and to bring with them the Names of all Perlons above lixtccn years
old, dwelling within the laid hundred, and to enj.111 ihem to repair to a certain Place affigned, with their Arms, and declare what their Names are, and to
whom they belong, and who is Lord of every Town or Hamlet, and who are Stewards, and who Parfons of the Town, and what their Benefice is wcrtn,
an. I who Owners of every parcel of Land within the laid Precincts, 3nd what is the yearly Value of every Man's Land, what Stock on the Lands,
and who the Owner thereof ; alfo wh.it Str angers dwell there, and what bufinefs they follow ; alfo the Value and Subttmce of every Perfon above fixteen years
of age j alfo what Pennons go thence to religious and fpiritual Men. Which being certified, the King rejoiced, finding his Kingdom lb wealthy (lays Polydorl
Virgil.) See Sttrw's Ami. p. 515. This Warrant was dated at BrafgmJ, Mar/fr 27. 15M1


Book XV.


75 r

•j //: Cm
Guio i \ri.
I'd. Vug.


HoUm L fli,

1542. "was pleafed to accept of a Sum'acronling to their 6wn
Calculation of themfelvcs.
V'beCjr.inal Cardinal JVolfey'% concern at not fuccecding in this af-
•"i'}"! : H'<-tor according to his wifh, was not comparable to his
o/"/A; /-',/r trouble at being difappointcd in another, which touched
cj. him more nearly, and for which he had fpared neither

Money nor Pains. I menu his Eh eition to the Papal Dig-
Mana men nity, of which he thought hirrrftlf fecuic. Leo X dying
the beginning of December laft year, when his ohfequics
were over, the Cardinal 1 ; entered the Conclave, \
they were not a little ehiba'ffca'n'ed concerning the Election
■ ol a new-Pope.' 'Julio Cardinal de Medici ?S\mi;i\ to the Pa-
pacy, and h.nl manv Votes. fpr hitn. Rut the Emperor's
Party, and fome Cardinals gained by IVolfey, openly op-
pofed the I !< '1 91 of Julio. Mean while, as it is requir-
ed to have two t.hjrds of the Voices to be chofen fnnc, if
the Cardinal de Medici had nqi enough for himjel^, he
had however enough to exclude any other. Ami th' I 1
detained the Cardinal 1 ; in the Conclave ( I ). ThougB t'Ke
Emperor had promifed /.' 'olfey fiis Jmcreft, he intended not
to keep his word. His dciign was to caufe Adrian Flo-
reu/io Bifhopof Tortofa, Native of V!tr,cbt, and foimerly
his Preceptor, to be chofen, reckoning when he fhould he
Pope, he 'would be entirely devoted to him. But thip
affair was managed fo at : . ■ ! withal fo privately'.

that the Cardinals o( his i'.uty, without difppvcrmg
their Intent, were fittrsfied with bfekPrig th'e'C
■de Medici's mc'afures, till an ^pfeoVtiHifj effiere'd to carry
their point.

Mean while, IVolfey left no Stone unturned. As he
built all his hopes upon the Emperor's Intcreit, lie v. lit
to him, to put him in mind of his promiic, representing
the advantages to have a Pope at his. devotion. At the
fame time he ordered Pace, who was then at Venice, iu-
ftantly to repair to Rome, and do him what fei vice he
could. The Emperor was very much embarrafied in
relation to IVolfey. He had pr6mifed to ufe all his Inte-
refr. in his favour, though nothing was farther from his
thoughts. It was his Intereft to have a Pope at his de-
votion. But he knew Cardinal If 'nifty too well, to ima-
gine fuch a Pope would be guided by his Counlels. It
was necefTary therefore, in order not to lofe IVolfeys
Friendship, to caufe Adrian to be chofen without the
Emperor's appearing to be concerned in the Election. As
he had gained that Miniiter to his Intereft, folely by the
promife of procuring him the Papacy, he could not doubt,
that if -he faw himfelf deceived, he would turn his Ma-
Cuicciasf. fter againft him. Wherefore the Emperor concealed his
defigns, and was fo faithfully ferved in the Conclave, that
they could not be difcovered ; neither had Adrian ever
one Vote in the daily Scrutinies. Mean while, he kept
Cardinal IVolfey in hopes, and threw upon the Cardinal
de Medici's Faction, the obftacles which occurred in the
performance of his promife. At laft, when they that were
in the Emperor's Sect et, and managed his affairs in the
Conclave, Were fceurc of a fufficient number of Votes,
one day as the Cardinals were met to make a Scrutiny,
fome one propofed Cardinal Adrian Biftiopof Tortofa then
in Spain. He enlarged upon the great qualities of that
Cardinal, and the advantages which would accrue to the
Church by his promotion. Whereupon they who were of
the Party voted one after another for Adrian, as if they
had been infpired, and perhaps without knowing one an-
other's defign, fo dexteroufly had the Bufinefs been ma-
naged. The reft that were not in the Secret, feeing two
thirds of the Voices for Adrian, voted the fame way, left
Adrian VI a fruitlefs oppofition might turn to their prejudice. Thus
ttcfm Poft. the Election was made with unanimous confent, and paf-
H.liin t ih. fed for a miraculous I n f p i rat j on f the Holy Ghoft. It is
not likely that IVolfey was fuch a dupe, as to believe the
Emperor was not concerned in Adrian's Election, fince
the fame was fo plain. The new Pope, who aftumed
the name of Adrian VI, had been his Preceptor, and upon
his recommendation was made Cardinal, and was now
Regent in Spain. Befides, there is no likelihood that
the Cardinals would have thought of thufing a barbarian,

for that's the honorable Appellation the Italian, bellow 1511.
on thole that are not of their Nation, if the Election had
not been managed by the Emperor. However this be, Wo i
IVolfey fhewed ho refer.tment, whether he waited for a;i
opportunity to be openly revenged, or thought proper t ,
keep fair with the Emperor againft another Vacancy. For
it was probable there would be one verv foon, the new
Pope being' old and infirm. Adrian VI was elected in
January 1 jij, but it was Midfummer bcfoie he came to

'The Emperor having made a Pope at his devotion, and Tit r-
fettled his affairs in Flanderi and Get many, refolved to re
turn into Spain, where his prefence wa, ncccfljry. Bui »
he hail cnul'e to fear fome change at the Court of England,
oil account of what had palled in the late ConJ.ivc, he Hao «t-
thought pepper to vifif Henry in his way. '1 his vifit wa.
necellary, as well to confum with thai Pi luce the Article .
agreed on at Bruges, as to try to preferve Cardinal IVol-
feys Friendfhip, without which he. could not expect to
preferve the King's. He landed the 26th of May At Dover, 11
where the Cardinal waited on him with a magnificent «■''«"'* f»J«
Train, and Henry came himlclf two days after .'(-a). •, ,"i>ub
From thence, he conducted the Emperor to Greenwich, .
and then to London (-,), where lie was received with all
the honour and rcTpcct ufua! on fuch occalions. The H^llineflu
Cardinal Legate forgot not to flxnv his Grandeur by faying
I!i?h-Mafs.(.f) before the two Monarchs, ailifted by I
ral I'ilhops, and ferved by Dukes. As he had refolved
to hide liis rcfcn.nient, the Emperor had reafon to i
ti.hed with hi reception, and lound a ready Compliance
..1I1 all his defircs. After Ibme ftay at London the King
invited him to JVindfor, where he was installed pi
Order of the Garter, into which his Brother FerSinan/l' J?."'
alio had been admitted the 23d of the foregoing April (5).
This done, the two Monarchs received the Sacrament to- '• "'»s&«
gether, and fwore to tie Treaty of Bruges.

The preamble of the Treaty ran, that the Emperor //<• fi?"<
and King of France had referred their differences to the
arbitration of the King of England, who had fenl the
Cardinal of York to Calais to decide them : That in theft
Conferences it was long debated, to know, which of the
two Monarchs had been the aggrellor, and after mature
deliberation, the Cardinal had declared, it was tjie Kur<-
of France, as 'well by means of Robert de la Mark, as
by invading Navarre: That therefore the King of Eng-
land was obliged by the Treaty of Lcndcn, to affiit the
Prince attacked againft the AggrcfTor. That moreover,
he had himfelf caufe to complain of the King of France,
tor breach of promife, in fending back the Duke of Al-
bany into Scotland, and for difcontinuing the payments of
the Sums due to him. Upon all thefe accounts, C
and Henry deeming themfelves free and clear from all
Engagements with the King of France, had refolved to
contract a ftricb Alliance, and feal it with a Marriage
between the Emperor and the Princefs Mary, Henry's
Daughter, upon the following Terms. Of thefe Terms
I (hall recite fuch only as may be of fervice to the Sequel
of the Hiftory. Thofe concerning the Marriage were to
this Effect:

That the Emperor fhould efpoufe [by Proxy] Alary, Ariicla if
Daughter to Henry, as foon as fhe fhould be twelve yearsold. '** r "-"y-

That her Dowry fhould be four hundred thoufand
Crowns, out of which fhould be deducted what the
Emperors Maximilian [and Charles] had borrowed of the
King of England.

That in cafe the Marriage fhould not be accomplished
by the Emperor's fault, he obliged himfelf to pay four
hundred thoufand Crowns to the King of England, who
bound himfelf in the fame Sum to the Emperor, in cafe
the Marriage was hindered on his part.

The Terms of the League were;

That before the end of May 1524, the Emperor fhould
enter France on the fide of Spain, and the King of Eng-
land in Picardy, each with an Army of thirty thoufand (5)
Foot, and ten thoufand Horfe.

(1) The Conclave is in the Vatican, where there is a long Gallery full of Cells, which are chofen by the Cardinals by Lot. The Funeral of the
deccaied Pope lading nipt days, on the tenth each Cardinal goes to his Cell, and are (hut up in the Conclave with one Servant called .1 Cmta-jifi, with
each a Secretary and Gentleman to attend them, carry their MeiTages, and manage their Intrigues. The Conclave is guarded by the Miluia of the Cay,
to prevent their receiving any Letters; and the diflies of Meat (which are received in at a Window by the ConcIavirVj are fearched by the Maftcr ot the
Ceremonies for the fame rejiiin. The Cardinali meet every Morning and Evening in the Chapel for a Scrutiny, which is done by writing their Suffra-
ges in the Billets done up in two Fold!, and fealcd with two Seals. In the lirfr. Fuld, the Conclavift Wlites the Name of the Cardinal his Mallir v-tes
for, becaufe the Cardinal's Hand would be known. In the fecond, the Cardinal writes his own Name ; and on the outlide, the Conclavift writes any
Mctto the Cardinal pleafcs, as D,i 1'JtnU, &c. by which they know their own Billets when the)- arc read, foi the Fold containing the Elector's Name
is not opened till the Pope is chofen; and then he opens all to know who eleflcd him. When the Billets are ready, they put them, after a ihort Prayer,
into a Ch ike upon the Altar, and appoint two of their Number to read the Names of the Cardinals aloud, and keep account of the V. tes fcr each. Aud_
this they do till two thiids of the Votes fall upon one Pcrfon ; and if they do not, the Billets are all burnt. The Court of Row confifts at ptT-'loit of
the Pope and feventy Cardinals; wis. fifty Cardinal Priefts, fourteen Cardinal Deacons", and fix Cardinal Bilhops, who are for the molt part of the Pape"s
Privy-Ccuncil. See Pugindtirf's Intrafuflieii to the Hiftory of £urft\ and Rdig. Cujhm. Vol.1.

(2) See the names of the Noblemen and others, that attended the King and the Cardinal to Cmtariiuy, in Sv.-iw's FxJ. Tom. XIII. p. 767. Bill
fays, ffidjhf ict cut for Drucr the icih of May ; being accompanied by two Earls, thirty fix Knights, a hundred Gentlemen, eight Bilhops, ten A X •=,
thirty Chaplains, all in Velvet and Sattin, and liven hundr.d Veoiinen. He came to Down the ifth. In the mean time, Thimai Cttj Marqua, of Dir.

fit, with the Loid Delewsre, and a large Retinue of Knights and Gentlemen was font to Cr/atr, to wait en the Emperor, fol. 93.

(3) On the 6th of Jur.e. Sum, p. 516 (4) On H'bitfuoday. Hid.

(5) On St. Carps Day, and had the Order and Habits fent him to Nortnbtrg. He was afterwards Emperor. Herb's!, p. 47.
(6 y Resin by miftake lays fcrty thoufand, Whereas in Uw Ordinal it is only thirty th'.'Ular.d or moic. Sec Hcrbtn, p. +S.


75 2


Vol. I.


That they mould make neither Peace nor Truce with- raifed the Siege, and encamped at Monza, and Colonna, 1522.
out a mutual confent. wno was afraid for Milan, ported himfelf at Bicocca, a

That if any places fhould be conquered upon France, Country Seat with a large Park, capable of being eafily

they fhould be reftored to him of the two Allies, who had
a right to them; and to prevent all difputes, each fhould
declare his pretentions before the firft of May 1524.

That if the King of England intended to fubdue Scot-
land, or reduce Ireland to an entire obedience, or the Em-
peror to recover Gueldres or Frifeland; if the Scots in-
vaded England, or the Duke of Gueldres made War upon
the Emperor; in all thefe cafes the two Monarchs fhould
be bound to affift one another

fortified, being furrounded with a deep Ditch. Here Co-
lonna intrenched himfelf in fuch a manner, that he could
not be attacked without rafhnefs. Lautrec had no Incli-
nation to attack the Imperialifts in this port, but coulJ
not poffibly help it. His Switzers would have Money,
and he had none to give them, Louifa of Savoy, the
King's Mother, having applied to other ufes the four hun-
dred thoufand Crowns defigned for the Army in Italy.
Mean while, the Sivitzers prefTed their General either to The Switzerj

That they fubmitted to the Spiritual Jurifdiclion of the give them Money, or lead them to Battle, elfe they were

"» the French

refolved to return home. This put him at length upon \_ 2n
aflaulting the Camp at Bicocca, where he was repulfedA 4 '-
with great lofs (6) ; after which, the Switzers quitting JjK?2 "
him, he was conftrained to repafs the Mountains, not be- Bkoco.
ing able to withltand the Imperialifts. Prefently after Co- * return t»
lonna became mafter of Genoa. This rich City being- taken I™,""'

1 /• • 1 .in /-, 1 • J . . ° Colonna

by lurpnze, whillt a Capitulation was negotiating, was tales Genoa,
miferably facked. In fhort, Francis had nothing left in Bizan -
Italy, but theCafllesof- / l//7i?«and Cremona, and even theie
were very clofely blocked up.

In other parts where the War was carrying on during 77rSpar.br&

The E>n/v-

r^r'i ticunty

It Wolfey.
Act. Huh.
June S.
p. 77°-

J u| y 4-

Henry tends
tint MsUcJ.


The Emperor

makes tie
Earl if Sur-
rey j-iJmir.ll

•f bis Flat.


Cardinal of 1 r ork as Legate, and required him to pronounce
the Sentence of Excommunication againft him of the two
that fhould firft violate the Treaty.

That the Treaty fhould be kept private, fo that the
common Enemy might have no knowledge thereof.

That the Pope fhould be entreated to enter into the
League as a principal Contractor, and reputed as fuch, pro-
vided he accepted it within three months.

That the Venetians fhould be likewife admitted, pro-
vided they renounced their Alliance with France.

That the two Monarchs fhould uk their utmoft endea-
vours to perfuade the Switzers to forfake the French, or at this Campain, France was more profperous. After Ad- "'■'/'£

miral Bonnivet had taken Fcntarabia, the Spaniards in- Fonorabia.
vefted that place, and continued the Siege, without being Meaerai.
able to accomplifh their Enterprize. At laft, Marfhal de
Chabanes being fent into Beam to take the Command of
the French Army, in the room of Marfhal de Chatillon,
who was dead, raifed the Siege, and appointed one Frau-
gct Governor of Fcntarabia, who afterwards behaved very

In Picardy and Champagne, the Imperialifts and En- rht Impcria-

leaft to be neutral.

The fame day the Treaty was figned, the Emperor
figned alfo Letters Patents, promifing to pay Henry what-
ever was due to him from Francis, in cafe Francis, on ac-
count of the prefent League, fhould refufe to continue the
payments to which he was obliged.

But Cardinal IVolfcy had not waited to do his own af-
fairs till the King's were finifhed, for on the eighth of June
the Emperor, by Letters Patents, ingaged to pay him the glijh having joined their Forces, performed nothing of '£'

penfion of twelve thoufand Livres(i), which the King of
France gave him for the Bifhoprick of Tournay. Some
days after, he obliged himfelf to pay him a penfion of
two thoufand five hundred Ducats, till the like penfion
was affigned him upon the vacant Churches in Spain, in
lieu of that he received out of the Bifhoprick of Badajos,
which the Emperor defired to difcharge. But the Em-
peror's Bounties to Cardinal IVolfcy were amply recom-

penfed, by a great Sum lent him by the King before his but after having been five or fix weeks before the Town,
departure. were forced to retire. From thence they marched to Dour-

During the Emperor's ftay in England, which was lens, and finding the place deferted, and the Gates pulled
about five weeks, he fo won the affection of the whole down, fet fire to it. Then intending to approach Corbie
Court by his Civilities, Careffes and Prefents, that he was in Oclcber, the bad weather, and the care the French had

moment. The two Armies, commanded by the Count grcatMaiten
de Bute for the Emperor, and by the Earl of Surrey for '" Pi«rdy.
the King of England (7), were fo fuperior to thofe <rf"S«Bi.
France, that the Duke of Vendime, who commanded in Hall.
Picardy, was not able to refift them. So, having fur- Hollinglh.
nifhed the Towns with Ammunition, he contented himfelf
with inceiTantly annoying them with a fmall Body of
Troops. In September the two Generals befieged Hefdin y

taken for the defence of the place, hindered their under-
taking the Siege. After that, the Imperialifts retired into
Artois, and the Englijh returned home(S).

Thus all the efforts of the Emperor and the King of Francis 'r




almoft fure of leaving none but Friends about the King.

He gained the Good-will of the Englijh, chiefly by con-

rtituting the Earl of Surrey Admiral of his Fleet (2). The

Commiffion was drawn whilft the Emperor was at London,

before his Journey toWfndfor. As he was to make fome England would have done Francis no great mifchief this J J ** '".

farther ftay in England, the Earl of Surrey taking with

him both the Englijh and Flemijli Fleets, made two defcents

into France, and carried away a rich Booty (3). Then

he returned and conveyed the Emperor to Spain (4).

I muft now briefly relate the Succefs of the Wars which
were waging in feveral places. The death of Leo X had


IJpie of the

Campa:n 1
1 522 lit

Campain, if he had not himfelf been the Caufe of his ^'nitku*
ill fuccefs in Italy, by neglecting to find the Switzers Mme/.
Money. Indeed, if Lautrec had not been forced to at-
tack the Imperialifts at Bicocca, probably he would have
been mafter of Milan before the end of the Campain.
Charles V then perceived, that to gain any confiderable The Bmfm
put the affairs of the Allies in Italy in a very ill fituation. advantages upon France, much greater efforts were to be q^"^'
The Troops of the Church and of Florence had relin- ufed, and for that reafon continued to carefs Cardinal JVol- TO " rv ^j.
quifhed the Army, immediately after the news of the fey, in order to fecure the King his Mailer's alTiftance. In Act. Pub
Pope's death. Be fides that, Profper Colonna receiving no the Colleclion of the Publick Acls, there is a Letter of his to ^J"'^
more Supplies of Money, either from Rome or the Em- the Cardinal, full of obliging expreflions, plainly denoting

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