M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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(3) The- Emperor promif-d to a P po>.t her his Heir, m caie he ar.d bis Brother Ferdinand died without Iffu: ; and to give her a Dcwcr of two hjndred
thoufand Crowns. P. Daniel, Tom. VII. p. 50S.

(+1 Jui.i th. ;Sth, according to P- Daniel, p. 499.

(;) Florentius of Egmont.

(6) Confiftiiig of three and thirty tnoofand Mini Cuiaiard. 1. 15.

he



Book XV.



20. H E N R Y Vllf.



755



1523. he drew together all hi; Forces to try to defend the
paflage of the Tefin ; but he came too lato. The French
had made fuch fpeed, that he was forced to retire to Mi-
lan in the utmoft diforder. Nay, he refolved to aban-
don that City, if by an unaccountable negligence, they
h-d not given him forme days time to repair the Works.
He had but fifteen thoufand Men, with which he could
not expert to defend, againft an Army of above forty
thoufand, fo large a City, which alfo was open in fevcral
Places. However, as he had learnt by long experience,
that it muft not always be thought, the Enemies will do
what is mod for their advantage, he never ceafed repair-
ing the places which wanted it molt, deeming he could
but withdraw at laft in cafe the French were as expedi-
tious as they ought to have been. If Bonnivet had matched
directly to Milan, he would have found the Gates open.
But after taking Novarru and Vigerano, and pafling the
Tefin without oppofition, he prepoftcroufly imagined a few
days more or lefs would lignify nothing. So having loft
to no purpofe four or five days, he gave the Emperor's
General time to put Milan in a pofture of Defence (1).
At laft, approaching the City when it was too late, he
found it incapable of being attacked, by the good manage-
ment of Colonna. Whereupon he refolved to encamp at
Chiaravalla, in hopes of cutting off" the Provifions of
Milan, and of having the Imperialifts at his mercy. But
he took his meafures fo ill, that after perfifting in his de-
fign till the end of November, he was forced himfelf to
remove from Milan for want of Provifions. All he did
during that time was to relieve the Caftle of Cremona,
reduced to the laft Extremities (2). Such was the fuccefs
of Bonnivet's Campain, which might have been more glo-
rious for him, and more advantagious for the King his
Matter, had he taken jufter meafures, and improved his
Superiority. Colonna died fhortly after, and Lanoy Vice-
roy of Naples took the command of the imperial Army.
The Seafon was fo far advanced, that nothing remark-
able palled in thole parts till the end of the year, when
the Duke of Bourbon came and took the command of the
Emperor's Troops, not without Lanoy's great difguft, who
unwillingly refigned his Port to a Foreigner.
Campain in The Allies, as I faid, weie refolved not to invade
Beam. France till September, becaufe it was to be prefumed, the
P. Daniel. King would then be employed in Italy. For this reafon
Herbert. it was the beginning of that month before the Emperor
aflembled his Army in Spain. Lautrec, who commanded
in Guienne, hearing the Spaniards were drawing together,
haftened to the Frontiers, to provide for the defence of
Bayonne and Fontarabia, which were moftexpofed. Frau-
get, an Officer of nose, was Governor of Fontarabia, hav-
ing been left there the laft year by Marfhal de Chabanes.
Lautrec relying upon Frauget's Bravery and Experience,
left him in the fame Poft, after having re-inforced the
Garrifon, and laid in fome Ammunition. After that, he
did not queftion, the place would be able to maintain a
long Siege. Thefe precautions being taken with regard
to Fontarabia, he repaired to Bayonne. He was no fooner
arrived, than the Spani/h Army appeared before the Walls,
fupported by a Fleet, which threw the Inhabitants into
great Confternation, the Town being weak towards the
Sea. But Lautrec fo managed it, that the Spaniards were
difappointed, though they had expected to carry the place
71.. Spaniards without oppofition. Perceiving therefore, that the Siege
itc-mcMa- wou ]c| employ them too long, they fuddenly raifed it, and
tanbSa. ° inverted Fontarabia, which was bafely furrendered by
P. Daniel. Frauget, in very few days (3). He was like to have loft
his head for a fault of that confequence. But though he
preferved his Life, he laved not his honour being publickly
degraded.
Campain in The Emperor was not fo fuccefsful in Burgundy and
champagne. Champagne. Lamothe of Noycrs, the Duke of Bourbon's
(Jrhcer, was gone lome time fince into Germany, to con-
duit into Burgundy, Count de Furftemberg, who, with
{even or eight thoufand Lundfquenets, was to join there
the Duke of Bourbon. Though this project feemed to be
fruftrated by the Duke's flight, Count de Furftemberg
however entered Champagne with his Army. He imme-
diately took Coiffy and Montcclair, fmall places which
made no great reliftance. But the Duke of Guife, who
commanded in that Province, knowing Furjiemberg had
no Cavalry, aflembled all the Nobles of the Country,
and forming fome Squadrons, clofcly followed the Germans.



Furjiemberg finding himfelf too weak in the heart o! the 1 523.
Enemy's Country, and having noHoife to oppofe to thofc ' """t"-r a
ot the Duke of Guife, refolved to retire into Lorrakh H«
could not however make his retreat without receiving a Guife!
tertible check near Neufehdtel, where the Duke o: C
deleated the belt part of his Troops.

Whilft the War was carrying on in Italy, Beam, and
Champagne, Henry imbarked his Troops under t!ie Com- '
mand of the Duke of SuffM (+), who landing at 0*.
lais(s), joined the Count de Bure, the 20th of & -
her. Thefe two Bodies made together an Army ot
twenty five, or thirty thoufand Foot, and about fix (Lou- I
(and Horfe. The Duke de la Trimouille, wiio command- ''• ]> "'" :i -
ed in that Country, wa, fo inlctior in nimkr ol To
that he durft not keep the Field. All he could do v.
to throw Succours into the places molt expofld, and
ipcedily inform the King of what palled in thofe parts.
Francis I, being then at Lyons, was extremely embarrafled
to withftand fo many unexpected Invafions. ' lis faid,
that deceived by falfe Advices from England, he had been
in hopes Picardy for this year would be unmokftcd, and
yet, he faw it was there his Enemies intended to make
their greatcft Effort. In this pcrplcxitv, he immediately
difpatched the Duke of Vendhne, with all the Trcx ps he
could all'emble, both to defend Picardy, and fecure Fart*,
where he did not queftion, the alarm was verv great.
Indeed, the Duke of Suffllk, and the Count de Bure HalL
pafling by Terouenne, Hejdin and Dourlens, had taken Roye
and Montdidier, and were advanced as far as Corbie. But
the news of the Duke of Vend 6 me' s march, caufing tl cm
to be more circumfpect, they thought proper to proceed
no farther, and the rather becaufe the Seafon besan to be
very incommodious, and they were afraid of being in
between the Dukes of Venddme am! la Trimouille. Thefe
Confiderations induced them to think of retreating. In
their return, they became mafters of Bouchain, the Go-
vernor whereof brought him the Keys, though they had
no thoughts of attacking the place.' Then" leaving an
Englijh Garrifon in Bouchain, they retired into Ariel's:
But prefently after, the French recovered that Town.
Thus the progrefs of the confederate Armv was not fo great
as Francis had reafon to fear. Had the Armv taken the
Field fooner, he would have been greatlv embarrafled.
But, as I faid, the hopes the Emperor, and the King of
England had conceived of the Duke of Bourbon's under-
taking, was the caufc of their not beginning the Campain
in any place, till about the end of September.

When Adrian VI came into the League, he had no de- D - ,:l 'f
fign to ruin France, in order to compel Francis to wage * d,! L
War with the Turks, but he had been told, it would be "
a certain means to oblige that Prince to confent to the
Truce. Mean while, without the Pope's knowing any
thing of it, the Emperor and Henry had combined to invade
France, and divide it between them. Probablv, if he had
lived to the end of this year, he would have ken that
their defigns did not correfpond with his, but he died
about fix weeks after figning the League againft France.
He was a good Man, of a Chafer very different from //, eta-
thofe of his Predeceffors. Inftead of thinking to enlarge
the Ecclefiaftical State by unjuft Confifcations, he had £"f" d -
given the Duke of Urbino the Inveftiture of his Duchv. saTdT"
He had done the fame by the Duke of Fcrrara, knowing
that the former Popes had quarrelled with thefe Princes
only to gratify their defire of inriching their own Rela-
tions. He would have even reftored Mcdena and Reggio
to the Duke of Ferrara, if the clamours of his Council,
who could not underftand that Juftice ought to be the
foundation of Policy, had not prevented him. He thought
likewife of reforming the Court of Rome, but death iuf-
fered him not to execute his delign. All thefe proceed-
ings, fo remote from thofe of his immediate PredecelTors,
who had ufed the Courtiers and People of Italy to fee
the Popes purfue the loofe maxims of Temporal Princes,
caufed it to be faid, that he was indeed an honeft Man,
and a good Chriftian, but an indifferent Pope. Accord- Cuicciard.
ingly the Italian Writers fpeak of Adrian \'I in Terms
importing no great efteem for him.

The beginning of this year, Cardinal Julio de Medici, Julio de
who retired to Florence upon the death of Leo X, returned )'-' : ..
to Rome, and was very civilly received. In a fhort time,
he gained the Good-will of the Pope to fuch a degree, Aar.an vx,
that he fupplanted the Cardinal of Vol terra, the Prime



fl) Ca/caxzi Vifcount of Milan, meeting him, and defiring him to fhy till he had raifed a Tumult in the City, (which he a:f:red him of in two or three
days) made Ronnivet lofe the opportunity, Herbert, p. 59. According to others, Gateaxxo put Bmnivos in hope;, that this ClUf would uurendei by Cas ...
tion, whence he might reap great Advantages, and at lealt get a large Sum ot Money. P. Daniel, Tom. VIl. p. 516.

(z) And which Janu d'Herlouviite, the Governor, had kept tor the French near two years together, after the t Icing of the Town. Rid.

(3I Being defirous to fave his Goods. Herbert, p. 59. Eut P. Daniel lays the blamt on Don Ptdrc, Sen of the M.rJul or Navarn, who h.ld Intelligence
'with the Spaniards, Tom. VII. p. 529.

14) Cbarla Brandon. He was attended by fevcral Lords and Gentlemen, whofe names fee in Hail, fol. 113. The Vanguard was commanded by the Lord
Sandei : the right Wing by Sir IViH.am Kin^jl-jn j the left by Sir E-verard D'gby j the Rear by Si 1 Richard H'ir.gji;iae ana s.r Edward l ■; a was Captain
of the Horfe. This Army conliftcd or" fix hundred Demi-Lances, two hundred Archers on Hoifeback, three thoufand Archers on loer, five tbouiand Eiil-niur,
two thoufand fix hundred Pioneers and Labourers : To whom were added ltvcnwen hundred Men cu: ol the Fullrcfjos of Cuijnti ar.d Cataiu So tiia: hia
whole Aimy wrs thirteen thou.and one hundred flrong. Hail, fol, 114.

(Sj Augiefl a 4 . Ibid.

5 Minifter,



The HIS70RY of ENGLAND.



75 b

:;23. Minifter, and caufed him to be committed to the Caftle of
St. Angela. From thence forward he had the fole manage-
ment of the Pope's affairs, gaining more and more his
efteem, by putting on the Devout, and exprefling a great
Zeal to unite all the Chriftian Princes againft the Turk.
By this aitifice he led him to publiih the Bull for a trien-
nial Truce, and at length to iign the League againft
France. A Minifter like this was, doubtlefs, too politick
for fueh a Pope. Adrian VI died the 14 th of September,
at the very time the Armies began to take the Field. Had
he lived any longer, he would, without doubt, have per-
ceived, the League he had imprudently ingaged in, was
by no means proper to procure the Union, he fo much
defired among the Chriftian Princes.

Cardinal WoVty having notice of the Pope's death, writ
v ' '"' ' to the King to inform him of it, defiring his afliftance
, ' and protection ( 1 ). Next day he writ to him again,
praying him to recommend him to the Emperor, by a
Letter under his own hand. He flattered himfelf that the
FiddeV Emperor would have a grateful fenfe of his late Service,
in cauiing the King his Mafter to declare againft France,
and would now at leaft keep his word with him, fince he
had no Preceptor to be elected as in the former Conclave.
But if the Italian Hiftorians are to be credited, the Em-
peror little th ught of procuring him the Papacy, and the
Conclave much lefs, who met prefently after Adrians
' •'"!'/ deceafc. Of the thirty nine Cardinals which were in the
, :' Conclave, Julio de Medici had fifteen or fixteen at his
. . ,' : .. devotion, betides three who had promifed not to be

Gukciard. againft him, if he was like to fucceed in the Conclave ; fo
that he had only feven or eight to gain, in order to have
two thirds of the Voices. But this was not eafy. Car-
dinal Colonna, his Adveifary, was at the head of a much
more numerous Party, who would have infallibly carried
it, if the Cardinals of that Faction could have as readily
united in chufmg a Pope, as in preventing the Election
of Julio. This made the Conclave hold fifty days. As
for IVolfey, if he had any Cardinals for him, they could
not be many, fince he had againft him the French Party,
and the Emperor's Adherents were the fame with thofe of
Julio de Medici. In fhort, Colonna's Faction not agree-
ing upon the choice of a Pope, becaufe the head would
have one elected difagreeable to his Friends, his Indigna-
tion at their obftinacy caufed him to be reconciled with
the Cardinal de Medici. Guicciardini fays, Julio gave
him a promife under his hand to make him his Vice-
Chancellor, and prefent him with his Palace, one of the
moft magnificent in Rome. Be this as it will, Colonna
giving him feven or eight Votes which were at his dif-
pofal, there was no farther obftacle to his Election. It
being reported in the Conclave, that the Cardinal de Me-
dici would be elected the next Scrutiny, moft of the Car-
dinals flayed not till day appeared, but went and made
their Court to the perfon who was foon to be their Ma-
fter. Their example drew in the reft, who finding it
not in their power to hinder the Election, were willing
alio to ihew, they freely concurred. So, that very night,
between the 1 8th and 19th of November, all the Cardi-
nals went and paid obeyfance to the new Pope, and next
morning his Election was confirmed by a folemn Scru-
tiny, wherein he had all the Voices. Thus it is that the
Holy Ghoft influenced the Cardinals in the choice of a
Pope, who, contrary to their Intention, was to be the
cauie of the Roman Church's receiving the deepeft wound
fhe had ever received. The new Pope afilimed the name
of Clement VII, on account of St. Clement's day, which
was to be very (hortly folemnized. He was natural Son
of Julian de Medici, Uncle to Leo X. But this defect of
Birth, though contrary to the Canons, was not confider-
ed. Leo X, who made him Cardinal in the beginning of
his Pontificate, took care to have it legally attefled, that
Julian promifed his Mother marriage. So, taking for
granted that a bare promife was equivalent to a Marriage,
he declared Julio legitimate. Alexander VI took the fame
courfe when he made Caj'ar Borgia his Baftard Son Car-
dinal. He produced Witneffes, who depofed, that Ccsjar
was born of a married Woman, whence it was inferred
the Child was to be deemed the Husband's Son. In this
manner did the Vicars of Jefus Chrift abule Laws divine
and human to gratify their Paflions.
Wolfcv bid 1 The news of Clement's Election was a great mortifi-
Ut Dijgiift. cation to Wolfey, who, fince the promotion of Adrian VI,
had expected to be Pope upon the firft vacancy. He mult
have been extremely incenfed with the Emperor, who
had twice deceived him. So, it may be allured, conlider-
ing his vindictive Temper, he refolved from that mo-
ment to be revenged. But as he could not execute this



Vol. I.



refolution without his Matter's afliftance, he was to take 1525.
care not to difcover that he acted from a motive of re-
venge ; otherwife he would have run the hazard of being
difappointed. He concealed therefore, under the Mask of
a feigned moderation, the refentment he harboured in his
Breaft, and contented himfelf with telling the King, that Fiddcs Coll.
feveral had voted for him in the Conclave, but his abfence p ' "*"
had turned to his prejudice, and the fituation of the affairs
of Italy caufed the Cardinals to chufe Julio de Medici.
A few days after, the King's AmbalTador at Rome had Fiddcs, ibid.
orders to notify to the new Pope, the King's and IVol- p ' 5
fey's Joy at his promotion (2). At the fame time, Wei- H* demanix
fry defired the continuance of his Legatefhip, affirming, ana J *J' h "~
that by reafon of the King's Prerogative, it was not worth Legate/hip.
to him a thoufand Ducats a year. Clement VII was en- Herbert.
tirely of the Emperor's Party, and knowing of what con-
fequence the King of England's afliftance was at the pre-
fent Juncture of affairs in Europe, gladly embraced the
opportunity to gratify Cardinal IVolfey, and make him his
Friend, by whofe means he might gain the favour of the
King his Mafter. In this difpolition, he granted the Car-
dinal more than he defired. By a Bull of the 9th of Ja- Clement
nuary 1524, he gave him the legantine power for Life. &' a "" "J° r
This is the firft and perhaps the only Inftance of a perpe- Hubert,
tual Legatefhip. Aft. Pnb.

IVolfey was now raifed to the higheft point of Gran- ^j lV f , p ^*_
deur that a Subject can afpire to. He was Archbifhop of emus every
York, Bifhop of Durham, Abbot of St. Albans, Cardinal, <ty »><™
Legate a latere for Life, Lord Chancellor of England, t™ '
Prime Minifter and Favorite, carefTed by the Emperor,
refpetted by the Pope, regarded by all the Princes of Eu-
rope, with almoft an ablolute Power in England, where
nothing material was tranfacted, either in Spirituals or
Temporals, but by his fole direction. It is eafy to fee,
fo many advantages were but too capable of rendering him
proud and infolent. He looked upon the King's Subjects
as Slaves, and unfortunately for them, infpired the King
by degrees with the fame principles, and infinuated to
him, that he ought to confider the Parliament only as an
Inltrument to execute his Will. Thefe Infinuations weie
but too effectual, as will be feen in the Sequel. In order He ciufa tie
to render him independent of the Parliament, he per- S*bfidyp-y-
fuaded him to exact from his Subjects (3) at once, the "IJ",^ tZ
Subhdy given by Parliament, and payable in four years, paid at c«»
Every one afcribed to the Cardinal this illegal proceeding, ?| 1 !S e * t "
which eftablifhed a very dangerous precedent. But he s tQW '.
little regarded the Complaints of the people, fince he was
fecure of the King's Countenance, and the Pope's Protec-
tion.

He undertook this very year a thing he would never He flrmi tit
have ventured upon, had he not been fully fatisfied that p '°J'f °f
the Pope could not be without the King's afliftance. And cZllr'Za.
that was, to caufe feveral Religious Houfes to be fup- Herbert.
preffed, to appropriate the Revenues to two Colleges, I' "'
which he intended to found at Oxford and Ipfwich. If
the Pope had reaped any advantage, his confent would not
have been very ftrange. But that he fhould agree to the
Suppreflion of feveral Monafteries to gratify a private Perfon,
is what could hardly be expected, and perhaps had never
happened. Accordingly, the Pope would never have grant-
ed it, had not the fatisfying the Paflion of this ambitious
Minifter been abfolutely neceflary to his deligns. The
Cardinal's project was to found a magnificent College at
Oxford by the name of Cardinal-College, which was to
confirt of one hundred eighty fix perfons, with Salaries.
The other College was to be founded at Ipfwich, the
place of his Birth, but only for Grammar, and to qualify
young Scholars for his College at Oxford. But as thefe
Projects were not accomplifhed this year, I fhall fpeak of
them on another occafion, and dole the year 1523, with
an account of what palled in Scotland, where affairs were
no more undifturbed than elfewhere.

Henry being ingaged in a war with France, juftly Henry firm
dreaded the Diverfion the Scots might make on the Fron- ^'ff'^
tiers. On the other hand, the King of Scotland's Mino- Scotland,
rity frequently tempted him to become mailer of that Buchanan.
Kingdom, after the example of Edward III his Prede- ^'11.'"
cellbr, who difpoflefled the King his Nephew at a like
Juncture. The Factions in Scotland increafing his hopes, Htfiman
he never ceafed to foment them by means of his Adhe- JjjJJ.
rents, who were very numerous, becaufe he had where-
withal to give penfions. He ufed for pretence, his be» tndimM
ing obliged by nature to take care of the King his Ne- '££'0'/*
phew's concerns, who was not of age to diftinguifh what Altanj ;
was advantagious, from what was prejudicial. So, as an
affectionate Uncle, he did his endeavour to remove the
Duke of Albany, under colour there was danger 0/ that



(0 He protefa, in that Letter which is dated September 30, that he though* himfelf unfit for the Papal Dignity, and that he defired much rather to end his
KJng. Which was ftrange diff«mb!ing. See Burnet's Rtf. Tom. III. p. 19; and Collet!. Fiddtt Collet!, p. 80.
1 A Difpatch was fent for thit purpofe to John Clarlt Bifhop of Rath and Wells, Secretary Putt, and Dr. 'Xbimai HanySall Mafter of the R.lh, and Re-

al R me. Herbert', p. 59.
(3) From all Peribns worth forty Pounds. Hall. Herbert, p. 60,

6 Prince's



Book XV.



2«; H E N R Y VIII.



1523.



Prince's feizing the Crown. H« knew he fhould never ac-
complifll hisdefigns fo long as Scotland was guarded by fuch
an Argus. The Queen his Sifter had made him very un-
cafy in joining with the Regent, becaufe he was thereby



heard from the Dulcc. T!,is Stratagem deceived the En-
glijh Admiral, who being informed by his Spies, that the
Duke of Albany was returned to Court, 2nd had (lifmifled
his Troops and Vefl'els, thought there was nothing more to



757



deprived of all pretence of faying the King was in danger, fcir this year, and fo returned with the Fleet into England.
Indeed, it was not likely, as the Parliament of Scotland The Duke was no fooncr informed of it, but he



and mate

bit Sijitr

Rcrcnt.



wifely intimated in their anfwer, that the Queer! ihould
join with the Regent, to deftruy the King her Son. Henry
however, to give fome colour to this accufation, was
pleafed to fuppofe, the Queen his Sifter defigned to marry
the Duke of Albany. But finding at laft, this fuppolition
had not the defired effect, he had rccouife to another
Expedient, which was, to gain his Sifter, by promifing
to procure her the Regency. That done, he prcfted yet



bled his Troops and Ships, and embarking about the
middle of September, arrived in Scctland the 84th (4), the
fame day the tar! of Surrey became mafic* of Jedbur-
rough.

The Regent's Arrival revived the courage of the Trench "'"'",'„''•
Party, who began to be extremely difmayed, and drew-rfm/n/ft
from the King of England (event] Perfons who had only *•"-*»*
favoured him out of fear. Some time after, the Regent I'^v'^-



more earneftly the Parliament of Scotland to remove the fummoned the Nobility to Edinburgh, and endeavoured Hilli



Fie invades

Scotland :

Hall,

Buchanan.

Herbert.

Pol. Virg.

Hullinglh.



tvtd offers
bis Daugh-
ter in mar-
riage to tbi
King bis
JVepbeiu.
Buchanan.
Herbert.



Duke of Albany, and confer the Regency on the Queen

But, to render his Inftances more effectual, he rclolved

to ufe his utmoft endeavours to hinder the Duke's return

into Scotland. To that end, he fent out a Fleet to take

him in his pafllige ( 1 ). At the fame time, he ordered

the Earl of Surrey to march into Scotland (2), to fhow

the Scots what they were to ex peel: in cafe they did not

give him fpeedy fatisfaction. The Scots being without a

Leader, and unprepared againft this Invafion, fuftained

great damages during the Campain. The Earl of Surrey

took "Jedworth, and carried fire and fword into the Cbun-

tr y (3)1 without meeting any oppoiition. Mean while,

Henry's Adherents ceafed not to cry, that a Peace mull

be m.de with England, fince it was the only way to fave

Scotland from utter deftruction. Henry fupported them, it could not be done better than by keeping an Army

by offering to the King his Nephew, his only Daughter on the Frontiers, which would oblige the Englijh to have



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