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to convince them that the Kingdom would be in great
danger, unlefs the King of England's defigns were time-
ly and vigoroudy oppofed. But all his Eloquence was net
capable of caufing a change of opinion, in thofc who pre-
ferred Henry's Pennons to all the Arguments that could
be alledged. However he afll-mbled an Army, and ad-
vanced towards the Borders, where he arrived the 2 2d
of Oilober. But when he came to march into England, Trey re/*;,
he met with the fame obftacles tint had flopped him the '.
laft year. Thar is, the Generals and Office* of the r.^u'1
EngllJI) Party refufed to follow him, maintaining it was
manifeftly agamft the intereft of Scotland to provoke
the Englijh, and therefore it was lufhucnt to be upon the
defenfivc. They added, ifthecjefign was to ferve Francf,



Mary in marriage, and magnifying the advantages the
Scots would receive from this Alliance. But withal, he
required of them that they Ihould break all their Engage-
ments with France. It was however very unlikely, he
fhould ferioufly think of giving his Daughter to the King



• ::ft.

• ; •

1 "f-



Ofipejition cf
the contrary
Party.
Pol. Virg.



the like in thofe Parts. But in the prefent Jiaunftances
of Scotland it was too much to ha?ard a Battle, the iofs
whereof would piove the ruin of the Kingdom. In fhort
the Regent feeing it was in vain to periwade them to h
follow him, ordered // lark CaftJe to be aftaultcd by the u
of Scotland, fince fhe was affianced to the Emperor, and French Troops ; but they were vigoroudy rcpulfcd. Mean ' '
he ftriclly united with that Prince. Befides, fuch a Mar- while, upon notice of the Earl of Surrey's approach at the*™
riage would have been of no advantage to himfelf or the head of a numerous Army (5), he did not think proper
Nation. To this the oppolite Party replied, the King of to expect him, but chofe to retire. Indeed, it would The Regent
England fought to difengage Scotland from France, only have been too dangerous to give battle with an Army "■'•red.'
the more eaiily to ruin the Kingdom, and that to make wherein the Englijh had fo many Favorers. The Se;
an Alliance with England by abandoning France, was the being no longer proper for one or other to keep t]
ready way to be Slaves to the Englijh : That this was Field (6), the Earl of Surrey, content with having flopped
not the firft time the Kings of England by fuch Marriages the Scots, fent his Troops into Winter-Quartersfand the
had attempted to become mafters of Scotland, and the Regent followed his Example.



worft was to be feared from Neighbours who had ever
afpired to the poffellion of all Great-Britain. In a word,
the deftroying with fire and fword a Country whofe
Friendihip was courted, was a ftrange way of defiring an



Whilft the Flames of War were kindled in almoft all ft t"fi °f
parts of Europe, the Reformation made great pro^refs \ n ' : ' R 'J c "
Germany, and began even to fpread in Switzerland, trance, sical*
and England. In the beginning of this year the Canton



Alliance, and propoling a Marriage. All thefe Reafons of Zurick, moved by the preaching of Zuinglius.

■were anfwered by the other Party. But it tended only ced divers Articles of Religion they had hitherto profelled



The Englilh
Army retire.
Buchanan.



The Duke cf
Albany de-
ceives the
Vigilance of
the Englifll,
and goes to
Scutland.
Buchanan.
Hall.



fo to augment diforder and contufion among the Scots,
that it was impracticable for them to come to any refo-
lution. Mean while, Henry, who only intended to ter-
rify them, by making them feel the effects of his Arms,
ordered the Earl of Surrey to quit Scotland and return into



though Zuinglius and Luther differed about the Eucha-
rift (7). Many likewife in France and England be"an to
diflike a Religion, that feemed to be founded more upon
the Pope than upon Jcfus ChrtjL Adrian VI, hearing
of the daily progrefs of Luther's Doctrine in German-'



England. But he had fcarce fent his Men into Winter difpatched a Nuntio to the Diet of Nuremberg, to exhort

Quarters, when the Scots made Inroads on the Borders of the German Princes to deftroy Luther and his Followers.

England, which obliged him to march a fecond time into He confefled however, in a Letter to them upon the fame

Scotland, where he became mafter of Jedburrough. Subject, that many abufes and dilbrders were crept into

Meantime, the Duke of Albany hearing what palled the Church (8), throwing the blame upon thofe who had

in Scotland, burned with defire to repair thither, to appeafe governed before him. But he faid, to reform all at once

by his prefence, the troubles caufed by the King of Eng- would be the way to fpoil all, and therefore it was nccef-



laud's Adherents, and to ftrengthen the French Party,
which was in danger of being furmounted by the other.
Francis I, had granted him an aid of three thoufa-nd Foot
and two hundred Men at Arms, to enable him to make
a Diverlion upon Henry from that quarter. But it was
not poflible to tranfport thefe Troops into Scotland, whilft
the Englijh Fleet kept the Sea to hinder their paffage.
Policy therelore was to be recurred to. For that purpofe,
he feigned to defift from his defign of going into Scot-
land, and fent his Troops into Quarters remote from the
Coaft, with orders however to be ready to march upon
the firft notice. The Tranfport-Ships were likewife lent
away to certain Ports, from whence they were ordered
to fail to the appointed Rendezvous the moment they



fary to proceed by degrees in this Reformation. Lull •
having feen this Letter, publilhed it in German with Notes
of his own, wherein he faid, among otfier things, that
the degrees the Pope mentioned were fo large, that there
was a hundred-years interval between each of them. On
the other hand, the Diet taking advantage of the Pope's
Confeflion, demanded a Free Council in Germany, where
every one ihould be obliged upon Oath to fpeak his real
opinion, and that numberlefs Abufes under which Ger-
many had fo long groaned, fhould be reformed.

Mean while, Luther ilill continued to write in defence Lu-hcr
of his Doctrine. Among other things he publilhed an
anfwer to the King of England's Book, wherein he 11ft
no Ceremony. This Behavior obliged Henry to compla



(1) Sir IVilUam Fifss-Wtlliams, with thirty fix great Ships cruized cm the Coalb of France, and Antbony Pcmtn with a good Fleet euarded the
weftern Seas. As Fitz-ll illiams was cruiling about, he difcovered twelve Funcb Ship*, in which the Archbilhcp of Ctajcno and other Pel
Quality were, whom the Duke of Albany had lent before him into Scotland. Giving chace to thefe ships, two of them were loft near Dupe ani
Boulogne. Herbert, p. 56.

(2) With fix thouland Men. And ordered Thomas Grey Marquifs of Dorfct, Warden of the Eart and middle Marches, and the Lord D.ures, War*
den of the Well Marches to join him. Herbert, p. 56. Hall, tol. 114.

(3) He took all the Caftles in Kcrtb and Tivi.tJaie. Buebanan.

£4} With Richard da la Pole, Brother of the Earl of Lincoln, beheaded in the 5th of this Reign, and three ihoufand French. Herbert, p. e-j,

(5) Forty thouland Men. There were belidcs fix thouland in Berwick. Bucban. 1. 14. hall, ful. 115.

(6) It was about the middle ot November. See Hall, fol. 116.

(7) Their d-rfcrences about Confublfantiatiun much hindered the Progrefs of the Reformation. A-d not being able to be comp-fed, Zair.gl,uf%
Party were cailed Sacramcntanans, and Luther's, Ubiefuitarians. Otslvin fuocetded Zuinglius, who by his Doctrines of Predelrination, fife, [j wideoed
the Breach between the Lutherans and Calvimjls, that they became irreconcileable. Infomuch that the Lutierans at Ltipfitk, where they are very
rigid, have let up in their grett Church the Picture ol Ignatius Loyala, Calvin and the Devil in one Ftanae, with this Infcription, The three '-'eat
Enemies ot Cbrtjl and the Cbrijl-.an ReJigion. Such Enmity does the differing in Opinion prep?fte;cufly br-jed among Chn:faan Sects, tipecull} where
both Sides are in the wrong !

(Xj His words are. In bac fanfta Sedc aliauct jam atsnis Muita Abominanda fuljfe.



No. 38. V»i, I.



7S 8



1523.



1524.

Affairs of

Italy.

Guicciard.



Tbe HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



of him to the Princes of the Houfe of Saxony. At the
fame time he exhorted them to hinder the publication of
Lather's German Bible, for fear the Translation fhould
be prejudicial to the Truth. But his Letter had no great
effect.

The progrefs of the Reformation was not yet confider-
able enough, to be regarded by the chief Sovereigns of
Europe, whofe thoughts were wholly intent upon War.
Clement VII refufed to renew the League, though him-
felfhad ingagcd his Predeceffor in it, and declared he would
ftand Neuter. This Declaration at firft extremely em-
barafTcd the Duke of Bourbon, becaufe the Emperor not ha-



his expedition into Provence, he could not however dif- 1524.
penfe with leaving a good part at Milan, and other
places of that Duchy, under the command of Lanoy Vice-
roy of Naples. On the other hand, the Venetians with-
drew their Troops, becaufe they had promifed by their
private Treaty only to defend the Milanefe. So, the Mezerai.
Duke of Bouibon began his march, the 24th of 'June,
much weaker than he expected (2), and entered Pro-
vence the fecond of July. He prefcntly became mailer Hl i t g„ a
of Aix and fome other places, and at laft came before Alar- Marfeillej.
fellies, the taking whereof was the chief end of his ex- p - Daniel,
pedition. But a tew days before, Reuzo de Ceri an Italian '



Gapella.
P. Daniel.



ving provided for the payment of his Troops, it was not Captain in the French Service, had entered with a Strong
poffible for the Duke to fatisfy them, fince the Pope and
the Florentines withdrew their ufual Subfidies. He found
means however to draw fome Money from the Inhabi-
tants of Milan, and at laft perfwaded the Pope to give



Garrifon. Whereupon the Duke found he fhould meet
with more refiftance than he had imagined, but however
he opened the Siege.

Mian while Iraneis I, having intelligence of Bourbon's Francis I.

it!



But what was worfe, he had no Money to pay his Troops.
This was a common misfortune to both fides. It is
true, he expected ten thoufand Switzers, and five thou-
fand Grifo



Tbe French
Army repafs
tie Alps.
Guicciard.
Bella! .



Ti>e French
bfe tie
Milanefe.

Tbc Empe-
ror 1 ! and
Henry'r
dcfigni upon
France.
Guicciard.
Bellai.
Mezerai.
Herbert.



lie Duke of
Bourbon
prepjret to
enter Pro-
vence*



Henry binds
bijrjelf to
find bim
Alcr.ey.

a&. Pub.

XIII.p 794.,
705.

Cuicciard.

Ibe Duke of

Bourbon
marches into
Provence.
Guicciard.
T. Daniel.



him twenty thoufand Ducats, and caufe the Florentines to march, ordered his Forces to be ailcmbled, and lomey;' 1 "■
furnifh him with fifty thoufand, on condition of Se- Troops fent to Avignon, for fear the Enemy fhould Seize ?'
crecy. it. The;e he refolved to aflemble his Army, and came

Not long after, the Duke of Bourbon receiving a fup- himfelf to command in Perfon. It is needlefs to fper.k
ply of fix thoufand Landfquenets, and the Venetian Army, either of the Siege of Marjeilles, or of the King's great
under the Command of the Duke of Urbino joining him, diligence in aiiembling his Troops. It Suffices to fay in and force,
he took the Field with thirty-five thoufand Men. Mean a word, that the very day he departed from Avignon, in ,be Duke ti
while, Bonnivet was greatly embaraffed. He had not order to fight the Imperialists, namely, the 10th of Sep- j™£ '*"
above twenty thoufand Men, having loft the reft of his tember, the Duke of Bourbon raifed the Siege of Mar- Bellai.
Army by death or defertion during the laft Campain. fellies, and retired into Italy. Whilft the King was at p - D anie '»

Avignon, he received the news of his Queen's death, who
died at Blois in July.

The Duke of Bourbon's retreat entirely changed the "Tbe King
but forefaw they would be of little Ser- face of affairs. Francis I, who had been in danger of n "' rch " •"'«
vice, becaufe he had not wherewithal to content them at lofing Provence, faw himfelf at the head of an Army oi ^'l.'""" "
their Arrival. This made him refolve to go in queft of above forty thoufand Men, ready to be employed in any Guicciard.
the Imperialifts and give them battle. But as they were important undertaking. So, perceiving that the Imperial- p< Danie1,
informed of his condition, they determined to avoid it, ills took a great coinpafs to retire into Italy, he refolved
though they were fuperior in number, in the expectation to improve that advantage, and the Superiority of his Ar-
of difperfing his Army without ingaging. And indeed, my, to recover the Milanefe. This refolution being taken,
the five thoufand Grifons, who were coming to join the he began his march, and tried to reach Milan before
Admiral, and were advanced as far as Bergamo, not receiv- them. On the other hand, the Duke of Bourbon having
ing the Money promifed them, immediately returned. As notice that the King was taking the fhorteft read to Ali-
tor the ten thoufand Switzers, they arrived indeed at Ju- Ian, made incredible fpeed not to be prevented, perceiv-
rea, and even advanced to the Banks of the Sefia ; but ing that thereon would depend the prefervation of the
it was not poffible to perfwade them to continue their Duchy. Thus the two Armies marching by different Tbe mo
march, for want of Money to pay them. Mean while, Routs, arrived the fame day, one at A'.be, the other at ^"*>" "■•
the Imperialifts became mafters of feveral fmall Towns, Vercelli. A few days after the Duke of Bourbon joined the 7%?/ a " ,b *
which very much annoyed the French Camp, and at laft Viceroy of Naples at Pavia.

forced the Admiral to retire to Novarra. In the mean Whilft the Imperial Army was in Provence, the Court Henry alters
time, the Caftle of Cremona, which the French had hither- of England was otherwife difpofed than before, and fcemed *" d 'fS"'
to kept, furrendered to the Imperialifts. to intend to follow new Maxims. Henry made no diver- ",l e £„£*"

Bonnivet, finding, that the Grifons were returned, that fion in Picardy, though he had paid but one month of the nr.
the Switzers would not ftir without being fecure of their Subfidy he was to give the Duke of Bourbon. This was He ^" rt -
pay, and that his Men deferted in great numbers, refolv- fufficient to create fufpicions in the Emperor, which were mCC ' ar '
ed at laft to re-pafs the Alps. As foon as the Duke of confirmed by Henry's unfeafonable demand of the Mo-
Bourbm had notice of his march, he purfued him with ney lent him at his departure from England (5). He
all fpeed, to compel him to a Battle. There were even could not believe, Henry would demand his Money at fo
between the two Armies feveral Sharp Skirmiihes, in one improper a time, inftead of performing his own engage-
of which the brave Bayard was flain. But notwithftand- ments, unlefs he intended to feek an occafion of quarrel,
ing all the efforts of the Imperialifts , Bonnivet retreated His uneafinefs ltill increafed, upon advice from his Am- Hall,
in good Order. When the French had re-pafied the baiTador in England that a Perfon (4) was come from Herbert
Mountains, the places they ftill had in the Milanefe, fur- France to London, from the Duchefs of Angouleme Regent Stow "

of that Kingdom, and had long and frequent conferences
with Cardinal IVolfey. All this, added to the Cardinal's
revengeful Temper, whom he had vainly amufed with
hopes of the Papacy, made him juftly apprehenfive that
ed great matters from the Duke of Bourbon's revolt, but the King of England was thinking to abandon him and join
hitherto it was not poffible to make any ufe of it, becaufe with his Enemy. However, in the prefent Situation of
the Confpiracy was difcovered too foon. The affairs of affairs, there was no other meafure to take, fince all de-
Italy having profpered beyond expectation, they refolved pended on the fuccefs of the War which was going to be
to make ufe of the Duke of Bourbon to carry War into renewed in Italy, where his Generals were not a little em-
France, imagining if he could have fome confiderable ad- baraiTed.

vantage, he would caufe part of the Kingdom to rebel. As foon as the Duke of Bourbon, and the Viceroy of Tie impe-

The Duke himfelf fed them with thefe hopes, becaufe Naples were joined, they confided upon what was to be r " !: """
that was the thing which rendered him considerable. He done at fo ill a juncture. At firft, they refolved to leave mUm.
would have been glad to act in fome place near his own Strong Garrifons in Pavia and Alexandria, and take re- Guicciard.
Territories, from whence he expected great Supplies. But fuge in Milan. But the Plague had made fuch ravage in „'. ,? an ' c1,
it was thought more proper that he Should enter Provence that City, every thing there was in fo great confufion,
with an Army, by reafon he could eaSily be affifted by and Money and Provisions fofcarce, that they were forced
the Spanijh Fleet, which kept at Genoa ; whereas by in- to dellft from their defign and aLiandon Milan. So, having
gaging in the middle of the Kingdom, the Fleet would well ftored Pavia and Alexandria, they withdrew to Son-
be of no Service. This refolution being taken, Henry cino, where Francefco Sforza alfo repaired with them.

Mean while, Francis I. continuing his March towards Tie French
Milan, and hearing the Imperialists were retired, cau kd ""'' r ,be
his Troops to enter the City, and ordered the Caftle to •j'£'caftkit
be inveftcd. If, inftead of going to Milan he had march- - - g .'
ed directly to the Imperialists, who Were little able U .', •'" " J-
withltand him, he would have infallibly difperfed them, pjJj ' Stt p t e
But Bonnivet's unfortunate advice induced him not only Franci i-

//- be, itge*

Pav a.
(J) Acc-rd : ng tn the Computation in Rymer, it amounted to one hundred and twenty fcur theufand Crowns. Tom. 13. p. 795.
t-J He had thirteen Lb.0uf.1nd Foot, and three thnuland Horfe. Rapw.

(3 \nd I Icewife the yeany Pcnlion that uf.d to be paid Hwry by France, (See above, p. 75*. ) as alfo ths Cardinal's Penfion of two theufand
five hundred Ducars, Sec. Guicciard. I. it.
(4j 'John Joachim a Ccnufc. f.all, fol. 135.

to



rendered by capitulation to the Imperialifts.

The French were no fooner out of Italy, but the Em-
peror and the King of England thought of means to in-
vade Francis in his own Kingdom. They had expect-



readily promifed to find the Duke a hundred (1) thoufand
Crowns a month, on condition, that after the firft month,
he Should be free to discontinue the payment, provided
he adted himfelf in Picardy at the head of a Royal Army,
from the firft of July, to the end of December.

Though the Emperor had put the Duke of Bourbon
in hopes he would lend him all his Army in Italy for



Book XV.



20. HENRY VIII.



759



1524. to march to Milan, which mud have fallen into his hands Intereff, becaufe he was entirely fallen out with the Queen '524.

if he had defeated or routed the Imperialifts, but alio Co his Wife. Upon that Lord's arrival, they c ml with H - !l -

Tbt hvpe- refolve to befiege Pavia. When he appeared before that him, and on pretence of freeing the King from the pri
na/ifit raljr pj ac6j t h c Generals of the Imperialifts began to take cou-
Ccrmany. ra g e ) m expectation that thc length of the Siege and thc

Winter-Seafon, would aftord them time to take fomc mea-

fures. Mean while they fpeedily fent for a Supply of ten

thoufand Germans. The Pope, thc Venetians, and the

Florentines failing them all at once, upon thc French King's



Captivity, the Queen and the Earl of Arran held him
in, levied Troops and took Sterling, after which they
marched to Edinburgh where the King was. At their up- Th F . .
proach, the Queen and the Earl carried the King into An 8u
the Cattle, but as they had not taken care to lay in Pro- *«'*«<*•■
vifions, were forced in few days to deliver the K e '""'



coming into Italy, their only refuge was the length of the three Lords, who aflumed the Title of Regents. Tl
Siege of Pavia, which began in November.

Clement VII, who in the late Pontificate had openly de
i clared againft the King of France, being in great perplex



Ike Pope
trail ptl
lately •with .

the hng. 'ty, fent a N initio to the two Armies to procure a 1 ruce;



the King was again put in Guardianihip und fer thel
Lords, who agreed to rule in turns, four Months each.
The Earl of Angus begun, and as he was in the Kii



•g MX. Pub.



Guicciard.
Herbert.



Francis/cW*

a Dttacb-

ment to

Naples.

Bellay.

Mezerai.

Clement

diffimblcs

with tbt

Emperor*



but not fuccceding, he made his Peace with the King of



of England's, intercft, fent Ambafladors to ticat of the XIV.'p. »o.
King of Scotland's marriage with the Princefs Mary, ac- 2 i , . ( : 3 - * 3 -
France. Moreover he propoled to him the Conqueft of cording to Henry's own Scheme. To facilitate this Ne- H '^_ ^
the Kingdom of Naples, and concluded with him a pri- gotiation, the Truce which was to expire the 1 ft of De-
vate Treaty, promiling free paflage to the French Troops, cember, was prolonged to thc z6th ol January ij.j.

Prefently after, Francis detached five or fix thoufand As England was very quiet during the whole year 1 524. CVmcnt
Men under the command of the Duke of Albany, who the Affairs of that Kingdom will not take me up Ion
had left Scotland the beginning of the Spring, with orders I ftiall only obferve, that Clement VII finding him
to march towards Naples. As they were neceffarily to a very ill Situation between the Emperor and the King of De' 1 -

pafs through the Ecclefiaftical State, Clement VII pre- trance, fhewed great regard for the Court of England, ,ht Fjilh-
tended for ibme time to oppofe it, to make believe it was whole affiftance, he thought, he might want. To that Hi fippnjjis
againft his will. When the French were in the middle of purpofe, he confirmed the King's Title of Defender of the M "



his Dominions, he publifhed his agreement with the King faith, conferred on him by Leo X (3), and, to \



gainjl bin.
Guicciard



Defender of 1
. and, to pleafe-^' 4 '
of France, as if newly made, and fent the Emperor no- Cardinal JVolfcy, fupprclTed St. t'ridefwid's Priory in Ox-

ford, on the ground whereof the Cardinal intended to I
build his College, and appropriated the Revenues to the
new Foundation. But as this was not fufficient for the B " 11 . r f ud
maintenance of the College, the Cardinal procured powers ,'•
to vifit all thc Religious Houfes, nolwithfianding their P- '3.



tice, excufing himfelf on the neceflity and conftraint he
v>bt is much was under. Though the Emperor was very flegmatick,
incenfed a- he could not help fhowing, on this occafion, an extreme re-
fentment againft the Pope. He faid, it was folely at the
inftance of Leo X, that he had undertaken the defenfe of



Ftandzftnds
arttl'cr De-
tachment to
Savona.
Cuicciard.



Italy: That Clement himfelf had preiied Adrian VI to Immunities, and particularly thofe of the Francijcans, who
fign the League, and now he was become Pope, forfook
him in his greateft need, and left him to profecute alone a
War kindled by himfelf: That however he hoped to come
oft" with honour, and to the confufion of thofe who fo
bafely deferted him. The event fhowed however, the
Pope had done him fignal fervice, in perfwading his Ene-
my to carry war into the Kingdom of Naples, fince he
thereby caufed him to divide his Forces. But it is uncer-
tain whether the Pope had any fuch intention.

Another accident farther contributed to deprive Francis



lit Impe-
rialijls take
the Field.



*Thry anncy



of his great fuperiority over his Enemies. Renxo de Cert,
who defended Alarfeilles, having received the King's or-
ders to embark ten Thoufand Men on the Gallies, and
join the Duke of Albany, who expecled him in Tufcany,
took Savona in his way. This Succefs which feemed very
advantagious for Francis, turned to his real misfortune, as
it put him upon fending a frefh detachment to Savona,
under the Condu£t of the Marquifs of Saluzzo, to take a-
gainfr. Genoa what advantages mould offer. The two de-
tachments for Naples and Savona ( 1 ), fo weakened the
French army, that the Imperialifts no longer feared to take
the Field



pretended to be exempted. This was to make a certain
lift of fuch as might be fupprefled, in order to tran fer the
Revenues to his Colleges. The Bull which gave him
thefe powers, was dated the 21ft of Augujl. On the 1 ith Amber



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