M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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there have been Judges fo hardy as to decide points of
this confequence, as in the Reigns of Richard II, Charles I,
James II, very few efcaped the punifhment due to their
preemption. The Parliament never intended that the
privileges of the Nation mould depend upon the deciiion
of the Judges. The Council finding the King was not
inclined to fupport what the Cardinal had done, and
on the other hand, not daring to come upon the Car-
dinal himfelf, thought fit to throw all the fault, without
naming any Perfon, upon thofe that had given the King
wrong information, and to releafe the Prifoners, after a
fevere reprimand. Purfuant to this refolution, the Pri-
foners being brought before the Council, the Cardinal
fharply rebuked them, aggravating the heinoufnefs of their
offence, and adding that the King was pleafed to grant
them his pardon, provided they would find Sureties for
their good behavior for the future. But the Prifoners re-
plying, they could find none, the Cardinal and Duke of
Norfolk faid, they would be bound for them ; whereupon
they were difcharged.

When the King had difcovered that he approved not all

" College, but that the College is the cloak for covering
" all mifchiefs. This grieveth me, I alTure you, to hear
" it fpoken of him, which I fo entirely love. Wherefore,
" methought I could do no lefs, than thus friendly to ad-
" monifh you. One thing more I perceive by your own
" Letter, which a little methinketh toucheth confcience,
" and that is, that you have received Money of the Ex-
" empts for having of their old Vifitors. Surely, this
" can hardly be with good Confcience. For, and they
" were good, why fhould you take Money ? And if they
" were ill, it were a finful Act. Howbeit, your Legacy
" herein might, peradventure, apud Homines, be a Cloak,
" but not apud Dcuin. Wherefore, you, thus monifhed
" by him who fo entirely loveth you, I doubt not, will
" defift, not only from this, (if Confcience will not bear
" it) but from all other things which fhould tangle the
" fame; and, in fo doing, wewillfing, Telaudant An-
" geli atque Archangel:, Te laudat Omnis Spiritus : And
" thus an end I make of this, though rude, yet loving
" Letter, deliring you as benevolently to take it, as I do
" mean it, for I enfure you, (and I pray you think itfo)
" that there remaineth, at this hour, no (park of difplca-
" fure towards you in my Heart. And thus fare you well,
" and be no more perplext. Written with the hand of
" your loving Sovereign and Friend*



Henry re-

trimsfcy/ralthz Cardinal's actions, People ventured more boldly to
aZLft'ihi complain of his conduct. The truth is, he opprefied the
Cardinal. Nation, and more efpecially the Clergy, in a ftrange man-
Hrfi 16 "' ner ' '^' 1e 'nftrument of his oppreffions was one Allen ( 1 )
his Chaplain, who kept no meafures, well-knowing his
Matter's protection would not fail him on occafion.
Mean while, how great foever the Cardinal's power was,
a private Perfon ventured to commence a fuit again ft
Allen, and profecuted him fo vigoroufly, that at laft the
affair came to the King's knowledge, who was informed
at the fame time of feveral other complaints of the Peo-
ple. He had hitherto fancied, there had never been in
England fo mild a Government as his, being ignorant of
We ;> lib, to the ill ufe Wolfey made of his Authority. This informa-

rffaimr!" tion threw nim int0 fo terrible a ra g e » that tne Cardinal
The Cardinal was like to have been entirely out of favor. It was not
ejfcajh him. without the utmoft fubmiflion that he appeafed the King's
anger, fhewing him withal his laft Will, wherein he had
made him his Heir. This he did to intimate that he was
labouring for himj and that the outrages he committed
were only to increafe the inheritance the King was one
day to enjoy. Nothing can more fully exprefs the King's
fentiments concerning him, than his Letter to the Car-
dinal after having pardoned him. A fragment whereof
inferted by Lord Herbert in his Hiftory, is as follows :

AS touching the matter of WiUm («), feeing it is
in no other ftrain than you write of, and you be

ttl King'i

Letter to the




p. 67.





This Letter fbews the King was informed of feveral The Cardinal
of the Cardinal's mifdemeanours. But he did not yet JT^j "J'^
thoroughly know him, his affection for him combating in ^n 4/
his Heart the heinoufnefs of his proceedings, and making liP'fffu
him believe, that his faults were the pure effects of his
great Zeal for the founding of his College. Hal he not
been thus prcpofTefled in his favour, he might have been
more fully informed. But it was very dangerous to fpeak
directly againft a Favorite, to whom the King it ill fhewed
fo great kindnefs. Mean while, the Cardinal finding by
this inftance, what his Enemies would be capable of do-
ing againft him, if they had the King's Ear, was very
careful to remove from Court all he fufpected. At the
fame time, he ftrove to preferve the King's Love and
Efteem, by all forts of Condefcenfions. He had now built Hall,
at Hampton-Court a ftately Palace, Which outfhone in *™£
beauty all the King's Houfes. But what had lately hap-
pened convincing him it might breed a Jealoufy in the
King, he made him a prefent of it (3), as if from the
very firft he had intended to build it for him. He meant
to infinuate by this Prefent, that he heaped up riches purely
for his fake, which fucceeded accordingly. The King had Tbt King
the fame Confidence in him as before, which the murmurs r 'I > ' rc ' b " a
of the people feemed to have fomething altered. This 'r,,^j/hip.
year he obtained the King's Letters Patents for founding a«. Pub.
his College at Oxford. xlv - f- 1+

About the fame time, the King created Henry Fitz- Hen ry >>>'
ing alfo fo fuddenly (with the falling fick of your Ser- Roy his natural Son Duke of Richmond and Somerfet, and ^,',2

vants) afraid, and troubled ; I marvel not that it over-
flipped you as it did. But it is no great matter, ftand-
ing the cafe as it doth ; for it is yet in my hand, as
I perceive by your Letter, and your default was not fo
" great, feeing the Election was but conditional. Where-
" fore, my Lord, feeing the humblenefs of your fub-
" million, and though the cafe were much more heinous,
" I can be content for to remit it, being right glad, that
" according to mine intent, my monitions and warnings
*' have been benignly and lovingly accepted on your be-
" half, promifing you, that the very affection I bear you
" caufed me thus to do. As touching the help of Reli-
" gious Houfes to the building of your College, I would
" it were more, fo it be lawfully ; for my intent is none,
" but that it fhould fo appear to all the World, and the
" occafion of all their mumbling might be fecluded and
" put away ; for, furely there is great murmuring of it
" throughout all the Realm, both good and bad. They
" fay not that all that is ill-gotten is beftowed upon the

High- Admiral of England, though he was but fix years Duke of
old (4). As he had no legitimate Son, he was extremely Richmond.
fond of this baftard, whom he had by the Lady Elizabeth xiVp^i*.
Blunt (5). July 16.

Whilfl thefe things pafled, the Cardinal was employed Neptitaitm
in treating with the French AmbafTadors. The beginning j"t*£ e
of June the Regent had fent general full Powers to her AmiaffaAn,
two AmbafTadors. But in the courfe of the Negotiation Hall.
they found they fhould have occafion for more particular
Powers, to fettle the Sums due from the King of France to
the King of England, and which, confifting of feveral Ar-
ticles, were to be put into one according to Henrys Inten-
tion. Thefe new Powers were difpatched the 1 6th of
Augujl. Upon fuch an extraordinary occafion, the French
AmbafTadors had properly nothing to do but to comply
with the King of England's pleafure. Their aim being to
difingage him from the Emperor, and caufe him to join
with the King their mafter, there was no difputing upon
the Terms. But it muft be confefled, that on this occa- Henry*

Gi-ntr'Ji'x f

the King of

tO "J^hn Allen, Doflor of Law, the fame that was Judge of the Cardinal's Court, was made Archbiiliop of Dublin in IciS, and barbaroufly murdered by F ra " c *
Thomas Fins-Gerard, eldeft Son to the Earl of Kildare, 1534. Antic,. Oxf. This Allen, who is faid by Hall to have been a Man of more Learning than
Virtue, or good Confcience, was commillioned by the Cardinal, in cunfequeRce of his Legatine Power, to vilit all religious Houfes ; and accordingly he rid
from one religious Houle to another, with a great Train, in a kind of perpetual Progrefs or Vifitation, and did the Cardinal no little Service. Hall, fol. 14S.
Herbert, p. 67.

(1) This matter of Wilton was this : The Cardinal had elefled a Perfon Priorcfs of the Nunnery there, for whom the King had fome way previoufly ex-
fuelled his diflike. The 1'riorefs of the Nunnery of Wilton was a Baronefs by her Title, as were alfo thofe of Shaft/bury, Barkm, and St. Mary's, in Win-
chejler, which were the only ones that were fo in England. See Fiddel Lif. Wolf. p. 398.

(3) And the King, in exchange, permitted him to live in his Palace at Richmond: At which, it feems, fhe People were highly offended. See Ha".
fol. 144.

(4) He was born in the Prior's Houfe at Blacimire in Effex, and firfl made Knight of the Garter, then Earl of Nottingham, and the fame day Duke of
Richmond and Somerfet, on the 18th of June. He was cunftiuted hkcwile Lieutenant General beyond the Trent, and Warden General of the Marches of
Scotland. After which he was bred up with Henry Earl of Surrey at Windfr, from whence they went both together to itudy at Paris. Their Fnendfhip
wis indeared by the Duke's marrying Mary the E liPf Sifter, Daughter to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, by whom he had no Ilfue. He was very perfonable and
of great expectation, and for abilities of Mind and Cody, one of the rarefl of his time. But he departed this Life in the 17th year of his Age, and was buried

at Tbetford in Norfolk. Herbert. Dugdalt'% Baron. Vol. II. p. 305 On the fame rSth day of June was Henry Courtney Earl of ' Dcvmjhirc created Mar-

<juils of Exeter, Henry Brandon, Son of the Duke of Suffolk, Earl of Lincoln, Sir Thomai Manner,, Earl of Rutland, Sir Henry Clifford, Earl of. Cumberland,
Sir Robert Rateliff, Lord Fitx-nualter, Vifcount Fit*, -waiter, and Sir Thomas Bulleyn, Vifconnt Rocbferd. Hall, fol. I+S.

(5) Daughter of Sir John Blur.t, Widow of Sir Gilbert Talby,, who was thought for her rate Endgwmtnts of Natuie and Ornaments of Education, to be
the Beauty and Mafter -piece of her time, ibid.


Book XV.



•vidtd into
A«. Pub.
XIV. p. 4.8

Du Tiller.

Aft. Pub.
XIV. p. 58

1525. fion, Henry behaved with uncommon Generality. Though
he might have demanded Towns, and even Provinces, in
return for the Friendfhip he was pleafed to contract with
Francis I, and for the Charges he was going to be in-
gaged in, he contented himfelf with fecuring, by new
Treaties, the Sums that were juftly due to him. Thele
Treaties being ready, were ligncd at Moore, a Houfe of
the Kings (1), on the 30th of Augujl.

The firft contained a defenfive League between Trance
and England, againft all Powers Spiritual or Temporal,
that fhould invade cither of the two Kingdoms. The
Allies of the two Kings were included by name in the
League (2), but with the limitation, that this Article was
not to be underftood of thofe who had ufurped any thing
upon either of the two principal Contra&ors fince the
League concluded at London, October the J ft, 1518.
Hence the Emperor, who had lately conquered the Duchy
of Milan, was excluded. Moreover, Henry I, ingaged to
ufe his beft endeavours to procure the Liberty of Francis.

The fecond Treaty concerned the payment of the Sums
due to Henry from the King of France, namely, 1. By
a Treaty of the 7th of Augujl 151;, one million of
Crowns of Gold. 2. By another of the 1 2th of January
151s, for reftitution of Tourna v , five hundred thoufarld
Crowns of Gold. 3. By another of the fame date, twenty
three thoufand Livres Tournois. 4. By another of No-
vember the 13th, 1520, four hundred fixty two thoufand
Crowns For all thefe Sums the Regent bound herfelf in
the King her Son's name, to pay Henry two millions of
Crowns of Gold, of thirty five pence Tournois each, which
being reduced to Crowns de filed, of thirty eight pence,
amounted to the Sum of eighteen hundred and ninety four
thoufand, (even hundred thirty fix Crowns, and thirty
two pence Tournois (3). This Sum was to be paid at fe-
veral times, viz. forty feven thoufand three hundred and
fixty eight Crowns, within forty days after the date
of the Treaty ; the like Sum on the ift of November
next, and the fame every fix months till the whole was
paid. This made in all forty payments, confequently the
whole Sum muft be paid in twenty years.

It was farther agreed by the fame Treaty, that if Henry
died before he had received the two Millions, the Arrears
were to be paid to his Heirs and SuccefTors. But in cafe
he out-Kved the payment of the whole, he fhould receive
during Life, an yearly penfion of a hundred thoufand
Crowns to ceafe at his death.

To fecure the performance of the Treaty, the Regent
was to fwear to it folemnly before the Englifli Ambaffa-
dors, and Francis I, was to ratify and fwear to it immedi-
ately after his return into France. Moreover Henry had
for Security, the Cardinal of Bourbon, the Dukes of Fen-
dome and Longueville, the Earls of St. Paul, Maulevrier,
Brienne, the Lords of Alontmorency, Lautrec, and Brezi,
the Cities of Paris, Lyons, Orleans, Touloufe, Amiens,
Bourdeaux, Tours, and Rheims (4).

It muft be obferved, that in the Sum of two millions
of Crowns due to Henry, there was no deduction of what
he had received from Francis I, from the year 151;, to
their rupture. This was all the advantage Henry made,
which was not very great, confidering how little punclual
the King of France was in his payments.
p . 69. By a third Treaty, the Regent engaged to pay to

Alary, Henry's Sifter, Queen Dowager of France, all the
Arrears of her Dowrv at feveral payments, namely, five
thoufand Crowns within forty days after the date of the
Treaty, and a like Sum every fix months till the whole
was difcharged. Moreover fhe promifed to let her enjoy
her Dowry tor the future.
?• 74' There was alfo a fourth Treaty, which ran, that the

King of Scot/and fhould be reckoned in the number of the
Allies of France, but on condition the Scots committed no
a£t of Hoftility againft England, after the 25th of De-
cember next.

p. 65, 76,

90 - -101.

Laftly, by a fifth Treaty it was agreed, that the Court
of France fhould confent neither directly nor indirc<£f.lv,
that the Duke of Albany fhould return into Scotland djjfil
the minority of James V.

All thefe feveral Treaties, which properly were only
different Articles of one „nd the fame Tieaty, were ratified
and fworn by the Regent of France (;), and confirmed by
the Parliaments of Pat it, Touloufe, and Bourdeaux. The
Lords and Cities that were to be Securities, ;:uvc their
Bunds. Finally, Francis I, himfelf lent a ratification un-
der his own hand, and dated the 27th of December.

But after having done the King's arfair s the Cai
forgot not himfelf. There is in the Colled kn of tit Pub-
lick Ails, the Regent's Bond of the 1 8th of November,
to pay the Cardinal the Arrears of the Penlion granted
him in lieu of the Adminiftration of tin- Bifhoprick <•(
Tout nay, being four years and a half, amounting to die
Sum of twenty nine thoufand feven hundred and ninety
three Crowns of Gold de folcil (6). Moreover, flic de-
clared, that for feveral other weighty reafons, there wa, due
to the Cardinal a hundred thoufand Crown:, of Gold, theie
two Sums making together one hundred and twenty one thou-
fand, eight hundred and ninety eight Crowns dt folcil, weie
to be paid in feven years, by half-yearly equal payment .

The defenfive League between France and England be-
ing thus concluded and figned, the Regent began to be a
little more at cafe, and better able to difpute upon the
Terms of the King her Son's Liberty. Befides, fhe had
reafon to hope, the King of England'; Declarations would
help to determine the Pope and Venetians, whofe fears
alone hindered them from forming a League againft the
Emperor. And indeed, it will hereafter be feen, they al-
tered their meafures upon hearing what the King of Eng-
land had done. Mean while, the Emperor receiving ad-
vice of the Treaty of Moore, recalled his Ambalfadors,
who were ftill in England (7), and Henry did the fame
with refpect to his in Spain. Shortly after, Charles con-
cluded his Marriage with Ifabella of Portugal, by virtue of
a Difpenfation brought him by Cardinal Salviati, who de-
livered it to him after the Conclufion of the foremen tioned

Whilft the affairs of Europe took a new turn, by the
effects of the battle of Pavia, and the French King's Cap-
tivity, there was no other alteration in thofe of Scotland,
except that the Earl of Angus, who was to hold the Ad-
miniftration but four months, did not think fit to reiign
when his time was expired. Whereupon the Earl of Ar-
gylc withdrew greatly diflatisfied, but the Earl of Lenox,
though likewife difpleafed, ftill remained at Court. Mean
while, the Queen and the Earl of Arran, who had been
difpoffeffed, were not unmindful of their Affairs. The
Earl of Lenox's difcontent giving them room to hold In-
telligence with him, they perfwaded him to inftill into
the King a de fire to be freed from the Earl of Angus. But
as there was occafion for great precaution to deceive that
Lord's Vigilance, it was not till the next year that the
King found an opportunity to attempt the execution of his

In the beginning of the year, the Court of Scotland had
fent an Embaffv to England, at the head whereof was
the Earl of Cafftls, to treat of the King's Marriage with
the Princefs Mary. But as feveral difficulties occurred,
the Truce which was to expire the 26th of January, was
prolonged to the 23d of March (8), to give the Earl of
Cafftls time to take a Journey to Scotland for new Inftruc-
tions. Mean while, it was not poffible to conclude any thing,
becaufe, in all appearance, Henry had no intention to give
his only Daughter and Heir to the King of Scotland. In-
deed, -it does not appear what advantage could be reaped
by this Marriage. Befides, as he then intended to join
with France, it was no longer his Intereft to manage the
Scots (9).

Before the Treaty of Moore was concluded, the Em-


!>■ 7 5-

p. 76, 111 .

:■■ '•:■

Gran: of
the A'., ■


■ 1 .

the Regrpt
tarel heart.

Henry and

Charles re-
call their


Tot Affair:
of Scotland.

Truer he*
tiveen Eng-
land ar.d
AH. eob.
XIV. 0. 3 c.

(1) In Htrtfirdfbirt.

(2) Their common Allies were the Pope, Venice, the Kings of Hungary and Portugal, and the Duke of F-.rrars ; and thor c nimed by Fr.:r.t in
particular, the Kings of Scotland' mi A'avarre ; rhe Dukes of Savoy, Lorrain, Gucldrt, ; the Svitxtr>; the Marquils of SmlmXKa, the Marquils of
Muntjirrat and his Muher : Thofe named by King Henry, were the Emperor, and his Brnihcj- Ferdinand, the King ot Denmark, the Qoeen-Do,v •
ager of France, Margant Archjuchcfs of Aujlna, the Bifhop ot Liege, the Dukes ol Urbino, denes, and Julicrs, the Houlc of Medicis, the Flo-
rentines, and the Hanfe Towns. Rymer's Feed. Torn. 14. p. 51.

(3) Decies oaics centum Millium Coronarum Anri de fole, & nonaginta quatuor Millium Coronaium Auri de fole, feptingentarum triginta fex

Coronarum Auri de fole, cc triginta duorum folidorum Turonennum Ibid. p. 59.

(4) All thele Lords and Cities were to fend a Bond with their Seal annexed, within two Months, under the Obligation and Forfeiture of all thrr
Coeds. Ihd. p. 6;.

(5) In Ofleber, Sir William Fitz Williams Treafurer of the Houfhold, and Dr. Taylor, were fent into France, to fee the Qu-en-Regent tutu to
the vbiervance of thefe Tredtie-. Hall, fol. 14,.

(6' Crowns Sol, or-di Scleil, were golden Coins, of old worth thirty eight Pence Tournois.

(7) Monfuur de Prat, his AmbalTador, departed out of England April 9. Halt, fol. 139. BilKngfi. 0. 891.

(8) Hall fays, that in January 1526, a Peace for three years and fix months was concluded between England and Scotland, fol 146. H
p. 892.

(9) This year, the K : ng following his Hawk, and leading over a Ditch with a Pole, fell in npon his Head, and had not or.e Eda-'J .V.*;,:V ;
Footman jumped in, and railed up his head, which was Ituck uft in the Clay, he had been drowned. Ha ''. fol. rjj. St ; . ,_; .
l\'unnez having, in 1513, firft difcovertd the ScutbSea, and Hernando de Magellanes palivd, in 152J, thrrnih the Oflfili in Sot/lb .-jr.... J. ih-'.
bear his name ; th's year 152; , Francefco Picarro, a Spaniard, rifiding at Panama, full attempted the difooyer} ot the >'.:.il-i ■: C .:}, y£ h | ...

came to Peru, which he ranl'acked. Hernando dt MjgiHanei aforementioned, dying in the Voyage, his Companions we.1t on to H •■ -. ar.d the

Molurcaei. whince on: of the Ships returned to Spi:n by the Cjfi of Good Hope, and, fo firft cumpafTed the Gi.fce ; Jui- - i Ca-.o a

Bij.ji'ier being Pilot. Re'bert, p. -.0.

'• No 39. Vol. I. 9 H peroi

1 526.

/. . ' ::: ri
ar Rome.



Vol. I.

1516. peror had a great advantage in his Negotiationss at Rome
and Madrid. By rcftoring Sfirza to Milan, he was ai-
med furc the Pope and Venetians would abandon France,
and by defifting from his demand of the Duchy of Bur-
gundy, he could be certain Francis would readily refign
Milan, and not trouble himfelf much with the concerns
of Italy. But he could not refolve to do either, and that
•made the Negotiations fo tedious. After the Treaty of
Moore was figned, the State of his affairs was changed.
The Pope 1 ne P°P e was S rown more couragious, and finding him-
rtfuja all felf deceived by the Emperor, who in a fecond ratification
Term with- Q c t heii- Treaty, left the reiteration of Sfirza in a ftate
Ht'^hZul of uncertainty, plainly told him, that without the reftitu-
c.jKci.rd. tion of the Milanefe, there was no Peace to be expected.
The Emperor had alfo reafon to fear, that Francis I, fee-
ing himfelf like to be fo well fupported, would be ftill
more incompliant with refpect to Burgundy. So, perceiv-
ing there was no way to prevent a League which was
going to unite fo many Princes againft him, he was in
great perplexity. There was a neceflity of fpeedily re-
viving either to maintain, without any Ally, the impend-
ing War, or to make Peace with France. Both were
Tie E*.fe- equally perplexing. In chufing War, he knew not where
nrr-fihia tQ ^j M oneVj anf j j n making with his prifoner a forced
*r%". Peace, he could not expect to reap from his Victory the
Herbert. advantages he propofed. Happily for him, Francis, tired
of his Captivity, freed him from this perplexity, by of-
fering to refign the Duchy of Burgundy, which had hi-
therto been the main obftacle to a Peace. After that the
Emperor readily and ferioudy treated with him, whereas
before he had only amufed him. Shortly after, they con-
cluded together the famous Treaty of Madrid. The
chief Articles to which Francis fubmitted were thefe ; be-
fides many others which it would be needlefs to recite.

_ ■ That the King of France fhould marry Queen Leonora

Mtrfni; the Emperor's Sifter, and have with her two hundred
Jan. 14. thoufand Crowns of Gold.

At? 6 ub Tnat Francis fhould be releafed on the 10th of March,
XIV.P.30S. and the fame day fhould deliver to the Emperor his two

Herbert. S ons j n Hoftage ( I ).

Cujaaid. That he filould refi g n t0 the Emperor the Duchy of
Burgundy in full Sovereignty.

That he fhould defift from the Homage, the Emperor
owed him for Flanders and Artois.

That he fhould renounce all claim to Naples, Milan,
AjU, Tournay, Life, and Hefdin, &c.

That he ihould perfwade Henry d* Albret to refign the
Kingdom of Navarre to the Emperor, or at leaft fhould
give him no affiftance.

That, within forty days, he fhould reltere the Duke of
Bourbon and all his Party to their Eftates.

That he fhould reftore Philibert de Chalons Prince of
Orange, and Michael Antonio de Saluzzo, to their Princi-

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