M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fince exhaufted, he could raife Money only by means of
the Parliament, who always framed difficulties, or made
him purchafe their Subfidies with fome extraordinary fa-
vors. So Francis not finding in him the fame difpofitions
as formerly, feared to ingage too far, before he was fecure
of his affiftance (4). He perceived, he was no longer in-
clined to favor the Emperor as before. But that did not
fuffice. It was alio necelfary to perfwade him to join in
the League of Italy, otherwife the whole charge of the
War muft have fallen upon France, which was however.'
drained of Men, Money and Generals. For this reafon,
his aim was to induce the Emperor, through fear of the
League, to accept the equivalent offered him for Burgun-
dy, and to continue the War in Italy, only till that Prince
was refolved, or the King of England entirely ingaged.
To that end, he made the Pope and Venetians large pro-
mifes, to hinder them from being impatient, but perform-
ed them very ill. A fmall Body of Troops levied in Italy,
under the command of the Marquifs of Saluzzo, was hi-
therto all that he contributed for the League whereof he
was himfelf the author and head. Mean while, the Pope
was extremely uneafy at feeing the flownefs or rather
coldnefs of the two Monarchs, on whom he relied. In-
deed he had no caufe to complain of Henry, who had
made him no promife, and yet he ceafed not earneftly
to prefs him to undertake the defence of the Church, as
if the Church could not have fubfifted if the Emperor re-
mained mafter of Milan. But he received only general
Anfwers , Henry being unwilling to ingage in the affairs
of Italy, where he could reap no advantage. In the
mean time, the Pope was at an expence which threw him
into great ftreights. For which reafon he privately con- clement
tinued with the Viceroy of Naples a Negotiation, with Jew en fat
intent to haften or retard it, according to the proceedings ''" N '.t'"-
of the Kings of France and England. Herein he acted IBt yicenw
agreeably to his real temper, which made him confider °f Naples,
the having always two firings to his bow, as the fureft Guicclard -
maxim of policy. But he was always fo unfortunate as
to reap from his Artifices, fruits contrary to his hopes.
As his fole aim was to hinder the Emperor from keeping
the Duchy of Milan, to that end it was, that he would
have the Kings of France and England make confiderable
efforts ; after which, he would not have fcrupled to for-
fake them, provided the Emperor had fatisfied him upon
that Article. Francis was in no better difpofition with re-
gard to his Allies. His view was to recover his Sons out
of Spain ; and, could he have fucceeded by treating alone
with the Emperor, he would have little regarded the
concerns of the Pope and Venetians. As for the repub-
lick of Venice, it was of great confequence to her that the
Emperor fhould not remain mafter of the Miianefe, and
her expences to hinder it was nothing in comparifon of
the prejudice fhe would have received, if the Emperor
had peaceably held that Duchy. So, never ceafing to fol-
licite the Kings of France and England, file continued
the War, though faintly, in expectation that thefe two
Monarchs would bear the greateft part of the charge. The
Negotiations which the Pope ftill continued with the Vice-

(1) It feems before Francis went from Spain, the Emperor faid to him one day, Arr you milling to ptrfrm all tb.-.t u capital
Francis replied, Tts ; and wbtn you find that I do not (,<•/> my word with yiu, 1 tvijh 'and conjent that you bold me Jar a Knav

\z) The following Monallcries are named; Daventre, Ra-verfton, Tyheford, Sandw,ll, Eanwell, l.y'lrm.r,, Poghley, TL.' : . . Blaciasttore g Slenefecu .
Typtrt Wyktt. Dodnejh, Snap,, Lyefnes, Tonbridge, B,pbam, and Calseete. See Rymers Fa-rf. Torn. 14- p« 1 55 x ^4-

(3) 'Lewis, with an Army of twenty thouland', engaged three hundred thouland Turks. By his defeat and death moil part of
with the Lives of two hundred thouland Hungarians, who were cut ofi by the Turks in the following Rencounters. This Ira
a .'kin, had a Beard at fifteen years of Age, at eighteen his Hairs were grey, and he was drowned in hts loth. Htylln.

(4.) In ytueuji 1516. John Loid if Vaube his AmbafTador concluded with Sir Thomas Men Chancellor of the Duchy of Lincajl/r, a Treaty of
reciprocal Engagement between the t«o Kings their Mailers. See Rymir, Tom. i+- p. 185 189. Heriert, p. 79,


u.'ated between us f
ave and a Villain.

•v was loll,
was tK-rn with, tit

Book XV.



The Empe-
»r'j Em-


Sbt Duhc 'jf

K 11 lb ■: fl

miirbout ft'L-
*ey % and at
a great l.j't.

/ftf fret ra

£«r to lead
ku Army IB-
lb f£e Po£c'j
The Duke of
Urbino fa-
•vowi htm.
Ht Jeifii

War between
the Pope and
tViteroy of

is engaged
in a great

Francis keep*
not bh -zuord
with htm.

Henry fendi





*Tiucc be-
tween the
Pop! and
Gu ceiard.
P. Daniel.


roy of Naples, afforded the Uenetians a plaufible reafon not
to exert themlelves, becaufe they were afraid, his incon-
flancy would render all their endeavours ineffectual. The
Emperor on his part was no lefs embarraded. As he had
but little Money, a vigorous War muft have annoyed him
very much. And therefore, finding the King of France
made no great efforts, he did not haftcn the fending of
frefti Supplies into Italy, for fear of raifing the attention
of his Enemies. Befides, fince Frondfperg'% arrival with
the German Troops, he thought himfelf ftrong enough to
keep the Duchy of Milan, whicli was then his chief aim.
Such was the Difpolition of thefe Potentates in the begin-
ning of the year 1527. We muft now fee what palled
in Italy duiing this year, becaufe it ferves for foundation
to all the events fpoken of hereafter.

The Duke of Bourbon was under inconceivable difficul-
ties tor want of Money to pay his Troops. After frequent
exactions upon the Inhabitants of Milan, he faw no way
to maintain his Army any longer, without danger of cauf-
ing a general revolt in that great City which was redue'd
to defpair. On the other hand, the Germans brought
into Italy by Frondfperg, had received no pay fince their
Lifting. It was neceffary therefore, cither to pay them
what was due, or furnifh them wherewithal to make them-
felves amends in fome other place, or refolve to fee the
Army disband, on which the Emperor wholly relied. To
fatisfy the Troops, there was no other way but to lead
them into the Territories of the Church, of Florence, or
of Venice. But the Venetian Towns were too well pro-
vided, to afford any hopes of booty from thence ; efpecially
as the Duke of Bourbon had no Artillery. Befides, very
likely, he was fure the Duke of Urbino would not oppofe
his defigns, provided he did not moleft the Republick.
So, determining to maintain his Army upon the Pope's
Territories, he left feven or eight thoufand Germans at
Milan, under the command of Antonio de Leva, and
went and joined Frondfperg in the Plaifantin, where he
flayed fome time to raife Contributions.

Before the Duke of Bourbon departed from Milan, the
Viceroy of Naples had brought an Army upon the borders
of the Ecclefiaftical State, to make a diverfion, and force
the Pope to recall the Troops he had fent to the Duke of
Urbino, fince the expiration of the Truce. The approach
of this Army had obliged the Pope to raife Troops to de-
fend his Dominions, not having thought proper to recall
thofe in Lombardy. Hence he few himfelf ingaged in an
unufual expence. Hitherto the Popes had found means to
wage War at the charge of others, and Clement VII had
been in hopes to do the fame. He had granted Francis a
Tenth upon the Clergy of France, which he was to di-
vide with him. Befides that, Francis had promifed to find
forty thoufand Crowns a month for the League, and
twenty thoufand for the Pope in particular. But of all
this, he had yet paid but ten thoufand Crowns. Thus the
Pope faw himfelt over-burdened, without knowing how to
get clear of this incumbrance, fince it was no lefs difficult
to raife Money, than dangerous to make a feparate Peace
in fuch a juncture. Mean while, Henry VIII being in-
formed of his neceftities, and fearing he would relinquifh
the League, fent him thirty thoufand Ducats (1), which
helped to comfort him a little, and keep him in the refo-
lution to continue the War.

It is needlefs to give the particulars of this War between
the Pope and the Viceroy of Naples. It fuffices to obferve^
that whilft it lafted, the Pope receiving advice of the Duke
ot Bourbon's march, concluded a Truce with the Viceroy;
He had ftrong reafons for taking this courfe. He was not
only burdened with the maintenance of two Armies, but
alio faw himfelf daily more remote from his hopes with
refpeifl to France and England. Francis performed no-
thing of what he had promifed, and Henry fhewed no
great inclination to come into the League. On the other
hand, the Duke of Urbino' s proceeding, who commanded
the Army of the Allies in the Milaneje, daily grew more
fufpicious. Befides, Florence was in danger, and the Pope
unfafe in Rome itfelf. The conditions of the Truce
were :

That it fhould Iaft eight months : T'.at the Pope mould
pay fixty thoufand Ducats to the Duke of Bmrbon's Ar-
my ; namely, forty thoufand on the 21ft of the prefent
month, and tiie reft within eight days: And that the im-
perial Army fhould march out of the Ecclefiaftical State.
The Truce being publifhed, the Pope disbanded all his
Troops, except two thoufand Foot and two hundred
Horfe, and laid up his Gallies before he knew the Duke
of Bourbon's intentions, who was in the midit ot his march
to Bolcgna.

The Duke's Troops confined of five thoufand Men at '5*7*
Arms, making abour two thoufand Horfe, thirteen or Vl!j!£'>
fourteen thoufand Germans, five thoufand Spaniards, two M d nb.
thoufand Italian Foot, and a good number of Light Horfe
of the fame Nation. This Army departed from about Cuicciud,
Placentia in February, without Money, Provilions, Wag-
gons, Artillery, and fubfifting only bv means of the Con-
tributions raifed upon their rout. The Duke not being
able to enter Bologna, by reafon the Marquii, mi Saluzzo
had thrown himfelf in with twelve thoufand Men, flayed
fome time in the Bolognefc, where his Army made a pro-
digious booty. Here he was informed of the conclulion T^DuU
of the Truce, to which he would not con fent, becaufe fna am
the Sum he was to have was not fufficient to pay what tluded at
was due to his Troops. Whereupon the Viceroy of Na- Ro0 "' c -
plts, who was at Rome, came to Florence, where the Duke
fent an Officer to confer with him. As the Viceroy's rlc y ""f
intention was to caufe the Duke of Bourbon to accept of airtim , n ,
the Truce, in order to fend the Imperial Army into the »"* km.
State of Venice, he agreed with the Meffenger that the Gui "' a,<i *
Duke fhould withdraw in five days ; that fourfcore thou-
fand Ducats fhould be paid him down, and fixty thoufand
fome day in May. The Pope hearing of this new agree-
ment, disbanded the two thoufand Men he had kept, to be
eafed of the charge. But the Duke of Bourbon, whether The Dutt
he had intended to deceive the Viceroy, or could not re- ' ' id '"'y
ftrain his Army, after feigning to attack Florence, fud-
denly took the rout to Rome, leaving far behind him the Gnfcdarf.
Army of the Pope and Venetians, who had thrown them-
felves into Florence.

Great was then the alarm at Rome. The Pope fee- t 7 ' p 1 '■
ing himfelf without Troops and Money, knew no. what S'/'

.- 1 t 1 • ,-n r 1 • 11 , r Cuicciard.

courle to take. In this diftrels, he committed the defence
of Rome and himfelf to Renzo de Ceri, who made him
hope, that with an Army, raifed within the Walls, he
would fecure the City from being infuited. The Pope
trufting to his General's promifes, would neither leave
Rome himfelf to provide for his fafety, nor futrer any thing
to be carried from thence.

Mean while, the Duke of Bourbon purfuing his march, TttDuh
without meeting any obftacle, appeared before Rome on the sC Bo**?
5th of May. The fame day, pretending a defign to pro- iCnr.
ceed to Naples, he fent a Trumpet to the Pope to dciire Gu'cciard.
a paffage, which being refufed, next morning at break of ^j f^"
day he approached the Suburbs by means of a very thick ,bt c.iy.
Miff, and ftormed a breach which they had not had time
to repair. But in the beginning of the affault, his Thigh- H< itflain.
bone was broke with a Musket-fhot, of which he imme-
diately died. The Prince of Orange, who vas near him,
throwing a Cloak over his Body, continued the Affault.
At length, after two hours refiftance, the breach was r >-' Sr-sct
forced, and the Imperialifts entred the Suburbs. Where- ' ■> u
upon the Pope withdrew to the Caftle of St. Angeh, ac- „,,„, „
companied by thirteen Cardinals, all the foreign Ambaffa- ■ Angelo.
dors, and fome other Perfons of diftinclion. Mean while, Guicc " !d '
the Imperialifts were employed in becoming mafters of the
Tyber, which was not difficult, confidering the confirma-
tion the whole City was in. The Pope might ftill have
withdrawn from the Caftle of St. Angelo, and fecured his
Perfon. But by a ftrange blindnefs, upon news of the
Duke of Bourbon's death, he was obftinately bent , without
any juft reafon, to ftay in a place where he had neither
Proviiions, nor Ammunition, nor a Garrifon fufficient to
defend it. So many Hiftorians have defcribed the facking Smiting -/
of Rome, that it is needlefs to inlift on it here. The Rea- Rome.
der may eafily conceive, what the defire of plunder may Gl| : ' L "i.
caufe an ill-difciplined Army without a General, like this, H-meu.
to commit. Some Hiftorians have been pleafed to caft the Hiil -
whole blame of the Rapine and Cruelty committed on
this occafion, upon the Proteftants in Frondjperg's Troops.
But moft have made no fuch diftinciion, agreeing that
the Spaniards fhewed no more regard for the Holy City
than the Germans (2).

If the Army of the Allies had clofely followed the Im- Ova-fight ■>/
periaiifts, they might have fallen upon them whilft mofl
intent upon the plunder, and probably with Succefs. But H ~
if we may believe Guicciardini, the Duke of Urbino fo
ordered it, that the Army came not before Rome till the
end of May, and then raifed fo many objections agsinft
attempting the relief of the Caftle of St. Jngeio, that the
Generals agreed to leave the Pope to come oft" as well as
he could. The Allies retiring the firft of June, Clement Tit Pc/».
capitulated the 6th, having fent for the Viceroy of Naples "P-" 1 ^'"-
to treat with him. But the Army, having chofen the •' un<
Prince of Orange for General, had no great confidence
in the Viceroy, neither would be guided by his Counfels.
The Pope therefore was forced to fign with the Prince of Guu-ciiri


fi) Pa Sir 7 ;•, R.fl. Stc P. Darnel, Tom. VII. p. 635.

[a Tliey ran acked tin- City, without diftinftton of places, for the (pace of fix or feven days, (two whole months, fays P. Djri!, Tom VII. p. 640.)
killing ..bove five tl.n„|jnd Men, and committing all manner of Ripme and Ciurity. Heriert, p. Si. It was reported, fj;s Gaiscienttnt, that the plun-
dcring Soldiers fit .ib.ve a rmllbn ul Ducats, in Ciold, Silver and Jewels j and a niiuh greater Sum for Rambnv 1- ili.

No 39. Vol. I, 9 I Orange



Vol. I.


'th, P fe
remains a


Several A.
< iuia laid.

Orange, and the chief Officers of the Army, the following

That the Pope fhould pay the Army fovir hundred thou-
' find Ducats, namely, one hundred thoufand down, fifty
thoufand in twenty days, and two hundred and fifty thou-
fand within two months, afiigning for that purpofe a Tax
upon the whole Ecclehaftical State.

That he fhould deliver into the Emperor's hands the
Cafllcs of St. Angela, Civita Vecchia, Ojlia, Citta Ca-
Jitlltma, Parma, Placentia, and Modena.

That the Pope, with the thirteen Cardinals, fhould re-
main prifoners in the Caftle of St. Angela, till a hundred
and fifty thoufand Crowns were paid, and then fhould be
conducted to Naples or Gacta, there to wait the Emperor's

That the Chevalier Gregorio Cajfali the Englijh Ambaffa-
dor, Renzo de Cert, and all the reft that were retired to
the Caftle, except the Pope and the thirteen Cardinals,
fhould be at Liberty to go where thev pleafed.

That the Cohnna's fhould be abfolved from all Cen-

That when the Pope fhould go from Rome, he fhould
leave a. Legate, and the Court of the Rota{i).

The Capitulation being figned, Captain Alarcon, the
fame that had the Cuftody of Francis I, when a prifoner,
entered the Caftle of St. Angela with three Companies of
Spaniai ds, and as many of Germans, and ftrictly guarded
• the Pope and Cardinals. During the confufion caufed by
the Pope's Imprifonment, the Duke of Ferrara became
mailer of Modena, the Venetians took Ravenna and Cervia,
Sigifmund Malatejla i'eized Rimini, and the Florentines ex-
pelling the Pope's Legate, recovered their Liberty.

termination, Francis thought it more proper to fend Am- 1527.
baftadors to London, and conclude it there. He made choice HdU - ^
for that purpofe of Gabriel d'Aigremont, or de Gramont xlv -

The Impel ial
ylrmy be-
comes ufelefs.


Henry «-

ma J

I . ■

d fenjive
iwth France
P. Daniel.

Bifhop of Tarbe, and the Vifcount of Turenne, with whom
were joined the firft Prefident of Roan, and the Lord de
Vaux, who were already in England. Thefe Ambafla-
dors (2) concluded with Cardinal IVolfcy, appointed Com-
miffioner to negotiate with them, three Treaties, which

were figned the 30th of April \cz~j,
Bourbon was marching to Rome.

Some time after, all the Troops which were in the
Kingdom of Naples repaired to Rome to fhare in the
Bootv, and glean what the avarice of the Spaniards and
Germans had left. The Imperial Army then at Rome con-
fided of twelve thoufand Germans, eight thoufand Spaniards,
and four thoufand Italians. But the Plague which pre-
fently after raged among the Troops, fo diminifhed them,
that 'tis faid, when they came to go upon action, there
was not ten thoufand Men able to bear Arms. Mean
while, the eager denre of Plunder, caufed the Emperor's
affairs to be fo neglected, that the army remained unfer-
tile till the end of the year ; whereas Bologna and the
•i'Li Romagna might have been taken, which would
1 the Emperor invincible in Italy. Belides,
this negligence gave Francis time to fend Troops into thofe
pa , ot which he would never have thought, if the Em-
peror's Generals had reaped from the taking of Rome, and
the Pope's Captivity, the advantages they might have na-
turally expected, for the Service of their matter. It is
time now to fpeak of the affairs of England, the recital
w.hereof has been interrupted by the relation of this year's
events in Italy, becaufe it was abfolutely neceffary for the
underftanding of the Sequel.

Since Francis had refufed to execute the Treaty oi Ma-
drid, he had never ceafed to prefs Henry to come into
the League of Cognac. But whether Henry perceived
that Prince's Views, or hoped, by managing the Emperor,
to make himfelf Umpire of the Peace, he had kept within
the Bounds of the defeniive League concluded at Moore.
At length, finding that probably, the Pope and Venetians
could not lung maintain the War, he was afraid, the Em-
peror would become matter of all Italy, and with that
incrcafe of Power, grow too formidable to Europe. In-
deed, it was eafy to fee, that to diveft him of the Supe-
riority he was going to acquire upon France, England
would one day be forced to make greater efforts than
were neceffary to hinder his attaining it. Thefe Conlide-
rations were farther corroborated by the Inftances of
Cardinal Wolfey, whom Francis had taken care to gain to
his Intereft, otherwife all thefe reafons, probably, would
have been ineffectual. So about the end of the laft year,
Henry had lent to Paris Sir William Fitz-lVilliams, to
acquaint the King of France, that he was ready to join in
an offenfive League with him, and give him the Princefs
Mary his Daughter in Marriage. Francis gladly em-
bracing the propofal, the Treaty was begun at Paris by
the Bifhop of Bath and IVells, the Englijh Ambaffador in
ordinary, and Fitz-Williams, But as feveral difficulties
occurred, which depended upon the King of England's de-

when the Duke of &«■

1 eat .

April 30.

,J1 Treaty.
p. 1 g ;, 6x.

p. So.
Du Tillc*.

The firft Treaty ran :

That the two Kings fhould jointly fend Ambaffadors to
the Emperor, with offers concerning the ranfom of the two
Plottages, and to demand the payment of what was due
to the King of England.

That if he rejected the offers, or gave no anfwer within
twenty days, the two Kings fhould proclaim War againft

Another Article of this Treaty contained a mutual en-
gagement for the Marriage of Francis, or his Son the Duke
of Orleans with the Princefs Mary, at the King of France's
choice, and upon fuch Terms as fhould be agreed on when
the time came (3) Probably, this Treaty was to be made
publick, in order to induce the Emperor to defift from his
claim to Burgundy, and be fatisfied with the offered equi-

By the fecond Treaty it was agreed :

That in cafe the Emperor rejected their propofals, orde- ^Treaty,

■ • Herbert.

ferred his anfwer

Commerce fhould be lot bidden with

p. 81.

his Subjects, by the two Kings, allowing them however Du Tillet.
forty days to withdraw their Effects.

That the two Kings fhould make War upon the Em-
peror in the Low-Countries, with an Army of thirty thou-
fand Loot, and fifteen hundred Men at Arms, and that
two thirds of the Foot, and all the Horfe (4) fhould be
furnifhed by the King of France.

That they fhould equip a Fleet with fifteen thoufand
Men, whereof the King of France fhould find ten thou-

That if the King of Portugal, or any other Prince of
State, fhould join with the Emperor, they fhould be de-
clared Enemies to both the Kings.

That the Pope and Venetians fhould be deemed in-
cluded in the League, provided they continued the War in

That the King of France fhould endeavour to perfuade
the King of Navarre, the Duke of Gueldres, [and Robert
de la Mark] to make War upon the Emperor.

That the two Kings fhould ufe their joint endeavours to
encourage "John de Zapal to profecute his right to the Crown
of Hungary, in cafe he had not already made an Alliance
with the Turk, in order to keep the Emperor's Brother
Ferdinand employed in thofe parts.

That the League fhould be notified to the Princes of
Germany, and the two Kings endeavour to prevent their
affifting the Emperor.

The Subftance of the third Treaty was :

1. That this Treaty fhould not derogate froni that of Afl f" h -
Moore, which remained in force. Gufcciarf! '

2. That there ihould be perpetual Peace between Francis Herbeu.
and Henry, and their refpective Subjects.

3. That neither of them fhould give aid or advice to
any perfon whatever, that fhould attack the Dominions of
the other.

4. Henry renounced for himfelf and Succeffors, all Right
and Title to the Kingdom of France ( 5 ), and in general,
whatever Francis now pofiefled.

5. In coniideration whereof, Francis bound himfelf and
Succeffors, to pay to Henry's Succeffors an annual penfion
for ever, of fifty thoufand Crowns, at two payments ;
namely, on the ift of May, and the ift of November, and
that the payment of the penfion fhould commence, on the
firft of thofe two days which fhould happen after Henry's
death, without deduction of what fhould remain to be paid
after Henry's deceafe, of the two millions ttipulated by the
Treaty of Moore.

6. Moreover Francis bound himfelf to give yearly to
Henry, fifteen thoufand Crowns worth of Salt of
Bruage{6), befides the fore- mentioned fifty thoufand

(1) This Court conuft* of twelve Prelates, called Auditors of the Rota, (eight of them Italians, two Spaniards, one Frenchman, and one Cumin) who
judge by Appeal of all Matters EcdeliaAital and Civil, between Clergymen. The Court takes its name from the marble Pavement of the Room where they
meet, retembling a Wheel.

(1) They arrived in hond'.n, March 2. Hall, fol. 155.

( 3) Hall lays, the People were very much againrt this Match, becaufe the Princefs Mary being King Henry's prefumptive Heir, if he died without Sons,

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