M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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ihe luccceded ot courfe to the Throne, and, on account of her Marriage, it was feared ihc would be too much under the influence of France, fol. 155-

(4) Twenty thoufand foot, and fifteen hundred Men at Arms. See Herbert, p. Si.

(0 ■ — -Jus, Titulum, & verum Dominium in Regno Francia?. Rymer, Tom. XIV. p. 220.

(6) A Town in Samtmge, famous lor its Salt-Pits, about eight Leagues from Rochet, The Salt in this DiilricT brings in the King of France fourteen
millions of Livrcs per Annum.

6 7. That

Book XV.




in the fecond

'/redly in
account of
the fucking
of Rome.
Act. Pub.

Du 'fillet.

Henn'j De-
mands up n
the Emperor.

Pol. Virg.

to Italy.

Wolfcy con-
fers with
the King of
P. Daniel.
Afl. Pub.

XIV. p.2C2

The Empe-
ror's Memo-
rial as to a
lb. p. 2C0.

7. That, to prevent the objection which might here-
after be made, That a King can't bind his Succejfors, the
two Kings fhould caufe the Treaty to be confirmed by
the States of their Realms, and held as a perpetual and
inviolable Law.

8. That the Treaty fhould be approved and confirmed
by the Archbifliops, Bifhops, Princes, Dukes, Earls, Ba-
rons, and other great Men of the two Kingdoms, whole
names were inferted in this Article, under forfeiture of all
their Goods; and by the Parliaments of Paris, Touloufe,
Roan, Eourdeaux, as well as by all the Courts of Juitice
in England.

The news of the faclcing of Rome and the Pope's Cap-
tivity arriving fhortly after the conclufion of thefe Trea-
ties, the two Kings thought fit to alter the Article of the
fecond , concerning their carrying War into the Low-
Countries, and to agree to act only in Italy. But as the
Engiijh Troops could not be tranfported into Italy, with-
out great difficulties and lofs of time, they agreed, that
the King of France fhould undertake the War alone, for
a certain Sum ( 1 ), which Henry was to pay him month-
ly, till the end of Oilobir. This laft Treaty was figned
the 29th of May, about three weeks after the taking of

In confequence of the firft of the three Treaties of
April the 30th, Henry fent Sir Francis Pointz into Spain,
to demand of the Emperor, that as, by their former Trea-
ties, the War with France was carried on at a common
charge, he would give him half the Booty taken at Pa-
via, and one of the two Hoftages received from the French
King. Pointz was accompanied with Clarenccux King
at Arms, but incognito, that he might be ready to do his
Office, when there mould be occafion. The Emperor
eaiily perceived, the King of England fought only a pre-
tence of quarrel. But as it was his Intereft to prolong
the time, he told the AmbafTador he would fend his an-
fwer to the King his mailer by an Exprefs.

While the AmbafTador was on his way to Spain, Fran-
cis and Henry hearing what had palled in Italy, thought
proper that Cardinal JVolJ'cy mould go and confer with
Francis at Amiens, in order to concert meafures agreeable
to the iituation of affairs. Shortly after, Francis fcntLau-
trcc with the Forces defigned for Italy (2).

Cardinal TVolfey departing from Court the third of July,
arrived at Calais the 1 1 th (3 ), from whence he went to
Abbeville, and flayed till Francis came to Amiens. He
was received at his entrance into the French Territories,
with the fame refpeft as would have been paid to the
King of England. We find in the Colleclion of the Pub-
lic/: Ails, Francis's Letters Patents empowering the Car-
dinal, his dearejl and great Friend, to releafe the prifoners,
where-ever he came, what Crimes foever they were guilty
of, except High-Treafon, Rapes, [Coining, Sacrilege,]
and the like, and to grant them a Pardon by his Letters

Whilft the Cardinal was at Abbeville, he received a Me-
morial from the Emperor, containing his anfwer to the
King of Frances offers to the Viceroy of Naples. He had,
as was obferved, rejected thefe offers at firft with difdain,
and refufed to hear them mentioned. But the fituation of
his affairs being altered by the League between France and
England, he believed it would be better to end all diffe-
rences by a Peace, than run the hazard of maintaining
the War alone againft fo many powerful Enemies. It was
therefore in order to procure a Peace, that he fent this
anfwer to the Cardinal, wherewith he imagined to have
reafon to hope, the King of France and Henry would be

As this Memorial is very proper to illuftrate the Hiftory
of thofe times, it will not doubtlefs be unacceptable to in-
fert the Subftance thereof.

" The Emperor began with protefting, that by what
" he offered in this Memorial, he meant not to derogate
" from the Treaty of Madrid, but in the points only
" which were contrary to it. He added, that as to the
" Hoftages, the King of France was not ignorant of the
" reafon of their being in Spain, and had it in his power
" to recover them. Then he fet forth the offers made by
*' Francis to the Viceroy of Naples, containing the four
" following Articles:

The King c/France'i Offers to the Em-
' ' or.

" I. That he would execute the Treaty of Madrid,
" provided Francefco Sforza v. as reftored to the Duchv o'
" Milan.

II. That he would give the Emperor in lieu of
" Burgundy, two millions of (.old payable, namely, a
" good Sum in hand, when Queen Leonora fhould be de-
" livcred to him, and the alt at a day to be appointed,
" and then his Sons fhould be reftored ; unlefs the Em-
" pcror had rather have the whole Sum at once, and
" deliver at the fame time the Queen and the two Ho-
" ftages.

" III. That he would pay the King of England what
" was due from the Emperor.

" IV. He demanded that the Emperor fhould iucreafe
" Queen Leonora's, Dowry in proportion to the Sum he
' was to receive, iincc lit could do it without any charge
" tohimfelf.

The Emperou Anfwer.

" The Emperor replied to thefe four Articles, by the
" eight following Declarations :

" I. That what fhould be agreed upon, fhould not be
" prejudicial to the Treaty of Madrid, except in fuch
" things as fhould be altered by mutual confent.

" II. That the Emperor's right to Burgundy fhould re-
" main entire, as before the Treaty of Madrid.

" III. That all the Articles of the Treaty of Madrid,
" except fuch as were mentioned in thefe offers, fhould
" remain entire.

" IV. The Emperor in his fourth Declaration laid,
" that he hoped the King of England, and the Lord
" Cardinal would caufe the Sum of two millions of Gold,
" offered by the King of France, to be augmented. How-
" ever, if that could not be, it fhould be underftood,
" that this Sum was over and above what the Emperor
" owed the King of England, as well for Money lent, as
" for the Indemnity he had undertaken to difcharge,
" which Sums the King of France had taken upon him-
" felf in the Treaty of Madrid. Befides likewife the
" reftitution of the late Mr. de Bourbons Eftate, it being
" reafonable that his Heirs fhould partake of the benefit
" of the Treaty. Item, That the King of France fhould
; ' punctually perform all the reft of the Articles concluded
" on his part, in the Treaty of Madrid, before his Sons
" left Spain ; the Emperor not being able, after what had
•' palled, to take any Security, if the Hoftages remain-
" ed not in his power till the Treaty was fully exe-
" cuted.

" V. That purfuant to the Treaty of Madrid, what
" fhould be agreed upon, fhould be ratified by the States
" General of France, and approved by the Parliaments.
" Or if that could not be done by the States General,
" it fhould at leaft be ratified by the States of each
" Province.

" VI. The Emperor, declared, That he could not fend
" the Queen his Sifter to France till every thing was accom-
" plifhed, and then the Queen and the Hoftages fhould
" be fent together.

" VII. That as for Duke Sforza, the Emperor would
" appoint impartial Judges to decide his affair, and if he
" was found guilty of no crime for which he deferved to
" be deprived of his Duchy, he fhould be reftored. But
" if he was condemned, the State of Milan fhould re-
" main in the Emperor's difpofal, according tojufticeand

" VIII. That the King of England fhould be Gua-
rantee of the future Treaty, and by his Letters-Pa-
tents engage to affift, at his own charge, with a cer-
tain number of Troops, him of the two Parties th3t
fhould keep the Treat)', againft him that fhould not
oblerve it.

" Befides thefe eight Conditions, which the Emperor
called Declarations, he demanded moreover in his me-
morial, that the King of France fhould fatisfy him for


(1) Thirty thoufand Ducats, or, thirty two thoufand, two hundred and twenty two Crowns de fJc-.l, ta be deduced out of what Francis owed him.
Herbert, p. S3. Guicciard. 1. 18.

(z) He fet out, June 30, with eight hundred Lances. Guicciard. 1. 18.

(3) He was met at Boulogne by Monfieur de Byron with a thoufand Horfe, and after by Jibn, Cardinal of Lorrain, and the Chancellor of Alenfon,
who accompanied him firft to Montreuil, and then to Abbeville. He was attended by Cutbbert Tun/tatl Bilhop of London, the Lord Sondes the King's-
Chamberlain, Edward Stanley Earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guilford, Sir 'Thomas More, with many Knights and others, to the number of twelve hundrtU
Horfe. Hall, fol. 160. Stow, p. 531. Herbert, p. 83. He brought with him thirty thoufand Crowns. Guicciard. 1. iS. IU.. fey) it was two hun-
dred and forty thoufand Pounds, fol. 161. Hollingjh. p, 897.



Remark en
tilt Mtmo-

?7 2

1527. " the expences of the Leagues he had made with him, and
" of Which he was the fole Author, empowering the King
" of England to fettle the Sum.

" Finally, he faid, That he did not qucftion, the King
" of England, who peifectly knew what had palled be-
" tween the two Parties, would not caufe the King of
" /nm^'s offers to be increafed, and that the Lord Legate,
" whom the Emperor always looked upon as his good
" Friend, would alfo endeavour the fame to the utmoft
" of his power : That however, he was fo inclined to
" Peace, that if the King of England defired, he fhould
" make any farther conceflions than what were con-
" tained in the eight foregoing Declarations, he would
" do more for his fake than for"any Prince's in the World.
" That he fhould be very glad, all the Potentates of
" Europe knew how much he valued his Friendfhip, and
" afcribed to him the whole Glory of procuring a Peace.
" This Memorial was dated at Valladolid the of

" j*h 1527.

If this anfwer of the Emperor be clofely examined, it
will be manifeft, that he fimply and abfolutely accepted of
the French King's offers, under Terms denoting, it was
he that gave, rather than received Law, and by his De-
clarations only obviated all poffible Cavils. As to what
he farther demanded, it was under fuch refactions, that
he feemed willing to ftand to the King of England's deter-
mination, which at fuch a juncture was the fame thing as
to depart from his demands. There was but one iingle
point concerning which he could not refolve to fubmit;
namelv, the Duke of Milan's affair. But this was a
point newly propofed by the King of France, and which
had no relation to the Treaty of Madrid, where nothing
like it was to be found. However, it is plain if that
had been the only obftacle to a Peace, he wouM alfo have
granted it, fince he referved a way to come oft with ho-
nour ; namely, by caufing Sforza to be declared inno-
cent, in the manner he had himfelf propofed to the Pope.
Perhaps Francis would have accepted the Peace, on the
Terms offered in the Memorial, if the Emperor had come
to that refolution at firff. But fince he had made thefe
offers to the Viceroy of Naples, the face of affairs was
very much altered, 'as he had entirely gained Henry to his
intereft, and as, after the taking of Rome, it was to be
feared the Emperor would become mafter of all Italy.
Mean while, the Emperor's offers, which were in effect
the fame Francis had made to the Viceroy of Naples, were
either to be accepted or rejected. But as it was not Henry's
bufinefs to return an anfwer, fince the affair did not
directly concern him, he only fent the Memorial to the
King of France, who no longer defiring to make Peace,
di (engaged himfelf in this manner. He demanded in the
firft place, that Sforza fhould be reftored without condi-
tion. Secondly, that his Sons fhould be delivered before he
recalled his Forces from Italy, where Lautrec was now
arrived, offering to depofite three hundred thoufand Du-
cats in the hands of the King of England, for fecurity
of his word. There could not be a plainer evidence of
his little defire to execute the Treaty of Madrid, though
the fame Terms only were demanded, as were offered by
himfelf prefently after his deliverance. He meant, after
having withdrawn his Hoftages, to have the execution of
the Treaty in his own power, under colour of offering to
depofite for fecurity, three hundred thoufand Ducats in the
hands of a Prince devoted to him, and who, by a pri-
vate Treaty, was ingaged to make his Intereft his own.
The Emperor, unwilling to be thus infnared, offered on
his part to depofite the fame Sum in the hands of the
King of England, for pledge that the Hoftages fhould be
reftored. But his offer being rejected, the affair flopped
there, and War was only thought of. Mean while, the
Emperor defiring to let all the World fee, it was not his
fault that a Peace was not concluded, gave the Ambaffa-
dors of England, of the Pope, and of the Venetians, the
fame anfwer he had fent to Cardinal Wolfey. They all
feemed very well fatisfied, and faid their Mafters would
doubtlefs accept a Peace on thefe Terms, and fend orders
to conclude it. But they knew not that the Kings of
France and England had altered their minds, and taken new

If Francis and Cardinal Wolfey were to confer together
at Abbeville, it was not to feek means to make Peace,

Vol. I.

Henry fenJi
the Memorial
4o the King
cf France.
Reply of
Francis I.

P- '333-

%uitt Wolk-y

but rather to take meafures, on fuppofition, that a War lfz^i
with the Emperor was infallible. Francis being come to 7^"' * :iJ
Abbeville the firft of Augujl, the Cardinal waited on him, Ae. p'ib.
and after conferring together, they concluded, on theXiV.p.203,
eighteenth, three Treaties, which properly were only Sup- * c<
plements, Explanations, and Reltrictions of the three fore-
going ones.

By the firft it was agreed :

I. That, as he had left it to the King of France's choice,
to marry the Piincefs Mary, or leave her for the Duke
of Orleans his fecond Son, the Duke fhould efpoufe the
Princefs when they fhould both be of Age. That then,
and not before, fhould be fettled the Marriage-Articles con-
cerning the Dowry, the education of the Duke of Or-
leans in England, and the like. Moreover, that, whether
the Marriage fhould be confummated, or the two Kings
think fit to difpofe of their Children otherwife, their
Friendfhip fhould remain firm and inviolable, the Mar-
riage being only to be confidered as a Supplement to the
Treaties of the thirtieth of April, and not as part of thofe

II. That the Treaty concluded at Moore fhould remain
in full force.

III. That the project of the Interview of the two Kings
fhould be laid afide, on account of the feafon and circura-
ftances of affairs.

IV. As by the Treaty of the twenty ninth of May, it
was agreed, that the King of England fhould contribute a
certain Sum for the War of Italy, it was concluded by
this, that in cafe the Emperor accepted the offers the two
Kings fhould make him by their Ambaffadors, the faid
contribution fhould ceafe without any prejudice to the
Treaty of Peace: But if he rejected them, the Treaty of
League offenfive and defenfive fhould fubfift, on condition
that during this Campaign the King of England fhould be
deemed to have difcharged his part of the Treaty, by his
Contribution for the War with Italy.

V. That the King of England fhould form no demands
upon the King of France on pretence of his charges for the
War of Italy.

VI. That to prevent all difputes, without examining
the number of Troops which the King of France main-
tained in Italy, the King of England fhould pay for the
month of June laft twenty thoufand Crowns, for the
month of July laft thirty thoufand Crowns, and thirty
two thoufand two hundred and twenty two for each of the
three following months. On condition however, that if
in thefe three laft months, the EngUJh Commiffaries found
in the Army of Italy, a lefs number of Troops than what
the King of France was to maintain, the Contribution
fhould be leflened in proportion. Moreover, if a Peace
was made during thefe three laft months, the Contribution
fliould ceafe the day the Peace was concluded.

By the fecond Treaty, which concerned only Trade, P- *°9«
Francis promifed to give the EngUJh Merchants fuch Pri-
vileges as fhould be agreed upon hereafter.

By a third Treaty the two Kings were bound : p- 2 "-

Firft, Not to confent to the calling of a General Coun- er ert *
cil during the Pope's Captivity.

Secondly, To receive no Bull, Brief or Mandate from
the Pope (1) till he was releafed.

Thirdly, That till the Pope fhould refume the Go-
vernment of the Church, whatever fhould be determined
in England by the Cardinal Legate, affifted by the prin-
cipal Members of the Clergy (z), and in France by the
Clergy of the Galilean Church, fhould be punctually ex-

Thefe Treaties being concluded, Francis I ratified them, Wolfey «-
and fwore to the obfervance before he left Abbeville (3). E '"J 3 ^_
Cardinal IVolfey did the fame thing in his matter's name, Aft. Pub.
by virtue of his full Powers and Title of Vicar-General, xiv. P , ii6,
which he had receved on this occafion. After that, he
returned into England, to give the King an account of
the fuccefs of his Negotiation (4).

Henry being refolved to proclaim war againft the Em- Henry'*
peror, but willing to conceal the real motives, demanded Jrefi3m«iA
of him, by his Ambaffadors, four things, which he knew f^,' '.
could not then be performed. The firft was, That he Herbert.

p. 86-

(1) Any wav prejudicial to either of the two Kings, their Kingdoms, or to the Cardinal of Tcrk't Legatine Jurifdicrion Rymer, Tom. XIV. p. it}, 114.

(2) Accitis de mandato tc arid .rilate praditti Anglia? Regis in Regno Anglix, Prelatis, circa ltarum & admmirtraihnem Rerum Ecclefraftica-

ru m in Aligl.a, &c. Rymer, Tom. XIV. p. 2 14. Called together by the King's Authority, and his confent firft obtained to what fliould be determined.
And here (fays Lord Herbert ) began the relilli our King took of governing the Church, p. S5.

(3) TJuy were ratified at Amiens, Augujl 18. Rymer, Tom. XIV. p. zr6, Zl8.

(4) About the end of September. French not only richly prefentcd him, but conducted him through the Town, and upon his way about a Mile, being ac-
rompjmed with the titular King of Navarrt, the Pope's Legate, and his prime Nobility. At his coming to Calais, he ordered the Mart to be kept in tha-

Tov.11, infteadof Annoirp, tec. Hall, fol. 159. Herbert, p. S 5. -

4a. tr. li: Vi'ai General in Erglan.t, F.-anee, and Germany, during his Captivity. Cuieeij'J, I, 18.

-About this time, ll'-.'i'/y difpatched Gambara to the Pope, to defue him to make


Book XV.

20. HENRY VII f.


• 527. fhould pay what was borrowed of him, or of his Father fador, who arrived in England about the end of October, 1 527,


■/: ' -,v-

. , ■ . ■■'.vtr.

King Henry VII. The fecond, that he fhould pay him
the live hundred thoufand Crowns to which he was obliged,
ii \fe he married not the Princefs Mary, to whom he
was affianced. The third, That according to the tenor
of their Treaty, he Ihould fatisfy him for his Penfion
from the King of France, whereof there was now due
four years and four months. The fourth, That he fhould
rcleaie the Pope, and fatisfy him for all the damages
Caufed by Ins Troops. The Emperor anfwered the Am

was received with fuch magnificence, that du Bellai, who
accompanied him, affures us, he had never feen the like.
1 he knelij}> Ambaffador was received in the fame manner
in France, rhere having ever been between Francis and
Henry an emulation, which frequently threw them into
needlefs cxpences. Hut it was molt inconvenient for
Francis, by reafon of his continual wars with the Em-

peror, wherein Henry was no farther engaged than he

pleafed : Nay, he paid the very contribution "for the War Aft P S.
balladors, firft, That he hud never denied his being of Italy, by way of deduction for the Sum; owed him xlv '' ;;>
debtor to the King of England; but was furprized he by Francis (4), as appears in the Coiiulion of the Publich
ftiould at this juncture inlift fo much upon payment : Acts. Thus Francis was forced to disburfe all the Money

employed in that War, of which I muft now relate the


Clement VII was fl ill confined in the Caftle of St. An- AS' '

he had but little Money, he could 01 \y p. y part of what
he had promifed, and therefore his Captivity was longer
than he expe :d ai irfl , they in whole Cuftody he was,
not being willing to trult to his word. The Emperor


That at Ieaft, when the money was required, the obliga

tions fhould be offered to be reftoied. Secondly, That

he would write to the King their Mafter to acquaint him,

why he did not think himlelf liable to the penalty of the gels, till he could pay the Sums exacted upon him. As

fiVe hundred thoufand CrOwns, for not confummating the

Marriage. In the third place, That ordets were fent into

Italy to fet the Pope free. He ("aid nothing concerning

making fatisfa&ion for the Penfion, becaufe probably he

conlidered it as included in the Article of the debti; to which had not advice of the facking of Rome, ?.nd the Pope's

he owned himlelf bound, as indeed nothing was more rea- Imprifonment fooner than the beginning of June, and it

fonable. was above a month before he came to any relolution. As

Affembly of The Emperor's Replies were not capable of fatisfying he did not queftion this afrail would make gr?at noife in
*! , ^ U " Henry who only fought an occalion of quarrel. On tjie the World, he was willing to fee, before he determined
Mezerai. other hand, Francis having called together the chief what to do, how the Kings of Fiance and England would

Men, that is to fay, properly, Perfons devoted to him, take it, in order to proceed accordingly. The 2d of Hubert.

declared to them all the fteps he had made towards a Auguf., he writ to Henry to excufe himlelf concerning the

Peace with the Emperor ; and it may be eafily guclled, outrages committed by his Troops at Rome, and the vio-

he was not very careful to explain what the Emperor

might alledge againft him. Having reprefented the mat-
ter as he pleafed, he faid, he was ready to return into

captivit) , if it was judged that he was obliged in Honour
fbeAffem- or Confcience. The Affcmbly unanimoufly replied,
ilft o V ,,,on. That his p er(on belonged to the Realm, and it was not

in his power to difpofe of it according to his pleafure :

That moreover, he could not alienate the Provinces ot the

Crown, but if the Emperor would accept of a Ranfojn

for the two Princes in hoffage, they offered the Kin

lence exercifed upon the Pope's Perfon, wherein he pro-
tefted, he was not concerned. At the fame time, he aJced
his advice about what was to be done on this occafion, as
if he ftill deemed him his good Friend and Ally. But it
was only to gain time, till lie received Francis's anfwer to
the Memorial fent to Cardinal JVolfey. On the other Later to
hand, the Pope, though narrowly watched, had found Htn
means to write to Henry (;), and caufe the thirteen'','.,'



Cardinals, who were confined with him, to do the fame, '•'■'<••
defiling his protection, and entreating him to ufc his Deft B " rnrt -
two millions of Gold to redeem them. A Man mult endeavours to free them from their unhappy condition. Hcibcrh
have voluntarily fhut his eyes, not to fee what was the Henry, upon receipt of thefe Letters, fent orders to his
defign of this Farce, entirely managed by the Court. Ambaffadors in Spain, to demand of the Emperor the
Mean while, the King believing, after this decifion, that Pope's and Cardinals Liberty : To which the Emperor

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