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he might, with a fafe Confcience, go to war with the Em- anfwered in general terms, that he would do what lay in
peror, thought only of means to recover his Sons by force his power for the King of England's fatisfaction. Mean
of Arms. He ftill hoped however, the dread of a War while, he was thinking of conveying the Pope into Spain,
would induce the Emperor to mitigate the Treaty of in expectation of making a better bargain with him than

Francis and
Henly acl
with infincf

Madrid. This was not now with refpedl to Burgundy,
fince he could not be ignorant that the Emperor had ac-
cepted the offered Equivalent. But he was in hopes, by
means of the War, to procure a new Treaty, which fliould
annul that of Aladrid. Thus many Princes play with
their Words and Oaths, and feek to blind themfelves, or

if he left him in Italy. Of this Cardinal IFolfey informed
Henry by a Letter from Abbeville of the twenty ninth of

it is certain, Henry's Inftances in the Pope's behalf T.~ ■■
greatly embarrailed the Emperor. He found that Francis '''"I " ,
and Henry would not fail to join their Counfels and HrarJ* «
at leaft, the publick, whilft none about them dare to tell Forces againft him, under colour of labouring for the Vtrianu,
them the Truth. The Emperor kept his word no better, Pope, and this union could not but break all his mea-
with regard to the Duchy of Milan; and Henry VIII fures, with refpect to his affairs in Italy. He believed
fcrupled not to break his League with the Emperor, as therefore, that before all things he fhould try to divide
he had before violated that with Francis. Princes never thenj, by fowing jealouiies and fufpicions between them.
want excufes when they have a mind to break a Treaty. One of his expedients to this end, was to propofe to Herbert.
But the publick is not always impofed upon, though fre- the Cardinal a marriage between the Duke of Richmond,
quently they appear fo to be. Probably, the Sovereigns natural Son of Henry, and Ifabella Princefs of Portu-
gal, with whom he offered in Dower the Duchy of
Milan. The Cardinal acquainted the King with it by a
Letter of the 31ft of July, telling him withal, that the
offer was not much to be relied on, but however, it was
proper to feem to liften to it, becaufe it was neceffary
ftill to preferve fome correfpondence with the Em-
peror. This related without doubt to the affair of the
Divorce, which I fhall prefently fpeak of. For, by z a Rur.-.u, ;■,
Letter of the firft of Augujl, the Cardinal informed the s P a: "> f
King it was reported in Spain, he intended to divorce Hc " r y' 1 '""
anda?™* W ^°' e or m P art > ^ £ he new Knight fhould think fit, or the Queen ; but that it was requifite to fend orders to fartmtbbu
Garter. even to be contented with his bare word. Henry was his AmbalFadors at Madrid to ftifle the rumour as much as %""•
Aft. Pub. pleafed to fwear to obferve all the Statutes of the Order poffible. That to this end, they might fay, it had no Hcrbcrt '
of St. Michael, which were not contrary to thofe of the other foundation than the Bifhop of Tarbe's fcruples con-
Garter, or any other Order he Jiad already received, cerning the Princefs Mary's Marriage with the Duke of

themfelves are not fo blind, but they fee the irregularity
of their Conduct, though, countenanced by the dilfimula-
tion of the publick, they affect the great fecurity. But
the time comes at lift, when Pofterity, lefs prepoffeffed,
does juftice to all the World, and calls things by their pro-
per name.
Francis and Francis, willing to preferve the Friendfhip newly con-
Heniy find tr a£ted with Henry, fent him the Order of St. Mi-
'Z.r'ijrl'rs chatl ( i ) by Ann de Montmorency (2), one of the Knights.
»f Knights /This Lord had power to difpenfe with Henry's Oath,

XIV. p.:

p. 139.

p. 232.


Then he fent the Order of the Garter to Francis, by
Arthur [Plantagenet] Vifcount LijJe, natural Son of Ed-
ward IV (3), and Francis took the ufual Oath of the
Order, with the fame reftridtions. The French Ambaf-

Orleans, as if there was room to queftion the Princefs 's
Legitimacy. The Emperor alfo ufed another way to TctE*p ercr
divide Francis and Henry, by trying to gain Cardinal trmnbrib*

IFolfey by advantagious oilers (6). But fo/ once, he could Wc,v ;'-

Pol. Virg,

(1) The military Order of St. Michael w.is inlliuited by Lean's XII, in 1469. The Knights wear a Golden Collar of Shell-work, one within another,
hid on a Golden Chain, whereon lianas a Medal of St. Mub.nl the Archangel, the ancient Proteftor of France.

(2) Anr.e dr. Mu-.tmorency, Grand Maitre arrived the 20th of October, with fix hundred Horfe at London, and after Audience had been given, they were, on
November 10. entertained by our King at Greenwich with a lumntuous Fealt, and with a Comedy, in which his D;u t htcr the Princefs ./Wary acted a Part.
Herbert, p. 85.

J j) He was accompanied by Dr. John TayU, Mafter of the Rolls, and Archdeacon of Buckingham, Sir Nicolas Carc.it, Sir Anthony Bi.~.cn, and Sir Thomas

Wnctbcjley, Garter King at Arms. Rymer, Tom. XIV. p. 231

(4) Which Sums amounted to fixty four thoufand rive hundred and forty four Crowns.

(5) On September 24. By Gregory de Cajfali, the Englijb Aacnt at Rome, who was

p. 34.

See Rymer, Tom. XIV. p. 234.
now returning to England. Herbert,

p. Si, S3. Bunct, Vol. III.

(6) He offered him Lige Sums befides his Penfion. But beoufe Charles had refufed rVoljey the Archbifhoprid; if Toledo the rieheft in Spain, to which the
Cardinal vehemently afuired, he proved inexorable. Pol, firg. \, 27, Herbert, p. 85.

No. 39. Vol. I.




The H1S70RY of ENGLAN D.

Vol. I.

1527. not fucrcr d ; whether Wolfey was now too far engaged
with Francis, or was bent to be revenged of the Empe-
ror, who had twice deceived him, or whether the bufinefs
of the Divoice was now refolved, in which cafe it was
not poffible for him to promife to ei'poufe the Emperor's
F 1p.cis.70w When Francis heard of the facking of Rome, he per-
il) a ,.jj cc j Ne j ; : was t j me to ] a y afide artifice, and iieceffaiy to
Venetians, fend a powerful aid into Italy, otherwife the / cnetians
Cuicciard. would infallibly conclude a Peace with the Emperor. In-
deed, it was not likely, they could or would bear alone
the burden of the War. Wherefore his firft care was to
make a new Treaty with them (1), to bring each into
the Field ten thoufand Men, and levy ten thoufand Swit-
zers at a common charge. The Venetians defired nothing
more than to be fupported by France, becaufe they juftly
dreaded, that the Army which had lacked Rome would
be employed againft them. Indeed, if the Duke of Bour-
bon had been alive, or the Viceroy of Naples able to in-
fluence the Army, the Venetians would undoubtedly have
been attacked, being the only Enemies the Emperor had
■ r ' : : :l hi Italy. But happily for them, the Imperial Troops being
'tiTlmpenat- wholly intent upon the plunder of Rome, without think-
ifiu ' ing of any other undertaking, the Plague which broke out
Cuicciard. among them, fwept away two thirds of the Soldiers. In
fhort, the Diftemper deftroying them bv heaps, they left
Rome, and difperfed themfelves in the neighbouring Coun-
try. After which, having facked Terni and Kami, and
extorted Money from Spoleto, the Germans parted from
the Spaniards, and returned to Rome. Thus difcord arifing
in the Arm}', which ill obeyed the Prince of Orange,
though they had chofen him for General, they projected
nothing to improve their Victory for the Emperor's advan-
Lamrec Ct- tage. On the contrary, by their negligence, they gave
TZlue * ' Francis time to fend Troops into Italy, under the Com-
Guiccierd. mand of Lautrec, who was declared General of the League
Herbert. he had newly concluded with the Venetians. As for the
Duke of Urbino, he continued in the Milanefe with part of
the Venetian Army.
Ht arrhci Lautrec arrived in Piedmont in July, with part of the
"Piedmont. Army he was to command. The Marquifs of Saluzzo
was ordered to join him with his Italians, and the Swit-
zers were to come prefently after. Whilft he was em-
ployed in ConquelTs of little moment, waiting the junc-
Detnnduca tion of all his Forces, Andrea Doria, who had quitted the
l^n, "J" 1 " Pope's Service, and commanded the French Gallies, to
of Fiance, which lie had joined eight others of his own, found means
Cuicciard. to reduce the City of Genoa under Francis's Dominion.
Herbert. This was a good opening of a Campain, which feemed to
promile an advantagious Succefs in the reft of the War,
especially as Lautrec, after alTembling his whole Army,
confifting of twenty five thoufand Men, became matter
of Vigevano, Alexandria, and Pavia. Sforza and the Ve-
netians earneftly preffed him to befiege Milan ; but he
fhewed them pofitive orders to march to Naples. The
King of France took care not to employ his Army to
conquer the Duchy of Milan, which by the Treaty of
League was to be reftored to Sforza, after which, the
Venetians would give themfelves but little trouble to ac-
complifh his attempt upon Naples. Befides, he ftill hop-
ed, that by confenting, the Emperor fhould keep Milan,
he might recover his Sons, whereas in reftoring Sforza he
Lautrec fliould deprive himfelf of that means. Lautrec therefore
"; Jr ', i " " began his march to the Kingdom of Naples, but with

Naples iit ' y * ^ v-

fit.-u.-ly. " fuch flownefs and affected delays, that it was evident, he
Guicciard. had private orders not to make too much hafte. And in-
Hal1- deed, it was at the time that Francis expected the Em-

peror's final anfwer to the offers made him by his and
Henry's Ambaffadors. Lautrec long halted at Parma and
Placentia, which had opened their Gates to him. Mean
The Duiiz of while, the Duke of Ferrara joined with France, as well
Fa-ran and on account of Lautrcc's march, who might have eafily ra-
M -*jJ t p 1 '^ vaged his Country, as of Francis's offer to give in mar-
Sardi. riage to his Son Hercules, Rene'e of France, fecond Daugh-

ter of Lewis XII. The Duke of Mantua prefently after
followed his example.
. _ Mean while, the Emperor feeing the ill effects of the
I fet Pope's Captivity, had difpatched the General of the Order
'"-)'; of St. Francis to the Viceroy of Naples, with orders to
releafe the Pope. The General finding the Viceroy feized
with a Diftemper whereof he died in a few days, delivered
the orders to Hugo de Moncada to be executed. The Em-
peror had given general Inftructions, that the Pope fhould
be bound to pay the Arrears due to the Army, and give
Security, after having his liberty, to forfake the League.
But as it was not eafy for the Pope to find Pledges, or
the Money neceffary to pay the Army, the Negotiation
was prolonged. Mean while, he continually follicited Lau-
trec by private MelFengers to approach Rome in order to
facilitate his deliverance. But Lautrec had pofitive orders

(1) On May I;.


Cuicciard. 1. 18.

which hindered him from making hafte, and yet his 1527.
march, though flow, was of good Service to the Pope.
Moncada feeing the Kingdom of Naples was going to be
invaded, and that it was not poffible to lead thither the
Imperial Army which was at Rome, without giving them
Money, concluded at laft (2) a Treaty with the Pope to
this effect :

I. That the Pope fhould not oppofe the Emperor in Treaty fir
the affairs of Naples or Milan. * '*£'

II. That he fhould grant the Emperor a Crufade in cuicciard.
Spain, and a Tenth in the reft of his Dominions. Herbert.

III. That the Emperor fhould keep Chita Vecchia,
OJlia, Citta Ca/leliana, and the Caftle of Furli.

IV. That the Pope fhould pay down to the German
Troops, fixty thoufand Ducats, and thirty five thoufand
to the Spaniards.

V. That in a fortnigiit after, he fhould pay them an-
other certain Sum, and within three months all the reft
that was due to the Emperor, amounting to above three
hundred and fiftv thoufand Ducats.

VI. That till the two firft payments were made, the
Pope fhould be conducted to fome fafe place out of Rome.,
and give Hoftages.

The Treaty being figned , and the Cardinals of Cefis rri " Pf
and Orfino delivered in Holiage, it was agreed, that on 'J'"'?" "
the 1 oth of D ccmber the Pope fhould be taken out of the Guicciiri
Caftle of St. Angela, and conducted to a place appointed.
But as he was afraid of a longer confinement, becaufe he
was unable to perform the Treaty, he efcaped in difguife
the night before, and fhut himfelf up in Orvieto.

When Lautrec heard that the Pope was at Liberty, he Guicciard.
reftored to him the City of Parma, and marched to Bo-
logna, where he ftayed three weeks expecting frefti orders
from the King. Some days after, he received a Letter
from Clement VII, acknowledging himfelf indebted to him
for his Liberty, intimating withal, that having been forced
to grant the Imperialifts whatever they required, he did
not think himfelf obliged to perform his Engagements.

It was whilft the Pope was prifoner in the Caftle of Beginning

St. Ant eh, that Henry's Divorce was fet on foot; a mo-°£. Hcnry ''

rr • -r i_ „ . . ... Divorce.

mentous affair, 11 ever there was one, as well in it felf,

as on account of the Parties concerned, and chiefly for its
effects. It was not yet thirty years fince Lewis XII put
away his Wife without any difficulty, or much noife in
the world. Henry VIII had a mind to attempt the fame
thing, and though fupported with much more plaufible
reafons, he met with infuperable obftacles, not to be fur-
mounted without an extraordinary method, which gave
occafion to the eftablifhment of the Reformation in Eng-
land. This effect diftinguifhed Henry VIIPs Divorce Reafin -why
from fo many others, which are but fliehtlv mentioned '*", D,m,nt

. J * . © J m made fo

by Hiftorians. The writers upon this fubject being either much noi/e.
Catholicks or Proteftants, have confidered it varioufly.
The Catholicks have drawn Arguments from thence a-
gainft the Reformation in England, and reprefented Henry's
Divorce, as the next and immediate caufe of the change
of Religion ; whereas the Proteftants affirm, it was only
the occafion. Three Englijh Authors efpecially have writ R«»*rki
the Hiftory of this Divoice, befides many others of the H er ^ s "^
fame Nation, or Foreigners who have fpoke of it in their Burner,'
works. Sanderus, or rather Sanders, Author of the O-
rigin and Progrefs ^/"rwEnglifti Scbifm, makes it is his bu-
finefs to defame Henry VIII, and fhew that the Reforma-
tion in England, which he terms Scbifm, entirely fprung
from Henry's paffion for Ann Bullcn. He fancied by that
to give a mortal wound to the Reformation, and caufe
the world to think, that a Superftructure raifed on fuch a
foundation, could not be the work of God. The Lord
Herbert, in his Hiftory of Henry VIII, contents himfelf
with a bare recital of the events of this Reign, whereof
the Divorce is one of the principal, without many rea-
fonings, leaving his Readers to make Inferences from
the Facts he relates. Doctor Burnet intending to write the
Hiftory of the Reformation of England, made it his chief
aim, in fpeaking of Henry's Divorce, to fhew, that
though it occafioned the Reformation, it was only by ac-
cident. For this reafon he has endeavoured to refute the
palpable falfehoods aliened by Sanders in his Hiftory.
He has fucceeded fo well, that no fincere Man can for
the future acknowledge Sanders for a writer worthy of

The Sequel of my Hiftory obliges me to fpeak, in my
turn, of this famous Divorce. I (hould be inclined to re-
fer the Reader to the forementioned excellent Hiftory of
the Reformation of England, known to all the world,
and to which it is difficult to make any additions, but
it would not be reafonable to oblige the Readers to re-
member what they have read in that Hiftory, or to perufe

(») On Ofltitr 31. Hid.

Book XV.



• 527. if again. Wherefore I fhall chufe, in purfuing the thread

of my Hiftory, to relate this Event, which is as the

Hinge whereon do turn mimberlel's other things, which

that illuftrious Author had occalion only to mention, but

which I mult more fully explain, becaufe our ends are

different. His aim in fpcaking of Henry VIII's affairs

with the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of France, was

to illuftrate the Hiftory of the Reformation, and mine is,

not to meddle with the affairs of Religion any farther than

they relate to the other events of this Reign.

H"nry «- Henry had been married eighteen years to Catherine of

mra3uan dragon, and by her had three Children, whereof one was

Catheriiia living, when he foimcd the deiign to put her away. He

**'"• alledged, as the principal reafon, his fcruples for marrying

Hollinglh. bis Brother's widow. But, a, 'ti, pretended, thefc fcruples

Herbert, troubled him not till he was in love with Ann Bullen, one

Burnet. f the Queen's Maids of Honour, it is inferred, that his

doubts concerning the validity of his Marriage, fprung

from this new paflion, and without that, would never

have exifted (1). According! v, fome labour to fhew his

Divorce had no other foundation than his love for that

Lady. Others again endeavour to prove, that his love

It is mi ptf- and his fcruples were independent of each other. Eor my

"ttt ' 'tltt"''™ P art ' * ' nou Id think it needlefs to accufe or juftify Henry,

Hcnry'i with regard to the concerns of Religion, if there was not

Lo-fwmrhe fome neceffity to illuftrate this matter with refpefl to the

'■'"" f,L ' Hiftory. Bv illuftrating, I mean, mewing the impofli-

D .writ. ' . « t ■ r, 1 -

bdity of giving a certain Judgment about it. But before
all things, it is neceftary to defcribe the perfon, who, as
it is pretended, was the prime Caufe of the King's Di-
vorce, and of all the Confequences thereof.
jfirfecumttf Ann Bullen (2) was of a good, though not a noble,
W B "' kn ' Famil 7- Sir Thomas Bullen her Father, married a Sif-
Ann.o/Eliz. tcr of {he Duke of Norfolk (3), and by her had Ann, born
Bumet. according to Camden in 1507, about two years before
RefT. I. Hcnry yill's Acceflion tothe Throne. Thomas Bullen her
Herbert. Father was twice Amb3)lador to France, firft in 1515,
and again in 1527. He was made Vifcount Rochford in
r 525, and afterwards Earl of Wilt/hire and Or moid fa).
Ann his Daughter, being but feven years old, was carried
into France in 15 14, when Mary the King's Sifter went
and confummatcd her Marriage at Abbeville , with
Lewis XII. That Queen being re-married fhortly alter
to the Duke of Suffolk, and returning into England, Ann
Bullen was left in France. It is pretended, fhc then en-
tered into the Service of Francis I's Queen, though me
was but eight years of age ; but it is not faid in what
quality. It is certain, a Girl of her age was not capable
of doing much Service. So, it may be prefumed her
Beauty, Gentcelnefs, or the livelinefs of her Wit, made
Viueriahty Queen Claude defirous to keep her about her. Camden
ci /'n^> nn amrms » fh e retained her in her Service to the day of her
nturn i3 death, which happened in July 1524, and fays not that
England. Ann ever took a Journey into England all that time. But
*""*■ Du Tillet, and Du Pleix, French Authors, pretend, me
came over in 1522. The Lord Herbert fays the fame
thing, but, without citing any particular Author, con-
tents himfelf with faying, it appears in Hiftory. Camden
affirms, Ann remained in France, not only till Queen
Claude's death, but that, after me had loft her Miftrefs,
flic was taken into Service by the Duchefs of Alenfon,
Francis's Sifter. However, he does not fay when fhe
quitted it. Others affirm, Sir Thomas Bullen brought his
Daughter to England when he returned from his Embaffy.
His Embaffy of 15 15, can't here be meant, fince it is
unanimoufly agreed, that Ann was in Queen Claude's Ser-
vice after Queen Marys departure, and continued feveral
years in the Court of France. It muft therefore be his
Embaffy of 1527. But 'tis likely, Bullen was not fent to
France till September 1 J27, fince his fole Commiffion was
to fee the Treaty of the 30th of April of the fame year
fworn to, which Francis had not ratified fooner than the
A 1 *. Pub. 1 8th of Augvjl, as appears in the Collection of the Publick
Xiv. P .2iS. Acls (5). But as, before his departure, the affair of the
Divorce was already commenced, it may be affirmed, the
King's love for his Daughter was later than his refolution
concerning the Divorce, if it be true that Ann returned
to England with her Father, about the end of the year
1527. Indeed it may be objected, that two French Au-
thors affert, that Ann went over to England in 1522, and
that it was then the King fell in love with her. But it
may be replied firft, that it is very ftrange, thefe two Hi-

ftorians, who wrote long after the fac>, fliould meet with .527.
Memoirs of the Journey of a Maid of Honour, and the
more as they cite nothin t 1 fupport their Teftfmony.
ScconcVy, fuppofing it were fo, they don't fay Ami fl
in England. Confequently they deftroy not Camdtrta Tcf-
timony, who affirm., Ann ferved Que n Claud, till 1 5 24,
and afterwards the Duchefs of Al ,., 7. I: : if" it be true,
that Ann tool: a Journey into England in 1522, and the
King then fell in love with her, it cannot be fuppofed fhe
returned to France, becaufe the rupture between the two
Crowns happening that year, it is not likely that in time
of War, an EngTijh Woman fliould go and fervc a Queen
of France. Befides, if the King was then in love, would
he have fuffered Ann to depait the King lorn? Ca,
therefore, or the two French Authors muft have been mi-
ftaken. This is a difficulty not to be eafily folved.

But there is a facft which paffes f 1 certain, namely, Can
that Ann Bullen being twenty years old, was taken into E "" '"
Queen Catherine's Service as Maid of Honour. Now this
muft have been in 1527, fince fhe was born in 1 507. Ac-
cordingly, this is the time to which the beginning of the
King's love may moft properly be fixed. But ftitl this is
only a Conjecture, which, were it well grounded, would
be a fufficicnt proof, that the King's Divorce was not an
effect of his paflion, fince it was refolved before the end
of the year 1526. My aim in this Inquiry is to (hew,
that the time of Ann Bullen\ return into England is very
uncertain, and the beginning of the King's afteclion no
lefs fo. How then can it be (o boldly affirmed, as it is by
fome, that Love for Ann Bullen infpired the King with
the thoughts of annulling his Marriage with Catherine ?
We muft fee now whether it be eafier to difcover the time
when Henry refolved to fue for his Divorce.

When Henry VII concluded his Son's Marriage with -* -what
Catherine Prince Arthur's Widow, Archbifhop IVarham %Z£fi?
told him plainly, it was contrary to the Law of God, "Lf„ l\
which the Pope could not difpenfe with. The KingO"""*
without doubt was touched with this Remonftrance. The ^ r f nc ~ x
very day the Prince his Son entered into his fourteenth p.'js. '
year, he caufed him to make againft his Marriage, a fe- Sped,
cret Proteftation, though before trufty witneffes, declaring, p ' ;62 "
he was conftrained to give his confent. After that, the
King on his death-bed ftriclly charged the Prince not to
confummate his Marriage with Catherine. Notwithftand-
ing all this, Henry VIII being come to the Crown, efpoufed
the Princ:fs contrary to Worhanis opinion, to which he
preferred the Bifhop oUVincbeJhr's. He had by her three
Children (6), two Sons and a Daughter, of whom the
Sons died foon after their Birth. He afterwards affirmed, Hall,
that heconfidered the untimely death of his two Sons, as R '- '5*
God's curfe on his Marriage, efpecially, when he faw the "'
Queen had done breeding. It happened afterwards that
Charles V, who was affianced to the Princefs Mary, re-
filled to marry her, upon the Council of Spain's queftion-
ing the Princefs's Legitimacy. After that, when a Mar-
riage was treating between Mary and King Francis, or the
Duke of Orleans, the Bifhop of Tarbe the French Ambaf-
fador, made the fame objection, maintaining, that the
Princefs could not be deemed born in Wedlock, notwith-
ftanding Julius IPs Difpenfation.

All thefe things were more than fufficient to raife fcru-
ples in the King's mind concerning his Marriage. But
though in an Affembly of Lords which he afterwards called,
to inform them of his reafons for a Divorce, he affirmed,
the Bifhop of Tarbe's objection infpired him with the firft
thoughts of inquiring into the matter, it appears however,

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