M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Parma, Reggio, Rome itfelf, with the beft part of the
Ecclefiaffical State, and feen himfelf captive and ranfomed.
This was fufficient to make him wifer, and take another
courfe. As foon as the Ambaffadors of France, England,
and Venice, faw him fecure at Orvieto frorn the outrages
of the Imperialifts, they prefTed him to declare againft
the Emperor. They thought if he could not affift the
League with temporal Arms, he might at leaft, by
means of his fpiritual , embroil the common enemy ,
whom he feemed to have no reafon to regard. But he
himfelf confidered this affair in a different light. Having
learned by fad experience, that he had been the dupe of
his Allies, he refolved to be no longer guided by their
interefted Counfels. So, without difcovering his thoughts,
he only told them, that his joining in the League would
only draw upon him frefh mifchiefs, without procuring
them any advantage : That befides, it was neceffary for
the benefit of Chrijlendom, there fhould be a Mediator
to labour to procure Peace, and that was all he could do
in the ftate he was reduced to. Neverthelefs, he inti-
mated to them, that he might take other meafures, if
Lautrcc approached to oblige the Emperor's Troops to a-
bandon Rome. This indeed was his fole aim, to free the
ecclefiaftical State from that foreign Army, in order to
be able to act moft agreeably to his intereft.

At laft, Lautrec departing from Bologna the 9th of
January, took the road to Naples, having firft fent the
Prince of Vaudcmont and la Trimouille to the Pope, to
prefs him to declare. But Clement found means to excufe
himfelf, without however a pofitive denial. He faw, as
I may fay, all Europe in motion, and was willing to wait
the fuccefs of the War, in order to take jufter meafures
than before. So, it was not poffible by any means to
bring him to a Declaration. He only made believe, that
if Francis and Henry would caufe Ravenna and Cervia
to be reftored to him, he would join with them. This
was an advantage he would willingly have reaped from
their inftances, without being debarred from finding fome
other evafion, to prevent his declaring after the recovery
of thefe two places. Mean while, he was thinking how
to treat fecretly with the Emperor, from whom he had
greater expectations than from his Allies. Indeed, his
chief aim being to reftore the Houfe of the Medici to
the Government of Florence, he perceived that he could
not accomphfh it without the Emperor's help, fince the
Allies were concerned to fuppoit the Florentines, who were
become Parties in the League. But it would have been
imprudent in him to declare for the Emperor, when that
Monarch was weak in Italy, and fo powerful an army
was marching to invade the Kingdom of Naples. It was
therefore- neceffary for him to wait, till the event of the
War enabled him to refolve with fafety. This was the

true reafon which obliged him to ufe manv artifices, to
try to difpleafe neither the Emperor, nor the King of
France, nor the King of England. If, inliead of unad-
vifedly engaging in a War, he had before taken this
courfe, he might have fold his favours at any rate. At
leaft, he would not have had the mortification to be a cap-
tive in Rome itfelf.

But though the Pope refufed to declare, the Kings of
France and England were not the leis e.iger in the pur-
fuit of their Projects. On the 21ft oi January 1528,
their Ambaffadors in Spain demanded the Emperor's leave
to retire, and next day Clarenceux and Guienne, Heralds,
one of England, the other of France, proclaimed war a-
gainft him. This was done with great fblemnity, the
Emperor being feated on his Throne, and attended bv all
his Grandees. He anfwered each in particular, but in a
very different manner. Speaking to the Englijh Herald,
he made ufe of civil and honorable Terms, denoting, lie
was not at all plcafed with having the King his niafter
for an enemy. He complained however, that Henry had
ufed him ill, in defigning to give him in marriage a Prin-
cefs whom he propofed to baftatdize, fince he was fuing
to be divorced from the Queen her Mother. But he
threw all the blame on the boundlefs ambition of Cardinal
JVolfey. He faid, the Cardinal would have obliged him to
employ his arms in Italy to make him Pope, and thought
himfelf injured, becaufe he would not diffurb the Peace of
Cbrijhndom for his fake. As for the Sums, of which
Henry demanded payment, he denied, he had ever refufed
to discharge the debt. But added, that the Englijh Am-
baffadors not having brought with them the original ob-
ligations, nor even a power to give him a dilcharge, Henry
was in the wrong to complain. As to the Indemnity he
demanded, he knew the King of Fiance had taken it
upon him in the Treaty of Madrid. As for the penalty
of five hundred thoufand Crowns, in cafe he refufed to
marry the Princefs Mary, he replied, it was net his
fault : That he had demanded her of the King her Fa-
ther, by Ambafladors fent on purpofe, and that Henry
had refufed to fend her : That belides, before that time
Henry had offered her to the King of Scotland : In fhort,
That he could not lawfully claim that Sum, before he had
proved that he had himfelf performed all the Articles of
the Treaty of JFindfor. Such was the Emperor's anfwer
to the Declaration of War made by Henry's Herald. In
his anfwer to the French Herald, he fpoke not with fo
much regard and caution. He plainly accufed Francis of
breach of faith, and charged the Herald to put him in
mind of the meffage he fent him by the Archbifhop of
Bourdeaux his Ambaffador, That it would be better for them
to decide their quarrel by Jingle Combat, but that he had not
received any anfwer. Probably, the Ambaffador had not
thought fit to deliver that Meffage to the King, fince
he feemed extremely furprized when he heard it from
the Herald's mouth. In a few days, he lent the fame
Herald to the Emperor, with a Challenge under his own
hand, wherein he gave him the Lie in form, and required
him to affure him the field to fight hand to hand. The
Challenge was dated Alarch 28. 1528. The Emperor
fent his anfwer by one of his Heralds, who was charged
to tell him by word of mouth very difagreeable things.
The Herald coming to Paris, could not obtain leave
without great difficulty, to put on (1) his Coat of Arms
when he entered the City. The King expected him on
his Throne, furrounded with a great number of Princes
and Lords. But he had fcarce began to fpeak, before
the King interrupted him, and demanded whether he had
brought the Security of the Field. The Herald deli red
leave to proceed with what he had to fay from tlie Empe-
ror ; the King refufed to hear him, faying, he had re-
quired only the Security of the Field, and that all the
reft was to no purpofe. Thus ended this affair, which
had now made great noife. The two Monarchs gave
publick marks of their Courage, by their mutual Chal-
lenges, and yet there was no great labour required to pre-
vent them from deciding their quarrel in a way fo un-
common to great Princes.

Hugo de Mendofa the Emperor's Ambaffador at London,
hearing what had paffed in Spam, would have retired.
But Cardinal JFolfey (4) fent him word that Clarenceux
had exceeded his Inftruitions in proclaiming War againft
the Emperor, and fhould be punifhed at his return.
Whereupon the Ambaffador fent an Exprefs to inform the
Emperor of what the Cardinal had faid. Clarenceux, who
was ftill in Spain, furprized that he fhould be made ac-
countable for what he had exprefs orders, demanded, and


Francis and
Henry pru-
cLurn IVar
againft ibt

E> ber., .


V- Dana!.

71: Empe-
ror ±> :„■ :.

P. Daniel.



P. Daniel.



Bold AS >f
•which dreiv
on him the
Kings An-



(1) But he begged with many S'ghs and Tears, that the King would not precipitate things, or expofe him to be undone, by beginning any Pro.efa
upun the Bull. Unmet. Tom. I. p. 48.

(-) The Ordinal Stinel-.rum quatuor got of the Engii/b Ambafladors four thoufand Crowns for a reward for his good Service. Ibid,
(3) Or rather to •wear /r. He put it on as foon as he came into the Fitntb Territories. Herbert, p. 94.
(4j Ordered him to be taken into Cuflody, Cstc. Hall, fof. 171.


Book XV.


l n ')

I 52s.

The Cardi-
nal aj/emblcs
the Great
Men, and
trttl tv jufli-
Jy the War
a gat nft the



Mutiny of
tbe Ciotbi

'Ibe Cardi-
nal threaten*
(hem iif-Jam.

from toe
Low- Coun-
Truce be-
tween Eng-
land and
Aft. Pub
l[fue cf the
War if

Lautiec be-
Jiegel Naples.

obtained an authentick Copy of the Ambaffador's Let-
ter (i). Upon his arrival in England, he waited on the
King (z), before he fpoke with the Cardinal, and fhowed
him the Letter, with three others, writ with the Cardi-
nal's own hand, whereby he gave him exprefs orders to
declare War againft the Emperor. Henry, aftonifhed at
his Minifter's preemption, fell into a great pallion with
him before the whole Court. Nay, he would perhaps
have entirely difgraccd him, had he not been with-held
by the confederation of the affair of the Divorce, where
he could not proceed without him. He made him how-
ever undergo a terrible mortification, by caufing this affair
to be examined in the Council. This Inquiry would
doubtlefs have been fatal to the Minifter, if the King had
been pleafed to purfue it, but he was contented with the
Cardinal's proteftation, that he thought to have ailed a-
greeably to his Majelly's Intentions.

The Emperor's anfwer to Clarenccux being made pub-
lick in England, by the Spanijh Ambaffador's means, the
Cardinal was afraid it would caufe ill effects among the
peopie, confidering the weaknels of the motives alledged
by the King for undertaking the War. For this reafon he
affembled in the Star -Chamber (3) all the great Lords then
at Court (4), to whom he made a Speech, aggravating as
much as poffible the Injuries, the King had received Irom
the Emperor, and his reafons to demand fatisfadtion by
Arms. But let him fay what he would, though every
one outwardly applauded him, what the Emperor faid to
the Herald, that the War was caufed only by the Cardi-
nal's private difcontcnt, made deeper Impreifion than all
the Arguments the Minifter could alledge (;J. The peo-
ple openly exclaimed againft a War which was going to
ruin the Kingdom, to gratify the Favorite's paffion. Nay,
lome went farther than murmurs. As the Trade with the
Low-Countries was interrupted by the Declaration of War,
and the Merchants would buy no more Cloth which they
could not vend, the Clothiers rife in arms (6). Where-
upon the Cardinal ordered the Merchants to buy the
Cloths as ufual, threatening in cafe of refufal to buy them
himfelf, and fell them to the Foreigners. But they made
a Jcft of this threat, and continued obftinate, refolving
not to render themfelves liable to inevitable Loffes for his
fake. An Embafly from the Governefs of the Low-Coun-
tries (7) to the King whilft thefe things were in agitation,
freed the Cardinal from his embaraffment. The Ambaf-
fadors acquainting him, tint if the King pleafed to confent
to a Truce with the Low-Countries, for the mutual be-
nefit of Trade, the Governefs would readily agree to it ;
this overture being debated in Council, it was refolved,
notwithftanding the French Ambaffador's oppofition, to
agree to a Truce for eight months, which was ligned the
Sth of 'June.

Whilft thefe things paffed in England, the affairs of I-
taly were in fuch a lituation as gave Francis room to ex-
pect Lautrec's Expedition in the Kingdom of Naples
would be crowned with (uccefs, though afterwards it ended
very unlortunately for him. Lautrec going from Bologna
the 9th of "January, arrived the 10th of February on the
borders of Naples, and marching into Abruzzo, became
mafter of that Province, and afterwards of part of Apulia.
It was not without extreme difficulty, that the Prince of
Orange obliged the Imperialifts to quit Rome, where for
ten Months they had exercifed all forts of Rapine and Vi-
olence. Though the Imperial Army went not from
Rome till the 17 th of February, they got before Lautrec,
who had taken a longer way in order to procure Money,
which he wanted exceedingly, the King of France, ac-
cording to Cuftom, not having fent him what he had
promilcd. The Imperialifts being ported at Troya, he of-
fered them battle, but as they thought proper to retire to
Naples, purfued his march, and arrived in the beginning
of May before that Capital, which he befieged in form ac-
cording to his orders. Sixteen French Gallics commanded
by Andrea Doria, eight more under the Conduit of Phi-
lippino Doria his Nephew, with twenty two from Venice,
were to block up Naples by Sea, whilft Lautrec with thir-
ty thoufand Men befieged the City by Land. But when

he opened the Siege he had only Philippics eight Gallies. 1 »
Thofe of Venice came very late, and Andrea Dor'. . who
was uifpleafcd with the King of France, and had thoughts
of entering into the Emperor's Service, detained the lix-
teen Gallies at Genoa, under divers pretences. Mean
while, a Sea-fight between Philippine and the ImperiaJift ,
wherein Moncada was (lain, and the Marquifs del Vajlo
taken prifoner, made Lautrec hope he mould reduce Na-
ples by Famine, though himfelf wanted all things in his
Camp. His hopes weie increaled by the arrival of the
two and twenty Venetian Gallies, which joined thefe of
Phitippino. The bufmefs now was to fee who could bear The Ph*u
I' amine longeft, the Befiegers or the Befieged, who were it'Mnmh
equally in want of Provilions. But the French had, be- -"*>'■
lules Scarcity, a very great difadvantagc, as the Pla-juc
made terrible ravage among them, and continually dimi-
nifhed their number. At length, Andrea Doria havil
agreed with the Emperor, recalled his Nephew Philippine
with his eight Gallies. Shortly after, the Venetian Gallies
being obliged to go upon the Coaft of Calabria to pro\ ide
themfelves with Biskcts, the Befieged took that opportu-
nity to convey into the City abundance of Provifions,
whilft Lautrec remained in a very bad condition, without
Victuals or Money, and with an Army gricvoufly afflicted
with the Plague. Moft of his general Officers were dead, Liufr«'«
or fick, and to compleat the misfortune, he was himfelf Daub.
feized with the Peftilence, which carried him oft the 1 tth C"''" 2 " 1 -
of Augujt (S). The Marquifs of Saluzzo, who took up- The Siege
on him the Command of the ruined Army, refolving at '•"/"* ""• l
laft to raife the Siege, with great difficulty retired to A- £c2, J>
verj'a, where he Wai immediately befieged, and in few
days, forced to capitulate, furrendering himfelf with all
the principal Officers of his Army, into the hands of the
Imperialifts. Thus, the fine Army Lautrec had led before
Naples, was entirely difperfed. Moreover, France had Doiurcjicro
lately loft Genoa, taken by Andrea Doria, in the Em- G ™ oi '"
peror's name, alter which, purfuant to his agreement with Hift."^*
that Monarch, he reftored his Country to Liberty, and Gen
eftabliftied a Government which ftill fubfifts to this day.
Thus the affairs of Italy, which in the beginning 01 the
year had fo promifing an afpedt for Francis, were fo en-
tirely altered, that he had fcarce any thing left in that

The knowledge of what paffed in Italy this Campain, Cmtima-
will be of no little fervice to difcover the motives of the ""'" °f ,bl
Pope's Condud in the affair of the Divorce. Henry deem ^Z"'
ed the affair ended, when he heard the Pope had left it to
Cardinal Wolfty'i decifion. But when, after much diffi-
culty, he had obtained this Commiflion for the Cardinal,
with a Bull Decretal, declaring the Marriage void, and a
Difpenfation to marry again, he found however there was
yet nothing done. The Commiffion was dated from the The r^t't
Caftle of St. Angela, whilft the Pope was a prifoner, ^'"fi" '•
which rendered it entirely null, and confequently there "fang. '
was a neceffity of renewing it. The Decretal had no
Claufe to hinder the Pope from revoking it if he pleafed.
In fine, the Difpenfation was only conditional, in cafe the
King's Marriage with Catherine fhould be declared void.
Befides, there were certain reftriiftions inferted, leaving
the Pope at liberty to repeal it. For Inftance, he granted Herbert. *■"-
the Difpenfation, as far as might be without offending f r ' bc 1 ""
God. Notwithjlanding any prohibitions of the divine Law,
or other Confutations and Ordinances "whatever to the con-
trary, as far as the authority Apojlolical reached (9). Henry Henry fend:
was not a little concerned to fee that he could not ule "J*"" - *"■
thefe Bulls, without being liable to be molefted. Never- Bumcu
thelefs, in the belief, that all this was owing to Inadver-
tency, he ordered Sir Gregory Caffali his Amballador at
Rome, to demand Bulls lels Liable to difpute. Cajfali fpoke
of it frequently to the Pope, but could obtain no politive
anfwer. Only the Pope rinding himfelf preffed, told him p<y,', a j.
as a Secret, that he advifed the King to proceed, and get •«• '• '*«
his Marriage annulled, by virtue of the Commiffion given Jj'T
the Legate (10), but with as little noife as poffible, and Burnet."
marry the Woman defired. He grounded this advice up-
on its being much eafier to confirm a thing when done,
than to permit him to do it. He charged Cajfali how-

(1) As the Courier went through Bayor.ne, the Letter was opened, and cop'wO by the Governor of that place, who {hewed it to Clarenuux. Hall.

fol- I ;■;• Herbert p. 90.

(aj At Hampton Court. Ibid.

(3) feiruary 1 3. l'.j!!. fol, I 7 1.

(+J All Jultices ot the Peaie and other honefr Perfonages. Ibid.

(5! Hall lays, that alter the conclufiun of his Speech, fume of the hearers knocked one another on the Elbow, and faid foftly he lieth ; others
faid that evil Will never laid well j others faid, that the French Crowns made him ipeak evil of the Emperor ; but they that knew all faid, it was a
flume to lie in luch an Audience. The common Penile were very lorry that a War mould happen with the Emperor, becaul'e out of his Dominions
they had lately been fupplied with Corn, when it was fo dear in England that it was fold for twenty fix Shillings and Eigtu-pcnse a (Quarter. Uali.
ioi. 106, 17a.

[6, Elpecially in ,Si,ff,/k. Halt. fol. 173.

(?) On May it), halt. f.il. 174.

(8) Ot the Plague died alio Sir Robert Jtrmngbam Gentleman of the Bed-chamber both to King Henry and Francit, who had the Command of two

hur.dtcd Horle in ihe Atmy, paid by our King- John Careiv his Lieutenant had his Company, but he died of the fame Diieal'e. Herb. p. 9S A.

the 1-l.gue rapid in Italy, 10 u.d the Swe-ting-Sickncf- all this Summer in Enrland, whereof died Sir Franai Pemtz. , Sir William Cempttn, and Wil-
liam Care™ Efql Hell, fol. 176. '

(9) Lord H.rbert g ves iijt this Bull as Authentick, but as very Probable. Raf:n.

(10) Ut ftatim commitut Ciufim, aliam uxorem ducat, litem Ic-tutur, mitutur pro legato, £S7, Burrv'i Ccl/.a, T, I. p. 26.




\ 7 ol. I.

152*. ever, not to let the King know, this Suggeftion came
from him. Henry looked upon this advice as a Snare
laid for him by the Pope. He confidered, it was not
poffible to have fuch a Caufe tried without noife, fince it
was neceffary the Queen fhould be heard, otherwife the
Sentence would be evidently void. In the next place,
had he done what he was advifed to, he would have been
entirely at the Pope's Mercy, who, according to the opi-
nion of the Canonifts, might have relufed to confirm the
Legate's Sentence, as well as the confequent Marriage.
So, the affair being taken into confideration, it was
thought more proper to apply direttly to the Pope for
Gardiner new Balls. Purfuant to this refolution, the King fent (1)
and Fox Stephen Gardiner, Cardinal fPblfey's Secretary, and Ed-
f nl '° a Rov f ward Fax (2), to manage the affair. Their Inftructions

u ball en the \ 1 ' c „ .„.

B„ii. were to demand for the Cardinal a new Commiiiion, ap-

h- pointing him Judge of the Caufe, with Powers to null
Herbert'" tne King's Marriage, if he thought proper, and yet to de-
Burnet.' clare Ins Daughter legitimate; to prefs the Pope to give
Strype. him a promife under his hand, not to revoke the Le-
gate's Commiffion ; to demand a Bull Decretal to null
the King's Marriage, and a Difpenfation to efpoufe ano-
ther Wife without any reftriction. In fhort, the Envoys
had orders to acquaint the Pope, that the Divorce was
not advifed by the Cardinal, and to difplay the extraor-
dinary Merit of the Lady the King intended to efpoufe.
This was Ann Bullen, as may eafily be gueffed, fince the
King no longer concealed his love for her. It was very
proper to tell the Pope, that the Cardinal was not Au-
thor of the Counfel which had induced the King to fue
Vol.I-p.52. f° r a Divorce, fince he was required for Judge. And yet
c oiieft. ^ the Letters he fent by Gardiner and Fox, and which are
p. 23, ISt. m t[]e Hirtory of the Reformation, clearly fhow he was
infinitely defirous the tiling mould fucceed. Finally, it
appears that the King was ftill willing to have fome con-
defcenfion for the Queen and the Emperor her Nephew,
fince he required that the Legate fhould have Powers to
declare Mary legitimate. Perhaps too this was an effect of
the love he had for her.
•Tit Pope's When Gardiner and Fox came to Orvieto (3), Lautrec
artful ma- was marching to Naples. But his progrefs was yet fo in-
Hecberb' confiderable, that it was difficult to judge of the Succcfs
Cuicciard. of his undertaking, efpecially as the Imperialifts were now
departed from Rome in order to oppofe his paffage. Nay,
it was likely, there would be a Battle, and as the Event
was doubtful, the Pope took care not to incur the Em-
peror's refentment, in cafe his Arms were victorious. So,
to gain time, he fent the King a Letter in Cypher, as it
he meant to acquaint him with a Secret, and yet it was not
poffible to difcover his Intention. This Letter not being
very welcome, the Envoys had orders to infill: upon their
Ha Utenfi demands. But, at that time the face of affairs was fome-
andProjtas. thing changed. Lautrec had now made Conquefts in the
Kingdom of Naples, and the Prince of Orange, unable to
flop his march, was retired to the Metropolis, which pro-
bably, was going to be invefted. It would therefore have
been very imprudent to difoblige Henry, when the King
of France his Ally was upon the point of becoming very
powerful in Italy. So, Clement being greatly embaraffed
in fo nice a juncture, had recourfe to his ufual artifices, to
try to gain time. He feigned to defirc nothing fo ardent-
ly as to fatisfy Henry, though he was refolved in his own
mind to do nothing effectual in his favour. His aim was
to become matter of the affair of the Divorce, and pro-
long it till the events of the War mould determine him
to content either the Emperor or the King. The Inte-
reft of his Houfe required that he fhculd manage the Em-
peror, becaufe it was by his means that he hoped to re-
ftore the Medici's, to Florence. That of his See was no
lefs important. Henry demanded that he fhould revoke a
Difpenfation granted by a Pope his Predeceffor, upon the
fuppofituon that this Pope had not power to grant it, that
, , pn perly fpeaking, that he mould declare the Roman
Pontiff rto alftimed u Prerogative which belong-

ed not to them. This was a very difficult itep to be taken,
at a tunc when great part of Germany had thrown off the
Pope's Dominion, and nothing was every where heard but
complaints and murmurs againft the exorbitant Power
thev had ufurped. So, Clement's real defign was to a-
mufe the King with hopes he would confent to his Di-
vorce, till it was in his power to oppofe it with fafety.
There is no occaiion to look for other myfteries in the
Pope's Conduct, 'as will more plainly appear in the Sequel.
As for the Arguments and Authorities alledsred on both

fides, with refpe£t to the main point in queltion, from the 157.8.
Holy Scriptures, the Fathers, and the Canoiio, they were
only fo many amufements which were extremely fubfer-
vient to the Pope's dehgns, but made little or no Impref-
lion upon him.

Clement VII, being in this dilpofition, fcrupled not 7* f Pop:

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