M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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thoufand Pounds for a pardon. Purfuant to this refolu- ^°'^' IS
tion, fome of their Members were ordered to draw an ActJiaw* up,
for that purpofe. Probably, they who were charged with 5*'™'" r f'
this Cominiliion were friends of the Court, and had a- b implead' of
mind to take this opportunity to give the King a Preroga- the ctureb

of England.

(1) In cne of which, upon the Proteftants affirming theirs was the ancient Religion, the Emperor wculd needs dil'pute himfelf, which the Spanijh
Writers lay he did with that Eagernefs that he drew his Dagger. Herbert, p. 150.

(2) The K.ing flrlr. brought in the Bocks and Determinations ct the Univerfities to the Houfe of Lords, and after they were reed and confidered there, the
Chancellor did on the 20th of Mareb, (or, according to Lord Herbert on the 31ft) with twelve Lords Spiritual and Temporal, go d^wn to the Houfe
of Common*, and ihewed thtm the Eooks, and produced twelve original Papers, with the Seals of the Univerfities to them, which Sir Brian 'Tuke read
openly in the Houfe; when that was done, the Chancellor fpoke the Speech mentioned above. So that he did not open the Sclllcn cf Parliament with it,
3. Ketpin fays a few Lines above. See Burnet, Tom. I. p. 105. Herbert, p. 152. Hall, fol. 195,

(3) N.im~!y, the Statutes againft Provisions and Provifors. Burnet, Tom. I. p. T06.

d) On January 24. This Sum wr.s to be levied in live Years. Ryme', Tom. XIV. p. 414.

4 tive

had great Inclination to be reconciled with the Kings of
France and England, imagining he fhould be received
with open Arms. Indeed, Francis I had unwillingly a-
greed to the Treaty of Cambray, and folely becaufe there
was no other way to recover his Sons. But fince he had
received them, he had been thinking how to retrieve
what he had loft by that Treaty. To this end, he pri-
vately laboured to fow Jcaloulies among the Princes, by
making them apprehenlive of the Emperor's Ambition,
and promifing them affiftance. As foon as he was in-
formed of the Pope's difcontent, he thought, nothing
fhould be neglected to gain him to his Intereft at fo favo-
rable a Juncture. Wherefore he propofed a Marriage
between Catherine de Medici Daughter of the late Duke
Lorenzo, and the Duke of Orleans his fecond Son ; an
Honour to which the Family of the Medici durft never
afpire, if the King had not offered it himfelf. On the
other hand, Henry knowing the Union between the Pope
and the Emperor was the fole caufe of the obffacles in the
affair of the Divorce, did not queftion, he fhould eaiily
effect his defigns, if he could fet them at variance. But
two things hindered him from applying himfelf to that
means. The firft was, he could not truft the Pope. The
fecond, that he began to find his Subjects much more in-
clined to {hake off the Papal Yoke, than lie had imagined,
and therefore did not think himfelf under a neceffity to
depend upon the Pope. If he had at firft humbly ad-
drelfed to th? 1'ope, it was partly becaufe he feared the
People's prejudice in favour of Chrift's Vicar. But when
he found this prejudice was not fo ftrong as he had be-
lieved, he never troubled himfelf about the Pope's oppo-
fition. His Kingdom being fafe from Invafions by Land,
he had nothing to fear from any Prince in Europe, pro-
vided his Subjects were not terrified with the thunders of
the Vatican. But the Englijly were not in this refpect
the fame as formerly. Wickllff had begun to enlighten
them ; the Conduct of the late Popes had increaftd their



Vol. I.


Aa. Pub.

XIV. p.41
March zz.

that Tlt/l.

The King

extorts the





Tl.-c CUrzy
York Pro-
vince are
forced to fil
lo<w the Ex-
ample of
tljofe if Can

tive which none of his PredeccfTors had ever enjoyed.
Lord Herbert and Doctor Burnet fay, the Convocation
refolved to prefent a Petition to the King, to pray him
to accept of a hundred thoufand Pounds. But as this
Inftrument is extant in the Collection of the Publick JJls,

3 " it may now be fpoken of with greater exa&nefs. It was
not a Petition, but a publick A£t of the Clergy, in form
of Letters Patents, whereby they gave that Sum to the
King. It was faid in the Inftrument, that it was, Firft,
in confideration of his great Merit. Secondly, in tefti-
mony of the Clergv's Gratitude for the great benefits he
had procured the Catholick Church, as well by his Pen as
his Sword. Thirdly, for his Zeal againft the Lutherans,
■who were labouring to deftroy the Church of England., of
which the Clergy acknowledged the King fole Protcclor, and
fupreme Head ( 1 ). Laftly, in hopes he would be pleafed
to grant the Clergy and all their Members, a pardon of
all the offences committed againft the Statutes of Provifors
and Pramunirc.

to When this Inftrument was read in the Convocation,
many difliked that the Clergy fhould be made to fay,
that they acknowledged the King for Proteclor and fu-
preme Head of the Church of England. Some imagined,
it was inferted through inadvertency and exceftive flattery,
whereof the Penners of the Inftrument had not confidered
the confequence. Others faid, it was intended to fur-
prize the Convocation, by inferting thefe words in the
body of an Inftrument, which was only to grant a fum
to the King. They added, thefe fame words, which
feemed to be put in by accident, and without defign, were
however of very great confequence, and as the Convoca-
tion had not taken any refolution upon that point, they
■were for razing them out. But on the other hand, thofe
who were in the Secret, pretended the words could not
be put out by a formal refolve, without difpleafing the
King, and giving him occafion to refufe the offered
compenfation. This caufed fuch debates, that they were
forced to put off the decifion of the affair to the next
day. It was not without reafon that feveral dreaded the
confequence which might very naturally be drawn from
thefe words, fince it was evident, the Clergy was thereby
engaged to acknowledge the Pope no longer head of the
Church of England, which could not have two fupreme
Heads at once. This was in effect the King's Intention,
as well as their's who had penned or drawn the Inftru-
ment, as plainly appeared the next day. Thomas Crom-
well, with others of the King's Council, going to the
Convocation, very clearly hinted, that the Point in de-
bate yefterday was very agreeable to the King, and he
couid not but confider the Oppofers as very difaffefted
Perfons. After fuch a declaration, there was not one that
durft directly oppofe it, efpecially as the Archbifhop and
feveral other Prelates openly maintained, that the King

■ was truly the fupreme Head of the Church of England.
So the Act pafted as it was drawn. Only fome moved
to add this reftricHon, as far as is confjlent with the
Law of Cbri/t. But it was not the King's Intention to
leave a door for thofe to efcape, who fhould hereafter dif-
pute his Supremacy (2). The Inftrument being fealed the
2zd of March, was prefented to the King, who very
gracioufly accepted both the Clergy's prefent, and his new
Title, of which he afterwards made great ufe. The Con-
vocation of the Province of York refolved likewife to give
the King eighteen thoufand eight hundred and forty Pounds.
But as they omitted in the Grant to acknowledge the
King fupreme Head of the Church of England, they were
told, that their Prefent would not be accepted, if they

f fpoke not like the Convocation of Canterbury, So the
Clergy of York Province were forced to infert the fame
acknowledgment in their Inftrument. In this manner the
King procured, or rather extorted from the Clergy, the
Title of fupreme Head of the Church of England. It is

certain, that though fome freely gave it him, yet the ijji.
major part were not of that opinion (3). This is evident
from the methods ufed to obtain it. This acknowledg-
ment was procured in the manner we have feen, by I Far-
ham Archbifhop of Canterbury, Thomas Cromwell, and
fome others, who verily believed there was no occafion
for the Pope. Thofe who flattered themfelves at firft,
that the words were inferted without delign in the Inftru-
ment brought into the Convocation of Canterbury, might
have feen their error, if they had attended to another
Article in the fame Inftrument, and which was alfo in-
ferted in that of the Province of York, namely, that the
Clergy did promife for the future neither to make nor ex-
ecute any Conftitution without the King's Licence. This
was, in other words, acknowledging the King for fupreme
Head of the Church of England. We fhall fee hereafter
what ufe Henty made of this new Title.

The King being fatisfied with the Clergy, granted them Pardon
a Pardon in ample form. But when the Pardon was^^ m
brought into the Houfe of Commons, they refufed to pafs The Commons
it, unlefs the Laity, who might have been guilty of the ""■•<">' '*«
fame offences, were alfo included (4). Henry offended at ■ ',%*?•■.
their oppofition, fent them word, he would be matter of
his own favours, and not fufter them to be forced from
him. The King's refolution terrified the Commons, who tbt King of.
to avoid his Indignation, paffed the Pardon as it was, -^"/"L"' ."'
throwing themfelves upon his Mercy as to what concerned taffs.
the Laity. Then the King, fatisfied with their Submif- Tic Laity
fion, granted to his Temporal Subjects a Pardon like that P''*™" 1 -
to his Spiritual. It feems however, that the Culleges and Herbert.
Monafteries were excepted, who not being included in the Burnet.
Pardons, were forced to compound with the King, as we s , l ? w "„ .

_ , . ' _ „ 1 . - , — r ,,. , . O' Monafteries

find in the Lollcflion of the Fublick Acts. compound

So far were the people from rifing, (as they would «"/* ' b '
doubtlefs have done, had they been under the fame preju- 7 y'/ ? \> ^
dice with their Anceftors in the Reigns of Henry II, and rejoice at the
King John ;) that on the contrary, Joy was vifibly paint- *?»•/•
ed on their Faces, being highly delighted to fee the Clergy '* , " a
humbled. Thus that Body, to furmidible heretofore, in-
ftead of daring to relift the King, were conftrained to fly
to his Protection, becaufe they faw plainly, the people
(hewed no concern at their difgrace, and they had no re-
medy elfewhere(ij).

When the Pope heard what had paffed in England, he The p*pe
was terribly embarraffed. He faw Henry purfuing fuch i W a ^> la h "
meafures as would probably be attended with ill Confe- Herbert,
quences. However, he durft not venture to proceed haugh- Burnet,
tily, for fear of ingaging in a quarrel, which he forefaw
would not be to his advantage. Befides his not being
pleafed with the Emperor, he law him upon the point of
being fully employed by the Turks, and the Gentian Pro-
teftants, at a time when France and England were in
ftridf. Union. So, perceiving no afliftance fpeedy enough,
in cafe he fhould attempt to exert his Authority, he chofe
to be filent, in expectation of a proper Seafon to act, or
at leaft to be reconciled to the King.

This Affair being ended, Henry prorogued the Parlia- Henry trie*
ment (6). Then, he ordered the determinations of the '««"'» —
Univerfities to be printed, with the opinions of the Learn- J,'"f e „' t '
ed concerning his Marriage, that againft the next Seffion aafat to
every one might be informed of the ftate of the cafe and of ,bl D'-vone.
his motives to profecute the Divorce. Mean while, as in Bumet"'
putting away the Queen, his Intent was to marry Ann Bui- Strype's
len, he paflionately wifhed, the Queen would be perfuaded Mem -
to confent to the Divorce, in order to avoid the incon- Hailing*,
veniencies which might arife from herobftinacy. To that
purpofe, he fent fome Bifliops and Lay-Lords (7), ear-
neftly to prefs her, either to confent to the Divorce, or
refer the decifion of the affair to four Prelates and four
Seculars. But as fhe could not be prevailed with to defift Hall,
from her Appeal to the Pope (8), he fent her word to Hollngtl.
chufe where fhe wou'd refide in any of his Manors, and,



-Cujus fingularcm ProtefWem, Unicom & fuprcmum Dominum, & quantum per Chrifti Le^em licet, ctiam fupremura Caput ipfius Majeftatem


i Fxd. Tom. XIV.

F- 4 J 4*

(2) Though Auhbifhop Parker and our Author fay, the Act paired without the Reftriction, yet it appears by feveral PafTages in Hairy** Letter to
Bilh ip Tunjlat, who in the Convocation at Tork had protefted againft it j that the Words quantum per Chrifti Ugcm licet were inferted, and the Act fo
pafled, by nine Eiflicps, (the Biihop of Ruhejler being one) and fifty two Abbots and Priors, and the major Part of the lower-Houfe of Ccnvocation, and
particularly Stephen Gardiner. Burnet, Vol. I. p. 112. Herbert, p. 1 51.

(3) When Archbifhop Warham, upon fome not fpeaking for or againft it, faid, That Silence mat to be taken for Confent, they cried out, We are all filtnt
then. Herbert, p. 851.

(4) They apprehended, that, either they might be brought into trouble, or at leaft their having tranfgrcfTed the Statutes, might be made ufe of to draw
a Subfidy from them. Burntt, Tom. 1. p. 113.

(5) During this Seffion of Parliament one Richard Roufe a Cook, on the 16th of February, poifoned fome Soap in the Bifliop of R9cbefter\ Kitchen,
with which (eventeen Perluns were mortally infected j one of the Gentlemen died of it, and fome poor People that were charitably ltd with the remainder,
were alio infected, one Woman dying. The Perfon was apprehended, and by Act of Parliament (22 Hn. VIII.) poifoning w\s declared Treaf m, and
Roufe was attainted and fentenced to be boiled to death, which was to be the puniihment of poifoning for all times to come j (but was repealed I Ed. VI.
and 1 Marias I.) The Sentence was executed in Smithfield foon after. Burner. Stvw, p. 560. Hall, fol. 199.

(6) It was prorogued, on March 31, to the 13th of OSober. The moft remarkable Statutes enacted during this Seflion, were ; I. That no Mafter,
Wardens, or Fellowship of Crafts, and Trades, nor any Rulers of Fraternities, take from henceforth of any Apprentice, or any other Perfon, for the entry
of any Apprentice into th^ir faid Fellowship, above two Shillings and Sbcpence; nor for his entry, when his Years and Term is expired, above three
Shillings and Four-pence, upon pain of forfeiting forty Pounds. 2. That four Justices of the Peace in every Shire, whereof one to be of the Shtorum,
ftiall have pswer and authority to enquire, hear, and determine, in the general Sefliom of the Pence, all Matters relating to Bridges and Highways. This
Act alfo explains by whom Bridges and Highways are to be repaired. See Statute 21. Hen. VIII.

(7) Of his Councrf, the laft day of May, to Grttmohh. Herbert, p. ^53. Hall, fol. 199.

(S) Her Anfwer to the Lords was, " That fhe prayed God to fend the King a quiet Cmfcienc-, but that fhe was his lawful Wife, and would abide
" by it, till the Court of Rem declared the contrary." Burnet, Tom. I- p. 114. Hall, fol. 200.


Book XV.



1531. t'ne « 4th of July 1 J 3 1 , took his leave of her [at Windfor\
intending never to fee her more(i).
TkrtePerfcm What had lately parted in the Parliament and Convo-
: , '■' ■' ' cation, encouraged the Well-wifhers to a Reformation in
Herbert. tnc Church, to which they already faw fome preparatives.
Iix. Vcr this realon, religious Difputes became more frequent

and publick than formerly. But the King perceiving what
inferences would be drawn from his firft proceedings, was
pltafed to fhew, that in throwing off the Papal yoke, he
defigned not to ftrike at the fundamental Truths of Reli-
gion. So, to fruftrate thofe who had any fuch thought,
he commanded the Laws againft Hereticks to be rigoroufly
executed. This occafioned the death of three Proteftants,
namely, Bihtey, Bayfield, and I'.aynam, of whom the two
firft were burnt this year, and the other in the following
jlffairt 'i Whilft thefe things wcie tranfiuSting in England, the
Germany, affairs of Germany were more embroiled. In the begin-
BVibert. n ' n g °f the year, Ferdinand of Aujlria King of Bohemia
and Hungary, was elected King of the Romans, notwith-
ftanding the Proteftation of the Confederates of Smalcald,
and crowned a few days after at Aix la Chapelle. This
was in confequence of a League concluded between the
Catholick Princes of Germany in the foregoing November.
But this League was offenfivc, whereas that of Smaleald
was only defenfive. Never had the Proteftants any defign
to force the Conferences of fuch as differed from them in
opinion. But the intent of the Catholick League, was to
compel the Proteftants to return to the Church, they had
forfaken. Thefe laft protefted againft Ferdinand's electi-
on as unneceflary, and contrary to the ufual Forms. But
their Proteftation had no cffeift.

The reft of the year was (pent in fundry Negotiations,
■wherein the Emperor feemed to have no other aim than
to adjuft the religious Differences, though in effect his de-
fign was only to amufe the Proteftants, and hinder them
from taking meafures for their defence, when they fhould
be attacked. As they were not ignorant of his artifices,
they writ on that fubje£t to the Kings of France and Eng-
land, who returned them favorable Anfwers, with a pro-
mife of afTiftance in cafe it was attempted to opprefs them.
Not that thefe two Monarchs defiled to countenance the
Reformation, but it was their Intereft to proteft the Ger-
man Proteftants, becaufe their deftrutftion could not but
exceedingly increafe the Emperor's Power. Indeed, this
was one of the chief means whereby that Prince intended
to execute his vaft defigns.
1532. Whilft the Emperor was forming Projects to become

Frjnas ints mafter of Germany, under colour of fupporting the Inte-
Emtel'J '"' re ^ s °f Religion and the Empire, Francis I turned to all
Trcublu. fides to try to create him troubles capable of producing
Guiccia.'J. fome change which he might improve. His vexation to
have been forced to fign the Treaty of Cambray, threw
him upon earneftly feeking means to repair his loffes, and
efpecially to recover Genoa and Milan. To this end, he
careifed or threatned the Pope, according as he faw it
proper to life one or other of thefe means, and put the Pro-
teftants of Germany in hopes of a powerful alliftance, in
cafe thoy were attack'd by the Emperor ( 3 ). But chiefly
he laboured to fecure the King of England, becaufe he
Hcibcit. could be moft ferviceable to him. He confirmed him, as
much as poflible, in his refolution to pufh the affair of the
divorce, in order to keep him always at variance with the
Emperor and the Pope. Sometimes he intimated to him,
that if the Juftice due to him was obftinately refufed, he
would join in a League with him, to withdraw their Do-
minions from the tyrannical power of the Court of Rome.
Then, fearing he would agree with the Emperor, he ad-
vifed him fpeedily to marry Ann Bullen, well knowing it
would be a certain means to widen their Breach. Nay
he fent a Letter to the Pope, wherein he appeared no left
concerned than Henry himfeli in the affair of the divorce.
Among other things he told him, that if out of Complai-
fance or Fear he continued to be governed by the Empe-
ror, he muft not think it ftrange, that the King of Eng-
land fhould endeavour to procure by extraordinary means
the juft fatisfacf ion he had fo long expecled in vain ; add-
ing, that his interefts were fo ftndtly united with Henry's,
that he was indifpenfibly obliged to alTift to the utmoii of
his power, a Prince of whom he gloried to be the perpe-
tual Ally. In fhort, he prayed him to confider, whe-
ther it was prudent to give thofe who could not be com-
pelled to obey, the opportunity aid will to withdraw their

obedience. Sat Clement feeing only the Emperor's For- 1532.

ces in Italy, took care not to follow fiich dai, lerous coun-

The two Kings finding at length it was impofTib!<: tot'. ■„•. „ r j
gain the Pope, refohed upon an Interview, to contrive "
means to break the Emperor's meafures. But they thought
proper firft to fpread a report, they were going to make
a new League, in order to frighten the Pope, and hinder Burntt "
him from doling again with the Emperor, from whom
he was fomething alienated by the bufincfs of Fcrrara.
Accordingly, they concluded a League at London, figned
the 2jd of June. But it is manifeft this Treaty .. , . „ a e r
made only with the fore-mentioned view, fince it contain ' ■-'■ •

ed but two Articles that could have reafonabty alarmed" '""' " J -
the Pope or the Emperor, had they been known to them.
The firft was, That in cafe the Emperoi feked the Aft. Pub.
Englijh Merchants effefls in the Low-Countries, the King * lv
of France would do the fame with refpeel to the Enipe- i-t,b«u
ror's Subjects, the Germans excepted : Nay, this Article
was guarded by fo many reftrictions on the part of the
French King, that it plainly appeared to be only a mere
pretence to make a Treaty. By the fecond, if the King
of England was attacked by the Emperor, Franch w. 1 1
fend him an aid of five hundred Lances, and if the King
of France was invaded, Henry was to aflift him with a
body of Foot, not exceeding five thoul'and Men (4). As Divert Re-
the Publick was not acquainted with the particulars of the TV*"

*T" r 1 /• j n r • • 1 '" Treaty.

I reaty, icveral reports were fpread. Some faid, the two
Kings had agreed to join in the League of Smal I,
or at leaft, to fend a powerful aid to the German Pro-
tefiants. Others fancied, that as the Turks threatned
Aujlria, and the Emperor would be unavoidably obliged
to lead his forces into that Country, Francis would in-
vade at the fame time the Duchy of Milan, and Henry
carry War into the Low-Countries. All thefe report;,
though uncertain, made the Emperor very uncafy, be-
caufe they were grounded upon very probable conjec-

The Interview of the two Kings, between Calais and Franc!; and
Boulogne, was not till 0/7<?^r f;). They had principally " c "')'''

i- - ._,, X J -, ,< r . . ' ' Interview.

two things in view. 7 lie firft, to divert the blame Hall.
thrown on them by the Emperor, in fpreading over all Stow.
Europe, that whilft Chri/lendom was goirva; to be invaded ']] j!'^" 1 "
by the Infidels, they remained idle Spectators of the dan-
ger, without offering the leaft affifrance to thofe who were
preparing to defend Her. Their other view was, to keep
the Italians and Germans in the expectation of a frefh
War, for fear they fhould become too compliant to the
Emperor's will. To effect their defign, they gave one
another Letters-Patents, whereby they engaged jointly to
raife an Army of eighty thoufand Men, to flop the pro-
grefs of the Turks, and to lead the fame either into Ger-
many or Italy, as there fhould be otcafion. But this pre-
tended agreement was never put into the form of a Treaty.
Du Tillet fpeaks of it in his Inventory of the Treaties
between France and England, by the name of Letters of
agreement : But there are no figns of it in the Colleclim
of the Publick AcJs s/" England. Wherefore it is not pro-
bable, thefe two Monarchs defired to execute this pretend-
ed Project, the fole aim whereof was to juftify them to
the World, and infpire the Emperor and Pope with terror.
Doubtlefs that was the reafon ot their affecting to publrfh

During the Interview, Henry complained much of the France - .-
Pope, and Francis even improved upon him, in a long D (n* u
enumeration of the complaints he had received from the
Galilean Church, on account of the Court of Rome's
exactions. But this was only to amufe Henry, fince he
was at that very time in fecret Negotiation with the
Pope, concerning the Duke of Orleans his fecond Son's
Marriage with Catherine de Medici. It mamfeftlv ap-
pears by that Prince's whole conduct, that his fole aim
was to make the King of England's Friendship fubfervient
to gain the Pope, in order to recover Genoa and Milan,
which he had always in view. Wherefore he outwardly
expreffed a ftrong attachment to Henry's Intereft. He
even preffed him not to ftay for the Pope's difpenfation ir - "MJa
to marry his Miftrefs, who was prefent at the Inter- r ,
view, having lately been made Marchionefs ot Pern- Bullen.
broke (6). Whilft the two Kings were together, they
feafted one another feveral times, a particular account
whereof is needlefs in this place. Henry came to fee Ti' *"••"•

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