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Francis at Boulogne, and Francis returned his vifit at "j



(1) She removed firft to Mecr, then to F -' j-\' .,/. and at l.ift to Amptbill, where (lie ftayed Irnger. Burnt, Tom. I. p. IT4.

(2) Thomas Bilney Batchelor .it buth Laws, was burnt Augujl 19. Bjjjit.'J a Monlc of Bury, November 27. 1531, and Baynbam a Gentleman and Law-
yer, Afrit 30, 1^32. See Fox.

(3) And alio fbrred tip the Turks to invade the German IT minions, Herbert, p. 154.

(4) When the French Ambaffador in England returned into- France, King Hairy lent by him fifty thoufand Crown-, to b' employed in the defence of
the Riahts an.^ Privileges of the Empire. Herbert, p. 154.

(;) King Henry landed at Cataii, OBobet 11. and the Interview was on the loth. See an account of the Nobility, and othel iblc Perfons that at-

tended him, m Hail fol. 200, &c. St.^r, ].. , 1

(6j September 1. with a Penli n ol IP ion I a v ^at- Hal', fol. 206,



No. 40. Vol .',



5?



Calais.



794

Ti.,iry ms'-

riti Ann

Bullen.

Burnet,

T. Hl.p.70.

HaH.

The Turks

threaten

Hungary.

The Emperor
is at a loft.
Sleidan. '



The Diet of
RatilBon
grant fcme-
tbhig in fa-
vour cf the
Proteftants.



Charles ob-
tains an Aid.



He fufpeBs
the King of
France.
P. Daniel.



fji$ Canipain
againft the
Turks.
Guicciard.
Herbert.



He fafet
into Italy.



tie ccnferi
•with the
Pope at
Bologna,
tiuicciaid.



Ut demands
a Council*
P. Daniel



The HISTORY

Calais (1). They parted the 30th of Oclober to return,
the one to Paris, the other to London. But by reafon
of the bad weather, Henry ftaid fome days at Calais (z),
where it is faid he privately married Ann Bullen (3). It is
more probable however, as fome affirm, that it was not
till the January following (+).

During this whole year, the Emperor was greatly em-
barrafled. Soliman Emperor of the Turks threatned to in-
vade Hungary with a powerful Army, which he accord-
ingly did. Germany was in trouble, becaufe the Protef-
tants who had now been menaced, were taking effectual
meafures for their defence, and refufed to acknowledge
Ferdinand of Aujlria for King of the Romans. On the
other hand, the Emperor was not ignorant of the Pope's
difcontent on account of the Duke of Ferrara's affair,
and that the Kings of France and England were ufing
their utmoft endeavours to draw him off" from his Party,
in order to difturb Italy. Moreover, the Italians were
quiet, only becaufe there was ftill an Imperial Army in Ita-
ly, and no preparation in France to fupport them, in cafe
they attempted to hold up their head. 'Mean while, in the
midft of this feeming tranquillity, they eagerly wifhed to
fee fome revolution to free them from their apprehenfions
of the Emperor's over-grown Power. In fine, the Inter-
view of Francis and Henry extremely troubled the Em-
peror, apprehenfive as he was, that if Soliman profpered
in Hungary, they would embrace that opportunity to in-
vade the Duchy ox" Milan and the Loiu-Countries. It was
necefTary therefore to think, without lofs of time, of pre-
venting the dangers which might proceed from all thefe
quarters, and to begin with the molt urgent affair, the fa-
tisfying of the Proteftants, in order to have their affift-
ance againft the Turks. To that purpofe, he came, the
beginning of the year, to the Diet of Ratisbon, where he
found means to negotiate with the Proteftants an agree-
ment, whereby no Perfon was to be difturbed on account
of Religion, till a Council was called. He intended not
punctually to perform this agreement, extorted from him
by neceffity. He received however this benefit by it,
That all the Princes and States of Germany, as well Pro-
teftant as Catholick, furnifhed him with a powerful aid,
which enabled him to aflemble an Army of eighty thou-
fand Foot, and thirty thoufand Horfe.

Whilft this Army was forming, the Emperor, willing
to found the King of France's Intentions, fent and defired
his affiltance againft the Turks ; but received an unfatif-
factory anfwer, which, added to the Interview of the
two Kings, confirmed his fufpicion that they were con-
triving fomething againft him. But Soliman haftening
his Campain in Hungary, hindered him from thinking
of means to prevent the mifchief he feared from the two
confederate Kings. Indeed, the Turks not only advanced
into Hungary, but even into Aujlria, with defign to give
him battle. But he wifely avoided it, fince in lofing it,
he would have been without refuge, and Aujlria, with part
of Germany, would inevitably have fallen under the Do-
minion of the Turks. Whereas by {landing, as he did,
upon the defenfive, with an Army of above a hundred
thoufand Men, he prevented them from making any con-
fiderable progrefs, and compelled them at length to return
into their own Country. As foon as he had certain ad-
vice that Soliman was upon his march to Conjlantinople,
he departed for Italy, from whence he defigned to return
into Spain.

About the middle of November he came to Bologna,
where the Pope waited to confer with him. As their
defigns were very oppofite, there was not that harmony
between them, as at their Interview in the year 1529.
The Emperor thought only of fecuring Italy, and pre-
venting the King of France's return. The Pope, on the
contrary, wifhed to keep him always uneafy on that ac-
count, as well to render himfelf necefTary, as to be freed
from a State of dependence. The Emperor required the
Pope to call a Council in Germany, otherwife he faw no
poffibility of finding a lawful pretence to ruin the Pro-
teftants. But after what had palled at Conjlance and
Bajil, the very name of a Council was become fo odious
to the Court of Rome, that Clement VII could not refolve
to call one. He knew what had befallen John XXII,
and Eugenius IV, and therefore had no mind to have his
Authority queftioned. The Emperor demanded moreo-



°J



EN G LAND.



Vol. I.



- t<>f*?°f



fGUM



ver the Pope's confent to a League, he intended to form 1532.
between all the States of Italy, to which each fhould '•''/•/.''' "

... V. . , r 1 cap ue /or

contribute in proportion to its rorces, in order to lecure ,
the Country from all Invafion. That is to fay, he would
have in Italy an Army maintained at the expence oi
others, and always ready to defend the Duchy of Milan, in
cafe the French King fhould think of invading it. The
Pope approved of this project, not in order to keep Italy in
its prefent fituation, fince it was very much to his pre-
judice, that the Emperor fhould remain fo powerful there,
but to have a pretence to be rid of the German and Spa-
nifl) Troops, who were a terror to the Italians. He fore-
faw that a League of fo many Parties, whole interefts were
different, would not long fubfift, and that after it was
broken, he fhould himfelf become more necefTary and con-
fiderable. He defired only that the Venetians fhould come
into the League, and bear their part of the charge. In
fhort, the Emperor farther demanded of the Pope, that
he fhould give his Niece Catherine de Medici to the
Duke of Milan ; his aim being to engage him, for his
Niece's fake, in the defence of the Milaneje, for fear in
the end the King of France fhould find a favorable op-
portunity to gain him to his intereft. But Clement alledg-
ed againft this Propofal, his engagement with the King of
France, who had done him the honour to demand Cathe-
rine for the Duke his fecond Son. He reprefented to the
Emperor, that he could not prefer the Duke of Milan to
the Duke of Orleans, without making the King of France
his irreconcileable enemy, who would never forgive fuch
an affront. So their whole Negotiation ended only in
the projected League, in which the Venetians refufed to
be included. They contented themfelves with promifing
the Emperor, they would punctually perform their en-
gagement with refpedt to the Duchy of Milan. In fine,
the Emperor having fent for AmbaiTadors from Milan, Fer-
rara, and Mantua, it was endeavoured for fome time to
fettle the terms of the League. But the difpute between
the Pope and the Duke of Ferrara very much retarded
the conclufion, becaufe the Duke would not come into the
League before he was fecure of peace at home. However,
after great pains, the Emperor prevailed with the Pope
to allow the Duke an eight months refpite. This affair
was the reafon the League could not be figned till February
next year.

Henry's proceedings againft the Clergy, and his difpo- Hc '\ '"
fition with regard to the Pope, greatly encouraged thofe J^^ J^,
who longed to fee a Reformation in the Church. To Rdigio*
conceive a right notion how the Englijh flood affected in
this refpedt, it is necefTary to know what the People's
Sentiments were concerning Religion. It may be undeni-
ably affirmed, that as to the Reformation of the Pope's
exorbitant Power, and the Clergy's Immunities, there
was fcarce an Englijliman, if you except all or molt of the
Ecclefiafticks, but what heartily wifhed it. It was now
three hundred years fince the Parliament firft began to en-
deavour it, but without a perfect fuccefs, becaufe it was
contrary to the intereft of the Kings. But as for a Re-
formation of Doctrine, the well-wifhers to it were very
far from being the majority. Thefe were not fufficiently
numerous to venture to propofe it openly, efpecially as
they were not countenanced by the King. But when the
Pope's exceffive authority, or the pride and riches of the
Clergy were exclaimed againft, they boldly joined with
the reft of the People, without fear of being difcovered,
becaufe that was the fentiment of all the People, or at
leaft of almoft all the Laity. But in expreffing their zeal
againft the Clergy, their aim was to promote the Refor-
mation of Doctrine, becaufe they knew the chief obftacle
would always proceed from the Governors of the Church.
Here therefore they believed they ought to begin, in or-
der to arrive at a thorough Reformation. So, among thofe
that wifhed to reduce within due bounds the Papal Power,
and the Clergy's Immunities, there were doirbtlefs many
who had no farther views, and imagined the Reformation
would end there. Others, on the contrary, hoped that
after taking this firft ftep, it would be impoffible to flop,
wherein they had for warrant what had happened in
Germany. But they took care not to undeceive the others,
for fear of cooling their zeal, by (hewing them too foon
the confequences of the firft ftep, in the bufinefs of the
Reformation.



(1) Francis went back fiom Boulogne with Henry, in this Order, that while Francis was on French Cround, he gave place, but when he came to the En-
glijh Pale, Henry give him the Precedence. Being now come near Calais, the Duke of Richmond, Henry's natural Son, a goodly young Gentleman, bravely
attended, met them. The Lodging which Francis was brought to, was mnil richly furniih.d with Cloth of Gold and Tiiiue, imbroidered in lbme places
with Pearls and ptnious Stones- There fcveral Services were brought in a hundred and leventy D.lhes, all of maffy Gold. The M.irchionel's of Pemhntt
made them a curious and rich Made, in which both Kings danced. The Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were made Knights of St. Michael, illimi lays, there
was no lefs than eight thoufand Perfons in Calais on this occafion. See Halt, fol. 207, ci\.

(2) He returned to England Ntyveinb. 14. Hall, fol. 309.

(3) Rcr.vland Lee, afterwards Bifllop of Lichfield and Coventry, celebrated the Marriage m the prcfence of Archbiihop Crammer, the Duke of Norfo.'i, her
Father, Mother and Brothers. Herbert, p. 161.

(4) January 25. Others lay it was November 14. Stovj, p. 562. Hall, fol. leg. Burner, T. I. p. 126. The news of this Marriage was foon car-
ried to R r ,me. The Pope publiihed, on November 15, a Briet againlt King Henry, in which he exhorted him, to bring back the Queen, and to put Anne
away, within a Month alter the teceipt of the Brief ; otheiwifc he excommunicated both him and Anne. B-.riei, T. 111. p. 17.



The



Book XV.



20. HENRY VIII.



795



1532.

The Ujtr.mwi
ill c inclir.edio
raiuct the
p wer of the
CUrgy.

Herbeit.

Hall.



AMrefi pre-
fented to the
King.
The King's
Aa\zver.
Hall.
Stow.
Herbert.
Holimgih.



Statutes

ayatnfl tbe
Clergy.

Ail concern-
ing AnnateSj
or Firjl-
Fruits.



EolJnefi of a

Commoner.

Herbert.

Hall.

Burnet.



The Parliament meeting the 15th of January 1532,
the Commons were almoft unanimoufly inclined to redrefs
the Grievances fo long complained of in vain, with re-
fpeft to the Papal power, and the Ecclefiaftical privileges.
There had never been fo favorable an opportunity. When
formerly the Parliaments were difpofed to make any at-
tempt of this nature, the Kings were unwilling to concur
with them, becaufe the ftate of their affairs permitted them
not to break entirely with Rome. But the affair of the
Divorce had put things upon another foot. The King
was diffatisfied with the Pope, and confidered the Clergy,
both Secular and Regular, as fecret enemies, by reafon of
their attachment to the Court of Rome. So, his intereft
required, that the Pope and Clergy fhould be humbled,
and divilion fown between them and the People, know-
ing that the former could hurt him only in proportion
to their credit with the latter. As for what Foreigners
might do, he thought himfelf in no danger, fo long as he
remained ftriftly united with France, and the more, as
the Emperor was then employed by his war with the
Turks, and the troubles of Germany.

All this being artfully infinuated to the Houfe of Com-
mons, they prefented an Addrefs to the King(i), pray-
ing him to confent to a Reformation of fundry Grie-
vances, occafioned by the Immunities of the Clergy (2).
The King anfwered, that before he gave his confent to
their requeft, which feemed to him of great moment, he
Wiflied to hear what the Clergy had to fay for themfelves.
But under this fhew of equity, his intent was to intimate
to the Clergy, how much they wanted his protection, fince
he could either promote or reftrain the proceedings of the
Commons as he pleafed. Some time after, the Parliament
palled certain Afts, which only glanced at fome of the
Clergy's Privileges, the People had moft reafon to com-
plain of (3). But for that time, the Reformation was car-
ried no farther. Nay, care was taken to make theEcde-
fiafticks amends, by paffing an Act to releafe them from
the payment of Annates (4), which was become a neavy
Burden. The Aft ran, that the Kingdom was daily
impoverifhed by the great Sums paid to the See of Rome,
for Firft-Fruits, for Palls, for Bulls, isfc. That fince
[the fecond Year of] the Reign of Henry VII, one hun-
dred and fixty thoufand Pounds had been paid to thofe
ufes, and that more was like to be fhortly exported, by
reafon many of the Bifhops were very aged : That be-
fides, the Annates were firft introduced only as a contri-
bution for the War againft the Infidels, to which how-
ever they were never applied. And therefore it was en-
acted, that all payments of Annates fhould ceafe for the
future: That as for the Bulls, there fhould only be paid
five Pounds in the hundred, according to the clear annual
value of the Bifhopricks. That if, on account of this re-
gulation, Bulls fhould be denied by the Pope, the Bifhop
elect fhould be prefented by the King to the Archbifhop
of the Province for his Confecration : That in cafe the
Archbifhop fhould refufe it on pretence of want of Palls,
Bulls, and the like, any two Bifhops appointed by the
King fhould perform the Office, and the Bifhop fo confe-
crated acknowledged for lawful. Neverthelefs the Parlia-
ment declared, it fhould be in the King's power to null
or confirm the Aft within fuch a time ; and if in this
Interval, he fhould make an amicable Compofition with
the Court of Rome, it mould have the force and authority
of a Law. But if, upon this Aft, the Pope fhould pre-
tend to vex the Realm by Excommunications or Interdicts,
fuch cenfures fhould neither be regarded nor publifhed, and,
all Interdicts notwithftanding, the Priefts might lawfully,
without any fcruples of Confidence, celebrate Divine Ser-
vice as before ( ; ).

Mean while, among the great number of Reprefenta-
tives in the Houfe of Commons, there were feveral who
were entirely againft a rupture with the Pope. They
perceived however, it would infallibly follow upon the



King's Divorce. Wherefore they ufed all po/fible endea- 1532.

vours to prevent it. One Temfe a Member of Parliament

was fo hardy as to move, that the Houfe fhould go in a

body and addrefs the King to take his Qiieen again. Henry Ti, Kin?

hearing of this, fent for [Thomas Audter] the Speaker, and T'r

in his Perfon feverely reprimanded the Commons, for '* "

(uttering a motion to be made concerning an Affair which

fell not under their Cognizance (6),

Some days after (7), the King fent again for the Speaker, »«»*
and told him, that having compared the Oath taken
by the Biftiops to the Pope, with that they took to the
King, it lecmed to him they were but 'half Subjects ; ''■ ''"»•
and therefore he defired the Commons to examine the HM '
matter, and take care of the intereft of the Crown. But
the Plague which raged then at London, and conflrained
the Parliament to break up prefently after (8), hindered
the Commons from debating upon this Affair at that
time (9).

The Power given the King' by the Parliament to T,
abohfh the Annates, ormakean amicable com' loiition with ' m r lm
the Pope, was a clear evidence that the Aft had been pro ■
cured by the Intrigues of the Court. The Pope was ex-
tremely offended at it. But when he complained to the *
King's Agents, he was told, he might have faved himl If
that vexation, and there was ftill a icmedy, fince the #»
King had power to repeal the Aft. This wa, an int na-
tion, that he might depend upon it, the King would be-
have according as he had reafon to be fatisfied with his
proceedings.

Thomas More, who was Lord Chancellor, and a Per- Thomas
fon of excellent Judgment, forefaw now, the King's pro- 'f'" "&"
ceedings would in the end produce a total rupture with*
Rome. He would have readily confen tea that fome ahufes Bu '™t-
fhould be reformed. But he found, as Matters were ma- H ?'. L . •
naged, the Re.ormation would go much farther than heltento'sir
delired. He put a great difference between withdrawing ' rh ">»•
entirely from the Pope's obedience, and retrenching fome '} ;dle !\
of his Ufurpations. So, being unwilling to be inftru- XlV. t \ 33 >
mental in the rupture, he refigned the Great-Seal on the +39-
16th of May. Some days after, the King made Sir
Thomas Audley, Lord Keeper of the Great-Seal, till the P- 44°".
26th of January 1533, when he was made Lord-Chan-
cellor.

Whift Henry ufed fundry means to fhew the Pope his ^*Bwtpenr
danger, in obftinately refilling what he required, the Em- ^" "" y
peror was no lefs ardently endeavouring to obtain a fen- \Vt!L ,u
tence in favor of Queen Catherine. The way thefe two p 'fi
Monarchs applied to the Pope was not by humble In- ^"J^ „
treaties, but by Menaces, which had the greater effect, g>7at'hf>.
as he was naturally timorous, and flow to refolve upon*
things that required a fpeedy refolution. By thefe two
oppofite demands he faw himfelf indeed between the
Hammer and Anvil, as he faid himfelf in the beginning
of the Affair. On the other hand, he found by Henry's
late proceedings, that England was going to be loft to him
and his Succeffors. This confideration was very capable
of putting him upon feeking expedients to content that
Monarch, without prejudice to the honor of the Holy See.
He would thereby have preferved a Kingdom which had
been ever devoted to the Popes, and from whence they
had drawn large Revenues. But on the other hand, the
Emperor had ftill an Army in Italy, and was able to
revenge his refufal. Clement of all things feared the lot's His nvi I -
of Florence, which the Emperor could take from him w-ith ""* t™~
more eafe than he had procured him the poUeffion. It is m " U '
no wonder therefore, if this fear, being the moft immi-
nent, prevailed. It would be a great millake to afcribe
to this Pope any motives of Juftice, Equity, Good, and
Benefit of the Church, or Religion. Thefe things for
fome time had ferved only for preambles to Bulls. His
own and his Family's intereft was the fole rule of his
conduft. So, finding himfelf extremely preffed by the
Emperor to pafs fentence upon Queen Catherine's appeal,



(1) Or rather a Lift of their Grievances comprized in a Book. It was prefented April 30. Herbert, p. 155. Halt, fol. 205.

(2) They complained of the Proceedings of the Spiritual Courts, and efpecially their calling Men before them, ex officio, and laying Articles to their charge
without any Accufer: and then admitting no Purgation, but cauling the Party accufed, either to abjure, or to be burnt. Bwnet, T. 1. p. no. BjnU,i

(3) By fome of thefe Statutes it was enacted, 1. That no Perfon in Holy Orders, convict of Petit-Treafon, wilful Murder, <¥c. ihafl be admitted to make
his Purgation before the Ordinary, and be let at Liberty J but fliall remain in Prifon, till he has given Sureties for his good Behaviour. 2. That Cicrks con-
vict, breaking the Prifons of their Ordinaries, lhall be adjudged Felons. There were alio other good Statutes made ; lor erecting Goals in feveral parts of the
Kingdom ; agjinft Perjury, and untrue Verdicts ; about the Commiflion of Sewers ; that no Perfon lhall be cited out of the Diocefc where he lives, except in
fome particular Cafes j as alfoagainlt making Feoffments of Eftates to Chauntries, Parlih-Churches, <ifc. See Statue. 23. Henry Vill.

(4) Or the Firft-Fruits of the B.fhupricks.

(0 This Bill began in the Houfe of Lords : from them it was fent to the Commons, and being agreed to by them, received the Royal Alfent, but had n -
the final Confirmation mentioned in the Act, before the 9th of July 1533, and then by Letters Patents, in which the Act is at leni-ih recited, it was con-
firmed. Par. Rolls. By tins Act was laid the Foundation of the Breach that afterwards followed with Rime. This Act: is not in Che Statute-Book. Bumet t
T. I. p. 117, IlS.

(6) He told the Speaker moreover, It touched his Soul ; He wilhed his Marriage were good, but the Learned had determined it to be null and deteftab!e,
and therefore he was obliged in Coniciencc to abftaill trom her, which he alTurtd him flowed from no Luff, or foohm Appetite. He was then forty one Yearr
old, and at that Age thofe Heats abate. But except in spam or Portugal, it had not been heard of, that a Man married twuSilters ', and hj never heard that
any Chnlfian bef re himfelf, had manied has Brother's Wife. Therefore he allured him his Confcicnce was troubled, which he delired hirta to report to the
Houle. Ibid. p. 122. Hall, fol. 20 j.

(7) May II. Hall, fol. 205.

(8) It was adjourned on May 14, to February the 3d 1533. Hall, fol. 206.

(<ar) Hall, Burnet, and Lord Herbert, place Un"fs In'tavicw with Francis, alter this SeiSon of Parliamenti



m



79 6



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



1 5 " 2 - lie could no longer be excufed from giving him fome
Burnet"' fatisfaction ( i ). He declared therefore to the Englijh
Agents (2), that having long expefted in vain that their
Mafter would of himfelf return to the right way, he was
Rome m 'fe °bl'ged to cite him to Rome. Henry having notice of it,
King\ fent with all fpeed Edward Karne, Doctor of Law, with

Excufator. the new Character of Excufator, to alledge the reafons
again ft a Citation to which the King of England could
not be liable. Karne coming to Rome in March (3), the



Lurrk't.



papal Authority. It was only to allure the King, the
Caufe fhould be decided in his favor, and he woufd have
willingly agreed that the Pope fhould have been the foie
Judge. But the Pope could give him no fiich aflurance
by reafon of the Emperor's oppoiition ; and therefore
Henry could not refolve to put tlie Affair into his hands
at the hazard of being caft. Upon this account it was that
he propofed infallible expedients to gain his Caufe. But on
the other hand, the Pope could not accept of thefe expe-



I £ ■ ". ,



A netv Delay
granted the
King.

Luiiitt.



Pope fcrupled to receive him as Excufator, a character dients, without injuring his Dignity. Thus the Affair was

folely retarded by the Emperor's interpofition. Had it
not been for him, the Pope would have contented the
King, and the King would have fubmitted to the Pope,
and remained as before, an obedient Son of the Holy See.
Hence therefore it may be inferred, that the King's pro-



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