M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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firmed by the Pope, were now to be confirmed by the King. See the Aft, being 21 in the Statute-B^ok, 27 in the Record, and 8 in the Journal.

(3) There were prefent only the Archbifhop of Canterbury, the Bifhops of London, tVincbcfier, Bach and Willi, Landatfe, and Carlijle, with twelve
Abbots- Burnet, Tom. I. p. 144.

(4) Befides the Acts mentioned above, there were others of fome Importance made ; nimely, 1. That Perfons indicted of Pctit-Treafon, wilful Murder,
Robbery, or ether Felony, and upon their Arraignment Handing mute, or peremptorily challenging above twenty o{ the Jury, or elfe refilling to anfwer di-
redly to their Indictments, iliall not have the Benefit of the Clergy. 2. By another, the deteftable Vice of Buggery was adjudged Felony. 3. There
was alfo an Act made to prevent the deftrnying of wild Fowl, whereby it was enjoined, that none Ihould be taken from the laft Day of Mat, to the
laft of Augufi y upon pain of one Year's Imprifonment. 4. Whereas fome People had gathered into few Hands, feveral Farms, and great Plenty of Cattle,
particularly Sheep, fome to the Number of twenty thoufand, whereby the Rents of Lands were not only encreafed, but alfo Tillage very much decayed*
fome Churches and Towns had been polled down, and the Price of Corn, Cattle, &c. excellively enhanced ; it was therefore enacted, that no Man fhould
keen above two thoufand Sheep at one time: And not hold above two Farms at once, and thofe to be in the Pariiti where he lives. 5. That no Man
fhould buy bound Books brought from beyond Sea, nor buy any fuch by retail. See Statut. 25 Hen. VIII.

(5) Card iter wrote to Cromwell from Winchtfler the 6th of May, that the Lord Audley and others, with all the Abbots, Priors, Wardens, and Curates
within the Shire had taken the Oath. The Forms in which they did it are not known, for though they were enrolled, yet in Queen Mary's Days Bonner
and others were commiffioned to examine the Records, and raze out all things done either in contempt of the See of Rome, or the Defamation of Religious
Houfes. However, two of the Subfcriptions of Religious Orders, dated May 4, 1534, efcaped their Diligence. One is by fix Abbies, the other by the
Priorefs and Convent of the Dominican Nuns at Deptford. See Burnet's Collection, No. 50. Vol. I.

(6) At a meeting of the Privy-Council at Lambetb, many were cited to take the Oath. M'.re was firft called, and the Oath being tendered him, he
replied, after having confidered the Act, he would neither blame thofe that made it, nor thofe that fwore the Oath : but for his part, though he was
willing to fwear to the Succefiion, if he might be fuffered to draw up the Oath himfelf, yet for the Oath that was offered him, his Confcience fo
moved him, that he could not, without hazarding his Soul, take it. Upon which, being defired to withdraw, others were called upon, and did all take
the Oatli except Fijhtr, who anfwercd in alm.ft the fame manner as More had dane. Then More was again brought in, and they fhewed him how
many had taken it ; he faid, He judged no Man for doing it, only he could not do it himfelf. Being asked the reafon, he replied, He feared it might
provoke the King the more againft him if he Ihould offer Reafons, which would be called difputing againft Law : But however, if the King would com-
mand him to do it, he would put them in writing. Cranmer urged him with this Argument, that fince he blamed not others for taking it, it feemed
he was not perluaded it was a Sin, but was doubtful in the matter : But he did know certainly, he ought to obey the King and the Law ; therefore
he was obliged to do that about which he was certain, notwithftanding his Doubtings. He anfwered, though he had examined the matter very care-
fully, yet his Confcience leaned positively to the other fide, and offered to purge himfelf by Oath that it was purely out of Confcience that he refufed
it. The Abbot of IVeJlminJler prelfed him (with an Argument too often ufed in the like cafes) that he might fee his Confcience was erroneous, fince the
great Council of the Realm was of another mind. Cranmer in a Letter to Ciomwell, earneftly preffed to accept the Oath as More and Fijher offered;
for if they once fwore to the Succeffion, it would quiet the Kingdom, fince all others would accjuiefce and fut.tLC to the Judgments of fo great Men.
But this fdge Advice was not followed. Burnet, Vol. 1. p. 156. Strype's Mem. Tom. L p. 174.

(7) Ediuardl.ee, and Cutbhert Tunjlal : They waited upon Catberine at Burden near Huntingdon, Herbert, p. 175.

(Sj Adding, that lite would never lav; the Name of a. Queen, but ahvy^ uke herlUf fM King Htnr/s. WifSt Herbert, p, ifj.


Book XV.




•.'-. Dul 0}
Milan h -
tends Mcr-

• "■ /
I i. ;■
S\ lUy.
P. Daniel.

Frar.cis ra^f J
eccajion to
terry War
into the

Jledemjr.Js a
Pajfage ftbe
Duke of Sa-
voy, and
tip.n hi s refit ■
War agairjl

Paul 111
fucceedl him.

jiffain of

occafion or pretence of a new War between the Emperor
ami the Kin^ of France^ it will be ncceffary briefly to men-
tion it.

Francefco Sforxa was no fooncr rcftorcd to Milan,
upon vciy hard Terms, but he wifhed to be freed from
the Emperor's yoke, and the obligation to pay him the
Sum he had promifed. Francis having fome knowledge
of Sjotza's difpofition, believed he fliould cherifh it, 111
hopes of reaping by it one day fome advantage. But as
S/orza greatly feared to give the Emperor fufpicion, and
confequently the affair was to be managed very pri-
vately, Francis found means to keep at Milan an En-
voy, who could not be fufpecled. He chofe for that
purpofe a Milanefe Gentleman, called Merveilles, who
having been formerly banifhed from Milan by Ludovico
the Black, had lived in France ever iince. The troubles
of the Milanefe being entirely ended by the Peace of
Cambray, Merveilles returned home with a Letter of
Credence for the Duke, to which the Duke fent an an-
fwer, receiving the Gentleman as Envoy of France,
though in publick he treated him not as fuch. However
fecret Merveilles's Negotiation might be, the Emperor
had fome notice of it ; and made great complaints to the
Duke, who, to remove all fufpicion, refolved to facrifice
to him this Envoy. Accordingly, he fuborned a perfon
to pick a quarrel with Merveilles, which ended in the
murder of the Party employed, who was killed by Mer-
veilles's Servants, without however their matter's being
prefent. Whereupon Merveilles was committed to prifon,
and two days after beheaded, without any one being
fuffered to fpeak with him. Francis hearing of it, wrote
a menacing Letter to the Duke, and acquainted all his
Allies with what had happened. The Duke would have
excufed himfelf, by denying that Merveilles was at Mi-
lan as Envoy. What he faid was true in refpedt to the
publick. But he could not difown his own Letter to the
King, in anfwer to the Letter of Credence. When the
French Ambaflador informed the Emperor of the outrage
committed at Milan upon Merveilles, he coldly anfwered,
he could not conceive, how the King of France could be
affected with the death of a fubjedtof the Duke of Milan,
whom his Sovereign had punifhed according to his deferts.
This anfwer made the King believe, the Emperor was
concerned in Merveilles's death, which was a frefh caufe
of difguft, and inflamed his defire of revenge. But on
the other hand, he was not forry the fitisfadtion he de-
manded was refined, becaufe he intended to take occafion
from thence, to enter the Milanefe Sword in hand. To
that purpofe, he ordered a levy of Lanfquenets in Ger-
many, and demanded paffage of the Duke of Savoy, to go
and chaftife the Duke of Milan. But that Prince fearing
to difpleafe the Emperor, would not grant it. For which
reafon Francis, who could not enter the AFilanefe, but by
palling through the Duke of Savoy's Dominions, refolved
to make War upon him, ufing for pretence certain Claims
he had in right of Louifa his Mother to the Inheritance of
the late Duke of Savoy. Till every thing was ready to
begin this War, he fpent the whole year in divers Nego-
tiations, tending to create the Emperor troubles, and dis-
able him to aflift the Duke of Savoy.

Whilft Francis was thus employed, the fituation of the
affairs of Italy was fomething changed by the death of
Clement VII, who was carried off by a fit of Sicknefs the
twenty fixth of September. The twelfth of Otlober follow-
ing, Cardinal Famefe was chofen Pope, and affumed the
name of Paul III.

There were like wife this year in Germany fome alte-
rations, which put the affairs of the Proteftants in a toler-
able fituation. The Landgrave of Hejfe defeated King
Ferdinand's Army, commanded by the Count Palatine,
and reftored the Duke of Wirtemberg to his Dominions.
Ferdinand, not being able any longer to refift the Land-
grave, was forced to agree to the Duke's reftoration ; but
withal obtained, that both the Duke and the Landgrave
mould acknowledge him for King of the Romans. Shortly
after, the Eledtor of Saxony acknowledged him alio, having


bent to ft and
■■b ibc

I .
II .

H tigA.


paffed upon

v i.

firft got a promife from him, tha' he would not fuffer any
perfon to be moleftcd in the Empire on the account of Re-

Clement VII's death caufed no alteration in the mcafurcs
taken by the Court of Fngland, to fhake off entirely the
Pope's Yoke. Matters had been carried too far, ever to
recede. Befides, the King having not much to fear from
abroad, by reafon of the trouble?, the Emperor was like
to be involved in, and his Subjects being inclined to fupport
him, it would have been imprudent to neglcdt fo favorable
a juncture, and leave his Work unfinifhed. So, the Par-
liament meeting the third of November, paffed fevcral ma-
terial Adts, of which it will fufficc to relate the Subftancc,
in order to fhew they all tended to the fame Point, that
is, to break all the bonds which had ferved to hold the
Englifh in fubjedtion to the Popes.

The firft Adt confirmed the King's Title of fupreme l •*'«••
Head of the Church of England, already given him byfc' ■%-,,,,
the Clergy ( 1 ). Though Henry had very willingly ac- >J Head of
cepted this Title from the Clergy, nay, had not left them the ( -' hu,ch '
the liberty to refufe it, he feemed however to doubt, whe-
ther he fhould receive it when offered by the Parliament.
He was plcafed firft to advife with his Council, and
confult fome of the Bifhops, whether out of fcruple, or to
fhew it was not extorted. They whom he confulted
having fatisfied him, that the Authority affumed bv the
Bifhop of Rome over the whole Church had no foun-
dation in Scripture, he banifhed all his fcruples, if it be-
true that he had any, and from thenceforward took all
occalions to improve the prerogatives which flowed from
this new Title.

By a fecond Adt, it was declared Treafon to fpeak, "• rr ">f">
write, or imagine any thing againft the King or'.^/j^"'
Queen (2).

The third debarred Perfons accufed of Treafon, of the r ' Cman-
benefit of Sanftuary. i«jS«flw-

By a fourth, the Parliament prefcribed a form ofiv! Form of
Oath concerning the Succeffion, to be taken by all the 0mi '
King's fubjects, and annulled all former Oaths upon that

The fifth was very grievous to the Clergy, as it crave v - G'">"
the King the Annates and Firft-Fruits of the Benefices ; 'rjjj£j
whereas by the A&. already paffed, the Ecclefiafticks were Tatbtutbt
in hopes of being ever freed from that burden. More- *•'"£•
over, by the fame Adt the yearly Revenue of the tenth part
of all Livings was granted to the King (3).

By a fixth Statute, provilion was made for twenty five vr - $•&*-
Suffragan Bifhops, each of whom was to depend on his &a " *'&*"
Diocefan, who was to prefent two to the King for him
to chufe one. Thus was revived in the Church of Eng-
land the ufe of Chorepifcopi, introduced into the Primi-
tive Church, but afterwards discontinued for feveral Cen-
turies (4).

Laftly, The Parliament condemned Fijher Bifhop of Fi(her "" i
Rochejler, and Sir Thomas More to perpetual Imprifonment, f\°^ e m "d bj
and confifcated all their Eftates, for refufing to take the ibt Parha-
Oath enjoined by the AA of the former Seflion. This """■
fentence was confidered by fome as very unjuft, whilft Jr "
others admired in the fame, the efredls of God's Juftice
upon perfons that had been violent perfecutors of the Lu-

Before the Parliament broke up, the King granted a Ge-
neral Pardon, from which however Fijher and Afore were
excluded (5).

Shortly after, the King iffucd out a Proclamation,
forbidding to give to the Bifhop of Rome the name of
Pope, and commanding that name to be razed out of all
Books, to deftroy the remembrance of it if poffible.
Then the Bifhops voluntarily ("wore to renounce exprefly
all obedience to the Bifhop of Rome. Gardiner, now
Bifhop of IVinchejler, was not the laft to take this Oath,
though in his Soul he abhorred it as very unjuft. But a
blind condefcenfion for the King in this refpedt, was
then the only means to preferve his favor. Befides, Gar-


.j?.' nft tbt
Nam: of
The Bijhnpi
againji the

Jtjjimu/jtl: *»


(1) And dec!, rid, That the King, his Heirs, and Succeflors, (hall have full Power and Authority to vifit, reform, and reftrain all fuch Errors, Ilsrefies,
Abules, and Offences, which ty any manner of Spiritual Jurisdiction oupht to be reformed. See Statut.

(2) Or to caii the King Heretick, Schifrmtick, Tyrant, Infidel, or Ulurper, which opprobrious Nanus fome infolent Fryers were very liberal of.

(3) To be paid between Cbrij mat and Che firft of April. It was ordered in this Ad, Th.it the Chancellor of England mould direct into every Diecefe
in the Realm, Commiiiions in the Kind's Name, under his Great Seal, as well to the Archbilhop and Bifhop of every Dioceic, as ;j fill hi as the
King ihoiild appoint; to examine, fearch, and require, by all ways and means, the true, juft, and whole yearly Value of all the Manors, Lands, Tenements,
Hereditaments, Rents, Tithes Offerings, Emoluments, and all other Profits, as well Spiiitual as Tempera I, belonging to any Archbifhoprick, Bilhoprick, -
Archdeaconry, Deanery, HofpitaJ, College, Prebend, Cathedral, or Collegiate Church, Parlonage, Vicarage, Free-Chapel, or any other Be-
nefice or Promotion Spiritual. Accord ngly, feveral Commiliicners were appointed for each County, with whom were joined the Bilh^ps of the refpe&ivt
Diocefes, and a certain number of Auditors. The Valuations that were thus taken by thefc Commefiioncrs, were all returned taCmnmetl, Mallei of the Rolls;
and according to them have the Firft-Fruits been paid ever lince. Strype's Man. Tom. I. p. 21 r.

(4) The Towns appointed for Suffragan Sees were, Thetford, Tpfimcb, Cokbtjltr, Dover, Guilford, Southampton, Taunton, Shaft/bury, Melttm, IrUrlbcnugb,
Bedford, Uiajler, Gloucefler, Sbreiefbury, Briftol, Penrith, Bridgwater, Nottingham, Grantham, Hull, Huntington, Cambridge, Ptrelr, end Ef-.:uh, St.Ger-
nans, and the IJlt if Wight. They were to exercife fuch Jurifdifticn as the BifiSop of the Diocefe mould give to them; but their Authority was to laft no
h.nger than the BilhUp continued his Commiilion to them. In Burnet's Colleftron, N. 51. Vol. I. the Reader may fee a Writ for m.k:n» a Suffragan Bi-

(5) This Parliament granted the King a Tenth and a Fifteenth, to be paid in three Yeats, There had teen no Sublidy granted for twelve Yeats before.
Burnet, Tom. I. p. 158,





Vol. I.



mutton in


Mi re.



at L. ndon.


P<- fecution
in England
But net.

put a Jlop to



(:.". rt the

I •

String Pa>ty
art . .

Francis I.
jeems 13 j, a-
•vour the
Lij mat tH,

Peace hi-
twun Eng-
land ar.d

AS. Pub.
XIV. P.4S0,
Hei bert.

diner was thereby enabled to crofs, upon other points, the
Reformers, who daily gained ground ( 1 ).

It was not only in Germany that the Reformation had
made fome progrefs, but alfo in many other places. In
England it had been countenanced in fome meafure by
Cardinal Wolfey, as, during his Miniftry, no Perfon was
profecuted for Herefy, though the Clergy wanted not oc-
cafions to exercife their ufual feveritics, had they been left
to take their own Courfe. After l'/olfey's difgrace, Sir
Thomas More being made Chancellor, perfuaded the King,
that what did him the moft injury at the Court of Rome,
was the report of his being a favorer of the Innovators,
and to remove this falfe imputation, the molt infallible
way was to fhew a zeal for Religion. Henry following
this advice, ordered the Laws againft Hereticks to be rigo-
icufly executed, and very Strictly prohibited the importing
any of their Books into the Kingdom. But this Prohi-
bition was not capable of hindering feveral of Luther's
Treatifes from being brought into England, with Tindal's
Translation of the New Teftament, who was retired into
Flanders. The Bifhop of London having notice of it,
caufed fome Copies to be feized, and publickly burnt by
the Hangman (2). But this was fo far from injuring the
Reformation, that it rather turned to its advantage. Ma-
ny Perfons, full of indignation at this impious Aft, in-
ferred that the Scriptures were contrary to the Religion
generally profeffed, fince the Clergy took fuch care to hin-
der the Bible from being read, and that alone raifed their
defire to read it. On the other hand, the diflike the
Englijh had taken to the Pope, greatly increafed, by the
reading of the Lutheran Writings.

As the Reformation gained ground, the zeal of its ene-
mies was inflamed againft fuch as embraced it. Whilft
More was Chancellor, he fpared no pains to deStroy them
utterly. Many ftiffered Martyrdom (3) with a wonderful
conftancy, which very much contributed to Strengthen their
Brethren. At length, the King having to manage the
German Proteftants, becaufe he might afterwards want
them, fufpended Mores perfecution. On the other hand,
Ann Bullen very much mollified the King in that refpeft.
ArchbiShop Cranmer contributed to it likewife to the ut-
moft of his power, and Thomas Cromwell, now in great
elteem with the King, feconded their endeavours as far
as in him lay (4). But they had a Strong Party againft
them, confiiting of the Duke of Norfolk, Gardiner Bi-
fhop of JVinchejler, Longland Bifhop of Lincoln, almoft all
the Churchmen who had any accefs to the Court, and
thole who, when they preached before the King, filled
their Sermons with invectives againft the Reformation.
All thefe had gained Henrys confidence by their compli-
ance in the affair of the Divorce and the Supremacy,
though in the lalt they afted contrary to their fentiments.
By this condefcenfion, they were enabled effeftually to
eppofe the Reformers, in all the Articles which concerned
not the Pope, and especially in that of the real Prefence,
which the King deemed unquestionable, and thought fo all
his Life. In fpite of all this, the HeaJs of the Reformed
defpaired not of inclining him by degrees to a farther Re-
formation, becaufe of the connection, the Articles of Re-
ligion have one with another. Befides, their party grew
Stronger every day, by the junction of fuch as read the
Holy Scriptures and the religious Books which were handed
about, notwithstanding the King's Prohibition. Nothing
fhews more the number and Strength of that Party, than
the readinefs wherewith the Parliament palled the Afts
which tended to leffen the Clergy's power, and fhake off
the papal yoke.

The Reformation made likewife fome progrefs in France:
the King himfelf expreffed an inclination for the Doctrine
of the Proteftants, which was privately countenanced by his
Sifter Margaret Queen of Navarre. But the Cardinals
of Tournon and Lorrain, who were in great credit with
him, diffuaded him from it fo earneftly, that they gained
him at laft ; nay, made him a violent Perfecutor.

Before I clofe what relates to the events of the year
1534,1 muft not forget to mention, that a tv<:lve-month's

Truce concluded the laft year (;) between England and
Scotland, was turned into a Peace the 1 ith of May this
year. By the Treaty, the Peace was to lalt till the death
of one of the two Kings, and Henry might, without
breaking it, keep the Douglaffes in England.

In the beginning of the year 153s. Francis I. fent an
Embaffy to Henry, under colour of difcharging the duty
of a good Friend and Ally, but in reality to try to deceive
him, by feigning to acquaint him with his fecrets, and
ask his advice. The occafion of the Embaffy was this :
The Emperor having refolved to carry his Arms into
Africa, had a mind to amufe Francis, left, in his ab-
fence, he Should attack the Duke of Savoy, and fo open
a way to the Duchy of Milan, as he feemed to intend.
To that purpofe, he had dilpatched an Ambaffador to
him, with orders to propofe a Marriage between his third
Daughter and Philip Prince of Spain ; and another between
the Dauphin and Mary Daughter of Henry and Catherine
of Arragon. Moreover, he had offered him a Penfion of
a hundred thoufand Crowns for the Duke of Orleans,
upon the Duchy of Milan, and the Duchy itfelf, after
the death of Francefco Sforza, who had no Heirs. It was
evident, thefe overtures were defigned only to amufe
Francis, who confidered them himfelf upon no other foot.
Neverthelefs, he imagined they would fervc to procure
him fome advantage from Henry, if he let him know he
was courted by the Emperor. To this end, he fent into
England Admiral Chabot Seigneur de Brian, on pretence
to advife with the King upon thefe offers. But his chief
aim was to make him uneafy, and induce him to offer
fome advantagious propofals. It appeared in the fequel
he would have perfuaded him to things which were very
far from his thoughts. The Admiral having difcharged his
Commiffion, Henry anfwered, he much wondered, the
Emperor Should pretend to marry his Daughter, over
whom he neither had nor ever Should have any right or
power : That it was manifeft, he only fought to break
the Union between France and England, and therefore he
hoped the King of France would not be lb much his
own enemy, as to hearken to fuch overtures. Shortly
after, he fent orders to his Ambaffador at Paris (6), to
tell Francis, he would give Elizabeth his Daughter and
Heir to the Duke of AngouUme his third Son, upon the
following conditions : That Francis himfelf, his three
Sons, the Princes of the Blood, the principal Nobility of
France, the Parliaments, and Univeifities Should folemnly
promife to caufe to be revoked the Senterrce~given againft
him by the Bifhop of Rome : That the Duke of Angou-
Ume Should be fent into England to be educated : That in
cafe by his Marriage he Should come to the Crown of
England, the Duchy of AngouUme Should be independent
of the Crown of France. Thefe conditions were after-
wards mitigated, and Francis I. feemed to agree to them.
But he required in his turn, that Henry Should aSlift him
in the War of Savoy, and forgive him the perpetual An-
nuity of a hundred thoufand Crowns, which he was bound
to pay by a Treaty. Henry perceiving Francis's iniince-
rity, told the Admiral, that inftead of forgiving the Pen-
fion, he expected, the King his Matter Should pay the
Arrears, and clear by the time appointed, all his other Debts.
This anfwer put an end to the Negotiation, which pro-
bably, was undertaken only to found Henry concerning
the Penfion.

Francis's grand defign was to recover the Duchy of
Milan, under pretence of revenging the affront done
him by Sforza. But, to execute this projeft, it was ne-
ceffary to raife the Emperor troubles, which Should hinder
him from affifting that Duchy. There were four feveral
quarters from whence he hoped to imbroil the Emperor.
Firft, from the Pope and the Princes of Italy. Secondly,
in Germany, by means of the League of Smalcald. Third-
ly, by fomenting difcord between the King of England
and the Emperor. Laftly, by drawing the Turks into
Germany. In order to all this, he had married his Son
the Duke of Orleans to Catherine de Medici; lodged a
hundred thoufand Crowns in the hands of the Duke of


> 535-

Ev.UjIy of
France .*-
ftlt Hemy.
B llai.

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