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and More, for denying the King's Supremacy, he def-
paired of fuccceding. He perceived there was no more ce-
remony to be ufed, fince all regard lor him was thrown
off in England, and a fettled defign (hown of fupporting
what had been done. So, to maintain the honour of his
See, he drew up a thundering Bull, excommunicating
Henry, and abfolving his fubjedts from their Oath. More-
over, he ordered all the Ecclefiafticks to depart his Do-
minions, and the Nobility to take Arms againft him. He
put the Kingdom under an Interdict, and forbid all
Chriflians to have any commerce with the Englijh. He
annulled all the Treaties made by foreign Princes with
Henry before his Marriage with Ann Bullen, declaring their
Iffue already born, or to be born, illegitimate. Mean
while, as he was fenfible, thefe fpiritual Thunders would
produce no great effect, unlefs fupported with temporal
Arms, which were not yet ready, he deferred the pub-
lifhing of this Bull to a more convenient fcafon.

But though the Bull was not publifhed, as no great care
was taken to conceal it, it quickly came to Henry's
knowledge. Whereupon he refolved to join with the Pro-
teftants of Germany (2), and keep the Emperor employed
in that Country. He difpatched therefore Edward Fox
to the League of Smalcahi (3) whilft Francis I, made ufe,
for the fame purpofe, of William du Bellay Lord of Lan-
geais. But it was very difficult for a good and hearty
Union tc be formed between thefe two Monarchs and the
Proteftants of Germany. The Proteftants meant only to
preferve the liberty of profeffing their Religion unmoleft-
ed, whereas the fole aim of Francis and Henry was to
excite them againft the Emperor, without any regard to
the Proteftant Religion, which they were perfecuting in
their Kingdoms. It is true, to gain the Proteftants, they



Embajfy to
tbe Frote-
flantt of
Germany.
Herbert.
Burnet.

T. III. in

Strype.



uated to them that lie was going to overturn all Religion, icj;.

he refolved to take all poffiblc precautions to prevent the

pernicious deligns of thefe dangerous Adversaries. To

this end it was moved in the Council, whether it would

n >t be proper to fupprcls at once all the Monafteries. This Divtri t? ■

queftion was debated with great warmth, by reafon of the IV'*

r» • ■ r* ■» r tbat ait<.unt.

two contrary Parties 111 the Council. Cranmer and Crom-
well looked upon the fuppreffion of the Monafteries as a
great ftep to the Reformation. But on the other hand,
the Duke of Norfolk, the Bifhops of JVinchejler, Lincoln
and others, who had with reluctance fubferibed to what
had been done againft the Pope, could not refolve to con-
fent to this fuppreffion. They faw, after that, the King-
dom would be irrecoverably loft to the Pope , without
reckoning that the dillolution of the Monafteries might
produce yet greater effects with regard to Religion. The
King having heard the Arguments on both fides, found
he fhould not be able to fupprels tbe Monafteries all at
once, without giving offence to the grcateft part of his
Subjects. He refulved therefore with himfelf, to accom-
plifh it by degrees, and therefore to begin with a thing ab-
folutely ncccllary ; namely, to remove the People's pre-
judice in favour of the Monks. To this end, he ordered ij r0r j, rl
a general vilitation of the Monafteries, to know perfectly '*' Mmmt-
the titles of their cftates, the behavior of the Friers and ""'"' "1
Nuns, how the rules of each order were obferved, and Burnet!
other things of the like nature. He did not queftion, T.I p. iSz.
this vifitation would difcover feveral confiderable abufes, ""'*"•
which, being made publick, would fenfibly diminifh the nft '
People's veneration for the Religious, and pave the way to
his defign. He was extremely incenfed with the Monks,
whom he looked upon as difturbers of his repofe. On the
other hand, the hopes of profiting by their Eftates did not
a little contribute, without doubt, towards his pufhing
this affair with great earneftnefs (4). Thomas Cromwell and leai-n >
was chofen to manage this inquiry by the name of V'i- '*" "anagt-
fitor- General. This choice was a plain indication of the 7-"J° a

\r • r t Cromwell.

King s intent, fince he employed a Perfon who was utter- Burnet,
ly averfe to the Monks. Cromwell having appointed Sub- Hcrl «" 1
ftitutes or Commiffioners (5), gave them very particular H°j|,'n-.r,.
inftructions under eighty-fix Articles, and the vifitation
began in October. It may be ealily judged that among fo



feigned an inclination for their Religion, and a defire to great a number of Monafteries as were in the Kingdom,



eftablifh it in their Dominions. Nay, Henry very much
improved the conformity of his fentiments with theirs,
concerning the papal Authority. But the rigour where-
with thefe two Monarchs treated fuch of their Subjects as
had embraced the new Religion, deftroyed whatever their
Ambafladors could fay. For this reafon the Proteftants
always infilled upon fettling the points which concerned
Religion, and continued to require that Henry (hould open-



moft of which had never been vilited but very negligent-
ly, many were found abounding with irregularities, as well
in refpeit of the lives of the Friers and Nuns, as in re-
gard to the obfervance of the Rule, and the management
of the Temporalities. The Vilitors, who were not their
friends, and doubtlefs had orders to terrify thera, told them,
they were going to be expofed to the King's utmoft feve-
rity, and the rigour of the Law. Then, they fuggefted



ly declare for the Augsburg Confeffion, that their Union to them, that to fave themfelves harmlefs, and withal to



might be built on a folid foundation. Henry feigned to
approve of what they propofed, and to make them believe
k the more, wifhed them to fend fome of their Divines
to confer with thofe of England. But he never really in-
tended to conform himfelf to their Notions. He rather



hide their diforders, the beft way was to refign their
Houfes to the King (6), who, upon that confiden.tion,
would take care to provide for each in particular. A good S>*>eral
number of Priors being terrified by the Vilitors, chofe to p r ,,"fa.
follow their advice, their Monks agreeing to it, fome to render tt., r



wanted the Germans as well as the Englijh to learn of avoid punifhment, others to enjoy their liberty, and fome *""/" " ""



Henry !a,t
btfore tbe
Council tbe
SvpfreJEon
ef tbe Mo-
nafteriou
Herbert.
Burnet.



htm what they were to believe. And for this caufe the
projetft of the propofed Union was never executed. How-
ever, this Negotiation made the Pope and the Emperor
very uneafy, who plainly faw, that in attacking Henry
there was danger of really ingaging him to unite with the
League of Smalcald.

But Henry did not depend fo much upon foreign affi-
ftance as upon his own ftrength. Mean while, as his
Subjects were daily corrupted by the Monks, who infin-



the Cornet.



ration it
fulli/bed.



for want of refolution to refift (7). The reports of
Commiffioners were publifhed, that all might be fatisfied, ibc Acamut
the King had not without reafon and neceffitv ordered °f ,kt ?'A"
this general Vifitation. The truth is, in fome Monafte-
ries were difcovered monftrous diforders and horrible crime 5 ;, '
not only with refpect to the debaucheries of the Friers and
Nuns, but chiefly on the account of the Images and Re-
licks, for which a fhameful trade was driven to enrich the
Monafteries, by cherifhing the People's Superftition {%).



(1) On the firft of July, Sir Tbomm More was brought to h'u Tryal, and beheaded on the 6th, in the fifty third Year of his Age. Though he
was afterwards fuperflitioufly devoted to the Intereft and Pafliuns of the Popifh Clergy, and even alfiftcd them in all their Cruelties, yet in his Youth
he had freer Thoughts of Things, as appears by his Utofia, where he feems to borrow the Difguife of a Romance, only to declare his Mind with
greater Freedom : He tells us, the Utcpiant allow Liberty of Confcience, and force their Religion upon no Eody : That they h : nder none from a fiber
Enquiry into Truth, nor ufe any Violence upon the account of a different Belief. He was, lays Burnet, no Divine at all, neither did he know any
thing of Antiquity, beyond the Quotations in the Canon-Law, and in the Mejler of tbe Sentencei. Nor was he converfant at all in the critical Learning
upon the Scripture ; but his peculiar Excellency in Writing was, that he had a natural eal'y ExpreiTion, and prelented all the Opinions of Popery, with
their fair Side to the Reader, difguifing the black Side of them with neat Art ; and had upon all cccafions great Store of plca'ant Tales, which he
applied wittily enough. But for Juilice, Contempt of Money, Humility, and a true Generofity of Mind, he was an Example ta the Age in which he
lived. He is laid to have but one hundred Pounds a Year when he refigned the Chanccllorfhip. Burnet, Tcm. I. p. 355. and Tom. j. p. zg.
Herbert, p. 184.

(2) And the rather, becaufe the Pope declared, he would give away England to fome of the German Catholick Princes, being unwilling to ir.creafe
therewith the Power of France or Spain. Herbert, p. 184.

(3) With Doflor Hetbe. Barm had been fent thither before. See Burnet, Tom. 3. p. Jio. Strypt't Men. Tcm. I. p. 115.

(4) He wanted Money upsn feveral Accounts ; chiefly, as he apprehended a War from the Emperor, the molt powerful Prince then in the World,
and who had large Fleets of his own ; therefore, to fecurc himfelf againft his attacks, he judged it necelfary to fortily his Ports, and to build new Har-
bours. Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 189.

(5) Particularly Ricbard Leigbton, Titmgi Lee, and William Petre, Doctors of Law, Doctor Jobn London Dean of WaUmgford, &c. Herbert, p. 1S6.
Burnet, Turn. I. p. 183.

(6) Before this, namely, on February 24. 1533, the Priory of the Trinity, or Cbr.flCburcb, near Aldgate, in London, was fuppreffed, and the
Lands and Church-Plate thereto belonging, given to Sir Ib^mai Audley the Hieh-t-hanctllur. Stow, p. ^60.

(7) Th« firft Surrender was by the Abbot of Langden, in Kent, on November 13. (Rymer, Tom. 14. p. 555.) who, upon Doflor Leig iron's break-
ing open his Door on a fudden, was found in Bed with a Whore, who went in the Habit of a Lay Brother. This Surrender was followed by that of
the Prioty of Fethjion, November 1 5 j on the 16th, of that oi Dover j and on February 21. 1536, of that of Bt'Jingtcvn, ail three in Kent. As alio
of Merlon in Tyrkjhirt-, 'Febru-ary 9, of itlty in Ejjex, and of Hornby in Ytrkjhire, Mureb 23. The Original of thele ana the other Surrenders are in
the .lugmcntatlcn-Offiie. Burnet, Tom. J. p. 191.

(8) Ttiey fiund great Factions in the Houfei, and batbarcus Cruelties exetcifed by one Faction againft another, as either cf them prevailed. They
were all extremely addifled to Idolatry and SuperititioB. In fome they found the Inltrumenls and other Tools tor mulr.pljing ar.d coining. But for the
Lewdness of the ContefTors of Nunneries, and the greit Corruption of that State, whole Houfes being found almuft all wi'h Child ; for the DifTblure-
nels of Abbots and the other Monks and Friers, not only with Harlot; but married Women ; and for their unnatural Letts and other brutifh frac-
tices : Thefe, fays Burnet, are »ot fit to be Ipokcn of, much lei's enlarged on in a Wurk of this Nature. The full Report of this Vilitation is Inft ;
yet B»ri,et faw an Extract of a part of it -ontcmsig one bundled forty Sour tiuufcs, that contains Abominations in it eoual to any that were in So-
dom. Burner, Tom- 1. p- tot.

Thk



Ho3



« 5 J5-



73* HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



gives



the



Monks leave
to auit their
Ahnajlertes.
Stow.
Hollinglh.



This oocafioned an ordinance of the King, who, as fu- jealoufics of the Pope, the King of Fror.ce and the Vene- 1535.

preme head of the Church of England, difcharged from

their Vows fuch as were profefied under four and twenty

years of age, and allowed all the reft to quit their Houfes,

and live like Seculars if they pleafed (1). But as moft

were accuftomed to an idle life, and perceived, when they

forfook their Monafteries, they ftiould be forced to work

for their livelihood, the liberty given them by the King

produced no great effect. Befides, there were doubtlefs



tians, were revived on this occafion ; each of thefe Poten-
tates having caufe to fear the Emperor would keep Mila*:
for himfelf, or give it to his Brother the King of the Re-
mans. In that cafe, Italy would of courfe fall again into
Slavery, and the King of France ltofe his hopes of recover-
ing that Duchy. To make them ealy, the Emperor de-
clared he had no delign to keep A'fi/an, but intended tc»
prefent fome Prince with it, who fhould caufe no fufpi-



many, who, out of confeience, thought not proper to ufe cion to thofe that were concerned to preferve the Peace



Change of



it. So, Henry was obliged to take other meafures.

It was but this year that Cardinal Campegio loft the

j.m,B,jh°p<. Bifljoprjj-k f Salisbury, which was given to Nicolas Shax-

Aft. Pub. r _ Jl O

Xiv.p.550, ton a friend to the Reformers. Shortly after, the see 01
5S*. 5 53- JVorceJler was taken from Ghinucei an Italian, and con-
tT"'!-!. ^ errei ' on Hitgb Latimer, great friend of Cranmer. John
Stow. Hilfey was promoted to the See of Roche/ler, vacant by

the death of Fijher, and Edward Fox to that of Here-
ford.
Henry tries Among all the King's enemies, or enviers, none gave
'tleKwcf n ' m more uneafinefs than his Nephew the King of Scot-
Scotland to land, and not without reafon. During the whole time of
that Prince's minority, Henry had fomented the troubles
of Scotland, and even fhown that his defigns tended to
become mafter of that Kingdom. James was fully in-



r enounce the
Pope.
Buchanan.
Herbert.



of Italy. Afterwards, he wifely made ufe of it for a lure
to amufe the King of France. But in reality he never
defired to difpoflefs himfelf of it (4).

Queen Catherine ended her days the beginning of the , . ,5
year 1536 (5). Though her virtue had gained her an Death of
univerfal efteem, (lie died however little lamented by the ^'" , (Ja -
publick, becaufe fhe equally embaraffed her friends and h™£^
enemies. Before fhe expired, fhe dictated a very tender stow.
Letter to the King, who feemed to be extremely moved Buraet.
with it (6). But, in all appearance, his grief was of no
long continuance. He was very fond of her when firft
married, her mildnefs and modefty having a greater influ-
ence upon him than fhe could expect from her Beauty,
which was not extraordinary. In time, his affection aba-
ting, he treated her with indifference, though ever with



formed , and though he fhowed great regard for the King much civility. At laft, after he had refolved to put her
his Uncle, he let him fee however he did not confider him away, her obftinate refufal to comply with his Will, made

him confider her as an enemy. Accordingly he ufed her
rigoroufly when the fentence of Divorce was pronounced,
even to the not fuftering her to keep Servants who treat-
ed her as a Queen. At laft he publickly forbid to give



as a friend. Henry therefore was in danger, that, if the
innovations in Religion caufed difturbances in the King-
dom, the King of Scotland would take occafion to be re-
venged, by affifting the Male-contents. This fear was

the more juft, as the Emperor knowing the King of her that title, though he was forced to connive at her dif-
Scotland's difpofition, had already laboured to infpire him obedience.

with fufpicions and jealoufics of France and England. Nay, The Parliament meeting the 4th of February, finished jwf,

he would have concluded a League with him, as I obferv- the Work begun, by abolifhing every thing relating to «*"•
ed, had not Francis broken his meafures, by procuring a the Pope's power, not to leave the leaft pretence to ac-
knowledge his authority. But the King had a farther
view, namely, to fupprefs the Monafteries, as well to be
revenged of the Monks and prevent their ill defigns, as to
procure their Eftates. In all appearance, the late vifitati-
on of the Monafteries had convinced him that the Monks
were as unferviceable to Religion, as prejudicial to his affairs
in his prefent circumftances.

As among the Conftitutions obferved in the Church of Heafontfat-



Peace between England and Scotland. But notwithftan
ding this Peace, Henry was always in diftruft of that
quarter. So, to make himfelf eafy, he formed the pro-
ject to inftill into the King of Scotland the refolution to
follow his example, and renounce the Pope's obedience.
He confidered this as a fure means to preferve between
the two Kingdoms a ftrict Union, which would be very
ad-vantagious in his prefent circumftances. He fent him
therefore in the firft place a long Letter (2), declaring the



England, there were not a few that had a manifeft rela- """S ,ht ,

Etc ejiajlieal



1 Inter
view



fkdanmdt reafons of his conduct with regard to the Pope. Then, tion to the papal Authority, it was abfolutely neceffary cmiituiva,

he difpatched an Ambaffador (3) to propofe an interview, to annull them and make others, which fhould have for

fancying that a conference with him would produce a grea- foundation the King's Supremacy. The Parliament had

ter effect than whatever he fhould fay to him by Letter already paffed an Act, empowering the King to nomi-

or Embaffy. But though the Reformation had already nate thirty-two_Commimoners to examine fuch as were to



be aboliihed. But the King had not haftened this nomi-
nation, becaufe by this eonfufion, his authority was much
more extenfive. Indeed, the papal power was aboliihed
by Act of Parliament, and yet it ftill fubfifted in the Con-



crept into Scotland, James had no inclination to embrace
it. So, the Ecclefiafticks about his Perfon eafily diffwa-
ded him from accepting the Interview, where they were
afraid fome things might pafs very prejudicial to their Re-
ligion. Mean while, James, not being willing openly to ftitutions, which, not being abrogated, threw the Clergy
refufe the conference defired by the King his Uncle, gave into great perplexities becaufe they knew not what to do.
him hopes of his confent, after certain difficulties, purpofe- But this was what the King defired, that the Clergy might
ly raifl-d, were removed. But at the fame time he de- be more at his devotion, fince he could equally profecute
manded of the Pope a Brief, to forbid his having any them as guilty, whether they did or did not obferve them.
James ex- Interview with the King of England. When the Brief The Parliament taking this contrariety into confideration
«< fa\cMt'tf came i he S ave tne King his Uncle notice of it, who would have cured it, by confirming the power formerly
tic Pcfe's having prepared for his Journey, was extremely offended given the King, to appoint Commiffioners to alter thefe
Prohibit!™. at this refufal. Hence fprung a quarrel between them, Conftitutions. This was a fort of reproach for his neg-
which I fhall have occafion to mention hereafter. ligence in that refpect. But he feigned not to mind it,
*D°l b °FM B e fbr e I conclude the year 1535, I mull not forget to and left the affair in the fame State it was (7).



la

Herbert.



relate an event which very much changed the face of the He had another thing in his thoughts which affe<ted ^sifirfip-

atiairs of Europe. I mean the death of Francefco Sforza him much more, namely, to execute his defign upon the £lr"jiW/'-

Duke of Milan, which happened in the month of Otlober. Monks. In this Seffion, he reprefented to the Parliament, teria.

As this Prince left no I flue by Catherine of Denmark the that the great number of Monafteries in the Kingdom Aa - Pub -

Emperor's Niece, whom he had lately married, the Duchy were a Burden to the State, and earneftly defired them to P'* 7 **

of ATilan as Fief of the Empire, was fallen to the Em- remedy the Evil by fuch means as they fhould judge proper.

-Ir ief'n\ P er0T '> t0 De difpofed of as he pleafed. So, the fears and Whereupon it was enacted, That all Houfes of two hun-

not to intend

to keep that (,) The Men, if in Orders, were to have a Priefl's Habit given them, and forty Shillings in Money ; the Nuns were to have only a Gown, fuch

Vu.by. as f ecu h r Women wore. Some however for furrendering their Hmfes got fmall Pennons. Herbert. Stow, p. 572.

(2) By ll'ULam Barlow Bilhop elecl of St. Afaph, and Thomas Holer oft. Herbert, p. 1X4.

(3) William Howard Brother of the Duke of Norfolk. Herbert, p. 1S4.

(4.J This Year, IVales, which had hitherto been only a Province to the Englifh Nation, was incorporated, united, and annexed for ever to the
Realm of England. Statut. 27 Hen. VIII. c. 26. John Owen began this Year to make Brals Canon?, being the tirlt that male this kind of Ar-
tillery in England. The 8th of May, King Henry commanded all Perfons about his Court to cut their Hair ffurt, and to fet them an Example, he

caulcd his own to be cut j and likewile begin to wear his Beard knotted, and was no more fliaved. Auguji 16, the King's Stables at the Meufe

( lo called becaufe the King's Hawks Were there mewed and kept ) were burnt down. Hail, fol. 225. Stow, p. 571.

(5) On the 8th of January at KimbAton, in the fiftieth Year of her Age, thirty three Years after fhe came into England. In her Will, ihe ap-
pointed htr Body to be buried in a Convent of Observants, who had done and fuffered moll for her, but the King ordered it to be laid in the Abby-
Church oi Peterborough, which he afterwards converted to a Cathedral. Stow, p. 572. Queen Ann Bcleyn wore Yellow tor the Morning. Hall,
fol. 227.

(6) In the Title (he called h : m, My mofi dear Lord, King, and Husband, and concluded with faying, / make tbit Vow, that mine Eyes defire you
ab;ve alt Things. « She advifed him to look to the Health of his Soul. She forgave him all the Troubles he had cart her into. She recommended
" the.r Daughter Mary to him, defiling he would be a loving Father to her. She alio delired he would provide Matches for her Maids, who were
" but three ; and that he would give her Servants enc Year's Wastes more than was due to them. " She was a devout and pious Princefs, and led
a fevere Lire. In her Greatnefs fhe wrought much with her own Hand, and kept her Women well employed about her, as appeared when the two
Legates came once to fpeak with her. She came out to thern with a Skein of Silk about her Neck, and told them ihe had been within at Work
with hvr Maids. Few fuch Queens now-a-days ! Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 192.

(7] About this time, King Her.', appointed an Office for all Eccletiaitical Matters, and ordered a Seal to be cut. The Archbifhop of Canterbury's
Title was alio in Convocation ordeicd to be altered : Intfead of Legate of the Apolfokck See. h: was to be called, Mttrop'.ltt.wi and Primate. Burnet,
Tim. 3. p. 104.



dred



Book XV



20. HENRY VIII.



809



• 536. dred Pounds a year and under mould be fupprcffed> and
Herbert. their effects given to the King (1 ). Of this fort there were
Huil'ngfh. three hundred feventy fix, and a revenue of thirty two
thoufand Pounds a year fell to the Crown, with above a
hundred thoufand Pounds worth of Plate, Goodij, Orna-
Cwrtof ments of the Churches, and the like. A new Court was
Augmenta- erected, called the Court of the Augmentations of the King's

(ions trcilcd. n , r~> ■ <- II

Bumct. Revenue, which was to take Cognizance of all matters con-
cerning this new acquifition(2). The erecting of a Court
for fo fmall a revenue, was a clear evidence, the King had
no defign to flop there, but intended to feize the revenues
of all the Monasteries in the Kingdom (.";).
K,f<iliniov to The Convocation fitting, as ufual, at the fame time
1,1 the Pupli w ; tn the Parliament, a motion was made there, that
/i'^n'-liiri'. ''here fliould be a Translation of the Bible in Englijh, [to
Burnet. be fet up in all Churches,] and the fame was approved of.
It muff be obfetved, the King's intent was only to fhew
the People, there was nothing contrary to the Holy Scrip-
tures in what was done againft the Pope. But (Jranmer,
Cromwell, and the reft of the Reformers had much farther
views. They hoped, when the Bible was in the hands of
the People, they would fee their error in many other things
which hitherto had beendcemed eflential to Religion. But
they took care to hide their deligns from the King, know-
ing how contrary they were to his. Henry was absolutely
againft all reformation of Doctrine, and conleiruently they



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 342 of 360)