M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Eucharift, troubled them extremely. Notoi.lv were thefe
Articles diredly contrary to their fentiments, but they
faw how difficult it would be to meddle with them
again, by reafon of the King's prejudice, who believed them
unqueftionable. 'Flic other Party were under an unfpeat
able confternation, to fee Articles fo long fince determim d,
brought under examination, the Papal authority abolifhed,
and the exiftcnce of Purgatory called in queflion. Thus
thefe Conftitutions plcafed neither Party. Tlie one thought
the Reformers had acted too faintly, in not advancing the
Reformation, and could not forbear blaming their compli-
ance, in fuffering Doctrines fo repugnant to truth, to be
eftablifhed. But it was replied, that every thing could
not be done at once, and that it would have been im-
prudent obftinately to require that the errors, the People
were not yet fenlible of, fhould be fuddenly retrenched.
The other Party were very angry alfo with the Bifhops,
for fo bafely abandoning Truths, embraced for fo many
ages by the Catholick Church. But indeed, it was not
in the power of either to act otherwife. The King him-
felf managed the whole, having fettled in his Cabinet-
Council what he thought fit to alter or keep. But there
was not any in this Council that dared to oppofe his opi-
nion, or believed it prudent to combat his fentiments, for
fear a too great oppofition fhould produce a quite con-
trary effect. All that could be done, was to try to en-
lighten the King gently and infenfibly, without ftriving
to bring him, by a fort of compulfion, to what was thought

Before the Convocation broke up, the King commu- rhc Kl ".
nicated to both Houfes a Summons he had received to '"'"/' '"'!"
a Council, which was to meet at Mantua. 1 he Pope, advifa -with
without confulting him, had called this Council in con- '*•&««»■
cert with the Emperor, and was to prefide by his Le- '^2>.
gates. So Henry might well expect to lofe his Caufe be- Herbert,
fore fuch a Council, had he been fo unwife as to fubmit
to its decifions. Indeed he had appealed from the Pope
to a General Council ; but there were many Queries to
be refolvcd, in order to know whether this called at
Mantua was lawful, and fortified with a fufficient au-
thority. Mean while, before he anfwered the Summons,
he was pleafed to advife with the Clergy, who, after ma-
ture deliberation, prefented to him a writing to this effect:
That a true and lawful General Council was a very 17 " c/ "T/»
good means to preferve the peace and union of the Church ; $ZT'
but before a Council was called, it was necefTary to con- T.I. p. 119.
fider, Firft, who had authority to call it : Secondly, Whe- Habcn -
ther the reafons for calling it were weighty. Thirdly, p " 2 ° 5 "
Who fhould affift as Judges. Fourthly, What fhould be
the order of proceeding. Fifthly, What Doctrines were
to be difcufTed. Then, it was declared that neither the
Pope nor any Prince in the World had power to call a
General Council, without the confent of all the Sovereigns
in Chriftendom. Purfuant to this Declaration, Henry pub- T ! K J" Z
lifhed a proteftation againft the Council which was to meet dgaitfttbt
at Mantua, fpeaking very plainly and freely of the defigns Coumilef
and conduct; of the Pope. He concluded with faying, that!?* 11 ™"
he could not confider as Free and General, a Council
where the Bifhop of Rome fhould prefide, which fhould
meet in a fufpected place, and which muft be compofed
only of a fmall number of Prelates, till the War between
the Emperor and France was ended.

The eighteenth of July, the Parliament was prorogued, HePfrB*-
after a Seffion but of forty days, wherein however feveral Z"'Jled
Acts of moment were palled (6).

At this time Cardinal Pole was in high repute for his Reg-mM
Learning and Eloquence. His name was de la Pole, but '' '
every where, except in England, he is fo well known by W
that of Polus, that he cannot be called by any other, Hertatj
without danger of confounding the Reader. He was de- £"""'•
fcended of Michael de la Pole, \Ld.dot Suffolk, and Favorite

(1) Sherburn. upon what Inducement is not known, refigncd his Birhopruk, which was given to Richard Snmpfin Dean of the Chapel : a Penfion of four
hundred Pounds being refeived to cibtrburts, and confirmed by this Parliament. Rytner's FaJ. Tom- XIV. p. 570.

(2) Nix had alfo offended th'' Ring fignally, by fome Correfpondcnce with i?s"re, and was long kept in the Marjhaifea, and was conviclcd and f.und in a
Praemunire: But the King considering h.s old Age, upon his Submilhun pardoned him. He died the laft Year, though Fuller m his ll.ght way niak.s hm
fit in this Convocation. Burnit, Tom. 1. J). 214-. See Rymer, Ibid. p. 573.

(3) It is obfervable, That ihere are only three Sacraments mentioned in thefe Articles. Hail, fol. 218.

(4) The King did not corrctt the cngrolfcd and figncd Articles, as Rap:n t and others have been led to imagine, by mifunderftandiog Burnet'* Words
in his Vol. I. p. 217. For his meaning Was, (as he explains it himfelf in Vol. III. p. 123.) That there arc feveral Draughts ot thefe Articles ihit are in
many Places corrected by the Kind's own Hand, fome of which Correction; are very long and very material. Of thefe he ipoke, and not of the cngrofli J
Article! (igncd by the Convocation.

i , And Peter Pannes Archdeacon of Worcejtcr, fferbert, p. 202.

(6) Namely, thole mention! d above ; againft reftoring the Authority of the Bilhop of Rzme ; againft Immunities, SrV. Ey an Act now made, it was

alfo injoined, That Tithe-, and other Profits anting or becoming due during the Vacancy of any Spir.tual Promotion, lhall belong to the Perron that ,. Hex!
prefi nted thereto, toward the payment of the Firft- Fruits. And by another, That French Wine ihould be foid by retail only eight Pcnte a Gailcn; and
Sa.k or Malmiiy for twelve Pence. See hut:,:, 28 Henry VI 1 1.

No 1 1. Vol. I.






Vol. I.

of Richard II. From that time, this Family had been
continually advanced, fo that in the Reign of Henry VI,
the Earl of Suffolk was honored with the title of Duke.
After that, a Lord of this fame Family married a Daugh-
ter of the Duke of Clarence, Brother of Edward IV.
Of this marriage was born, among other Children, Regi-
nald de la Pole, or Polus, the Cardinal I am fpeaking of,
who confequently was Coufin to the King ( 1 ). Being a
younger Brother, he was defigned for the Church, for
which alfo his natural qualities rendered him very proper.
In his younger years, he made fo great progrefs in all
the Sciences' that the King intending to raife him to the
higheft dignities of the Church, conferred on him the
Deanery of Exeter, with feveral other Benefices, that he
might go and finiih his ftudies abroad. He went firft to
Peris, where he frayed fome years, and forfeited in fome
meafure the King's favour, for refilling to concur with
his Agents, in procuring the determinations of the French
Univeifnies in the affair of the Divorce. Notwithftand-
ing this, he returned into England, where he affined as
Dean of Exeter, at the Convocation, which acknowledged
the King fupreme Head of the Church of England (2).
There is even reafon to prefume he was not of the num-
ber of thofe who oppofed this new Title, becaufe he kept
his Deanery feveral years after. At length he travelled
into Italy, and lived fome time at Padua, where he con-
tracted a friendfhip with Bembo, Sadoletti, and other cele-
brated Wits. The reputation he acquired in that Country,
made the King defirous to recall him, intending to re-
ward his merit, which was univerfally known. But
Pole ftill declined, on fome pretence or other to comply
with the King's defire. At laft, finding delays could
prevail no longer, he was forced to write to the King
the true reafon of his refufal, which was, he could not ap-
prove either of his Divorce, or feparation from the Apof-
tolick See. Henry, who was extremely defirous to gain
him, fent him a writing, containing his Apology, and the
reafons of his proceedings againft the Pope (3). Upon
which Pole wrote his Book De Unitate Ecclefiajlica,
Heibert. + ° 3 wherein he takes the liberty to fpeak of the King in very
offenfive terms, comparing him to Nebuchadnezzar, and
exhorting the Emperor and the reft of the Princes to
turn their Arms againft him. He was not fatisfied with
fending him his Book in Manufcript, but caufed it to be
printed and publifhed (4). Henry provoked, as may be
eafily judged, at fuch a violent and difrepectful Behaviour,
tried to allure him into England, by writing to him how
much he efteemed his Book, defiring him withal to come
and explain fome difficult pafTages by word of mouth.
Pole took care not to be thus infnared. So the King
perceiving this artifice took not effect, diverted him of all
his dignities, the lofs whereof was amply repaired by the
Pope and the Emperor. Some time after, he was rewarded
with a Cardinal's Hat. He thereby became ftill more
attached to the Pope's intereft, and a greater enemy to the
King, who not being able to reach his Perfon, made his
Family and Kindred feel the effects of his indignation.

The fuppreffion of the lefTer Monafteries, enacted in
the laft Seffion of the late Parliament, was not executed
till Augujl, though the Commiffioners appointed for that
purpofe had received their inftruc-tions in April. Proba-
bly, the King had a mind to fee the Iffue of the new Par-
liament before they proceeded. As their report was fup-
prefTed in the Reign of Queen Mary, it cannot pofitively
be faid what it contained. Thus much is certain, the
adherents of the Pope and the old Religion accufed them
of committing numberlefs extortions and robberies, and of
making fa He reports of what they difcovered in this Vifi-


c/tbe lifer
T.I. Coll.
P- 143-

tation, to leflen the horror of their oppreffions. This may K36.
be partly true. Nay, it is not unlikely that thefe Men,
either from a defire to make their court to the King, or
from a greedinefs to enrich themfelves, exceeded their in-
ftruiitions. On the other hand, it is alfo piobable, their
accufers highly aggravated the crimes laid to their charge.
However this be, immenfe numbers were extremely dif-
pleafed at the fuppreffion of fo many religious Houfes,
which were had in great veneration. All the Fricis of
thefe fupprefled Houfes who wilhed to become Seculars,
had a difpenfation from the King, and the reft were re-
moved to the larger Monafteries, which were untouched.
The Churches and Cloyfters were pulled down, and the
materials fold to the King's ufe.

It may be eafily judged, the Monks fpared no pains to <*»«■*»«
excite the People to rebel. They found it the more eafy, W .'„fj u .^
as great difcontents reigned every where. The nobility Burnet.
and gentry took it very ill, that the King fhould have the
Lands of the fupprefled Monafteries, moft part whereof
were founded by their Anceftors. Befides, they were de-
prived of the conveniency of providing for their younger
Children, when they had too many, and of lodging, as
they travelled, in thefe Houfes, where they were always
well entertained. The poor murmured ftill louder, be-
caufe multitudes lived by the Alms which were daily dif-
tributed in thefe Houfes. In fhort, the devout Bigots
thought the Souls of their Anceftors muft now lie in
Purgatory, fince fo many Mafles which were faid for their
deliverance, where abolifhed by the fuppreffiun of the Mo-

The Court hearing of thefe murmurs, endeavoured to 7 f e ' l 'S"'' / ' r '
compofe them, by publishing the diforders, difcovered in °p re jrJl'aiu[a
thefe Houfes. But this fignified nothing. Befides that pubtijbed.
thefe reports were deemed very much aggravated, it was Burnet -
faid, why were not thefe abufes feverely punifhed and re-
formed, without deftroyine whole Houfes for ever ? At laft, V? K l"?

s, 11 r 1 1 ■ it 1 r 1 • r . Jdl tbetr

Cromwell found an expedient to allay thefe dncontents in £<,„,/, ar
great meafure, by adviting the King to fell the Lands of eafy «'«•
the fupprefled Monafteries at very eafy rates, and oblige
the Purchafers, under fevere penalties, to keep up the
wonted Hofpitality (5). But this expedient was not capable
of entirely appeafing the murmurs of the People, though
the King ftrove to give them fome fatistaclion by re-endow-
ing one and thirty of thefe Houfes (6).

Whilft People were in this fermentation, the King^'"^""
publifhed, in the name of the Vice-gerent, fome Injunc- Hall,
tions to regulate the behavior of Perfuns in Holy Orders, Burnet,
many of whom led very irregular Lives. Thefe Injunc- He,bert -
tions contained nothing but what had been ordained by , trw
feveral Synods (7), and yet the Clergy were extremely fhiinfiritr
offended, becaufe they could not endure to fee themfelves m ^,^w
fubject to the orders of the Vice-gerent, by whom, they Hulhngfh.
faid, they were going to be inflaved much more than by
the Pope. Thus the inferior Clergy, the Monks and the
Bigots being equallv concerned in what had been dene,
and in what, very probably, was intended to be done,
infpired thofe on whom they had any influence, with a
fpirit of Rebellion, which quickly broke out into a

The firft rifing was in Lincoln/hire (8), where Dr. Mac- hfimBlm
kerel, Prior of Barlings, drew after him a great body of'^ irl , nco
Men, whom he headed under the name of Captain Cob- Herbert.
ler. The Rebels fent their grievances to the King in a Burnet.
very humble manner, telling him, they acknowledged his . tow _
Supremacy, and were content he fhould enjoy the Tenths Hollingfli.
and Firft-Fruits of the Livings, but withal prayed him
to advife with his Nobility concerning the redrefs of their
Grievances. This was taxing the King indirectly with

(1) This is one of the grealeft Miftakes concerning Families Rapin has been guilty of. Cardinal Pole was no ways re'ated to de la Pale Duke of Suffelt.
The Cardinal's Father Sir Rubard Pale, Knight of the Garter, wis i Wyt»ari, and married Margaret Daughter of the Duke of Clurtr.ce. See Note 3^.726.

(2) He lays himlelf he was not prefent, which mews, that at that time he was contented to be lilent in his Opinion, and that he did not think fit to oppofe,
what was doing. Burnet, Tom. III. p- 124.

(3) In a Book writ by Dbftor Sampfan. Idem. T. I. p. 221.

(4) Pole'i B 'ok was anfwercd by Bilhop Stoiejly, and Bilhop Tunflal, in a long and learned Letter, directed to Pah. Gardiner publifhed alfo againft it, his
Book of True Obedience; to which was added a Preface by Banner. Idem. Tom. III. p. 126, &C. Herbert, p. 181.

(5) The Purehafers being obliged to keep up the old Hofpitality, (which they were to do upon the Penalty of paying every Month fix Pounds thirteen Shil-
lings and four Pence, to be levied by the Juftices of the Peace, who were impuvvered to enquire of the Matter) the common fort, who, like tholed three hundred Deputies
to Doncajler, Commiflioners fhould meet them there, and
treat ol a Peace. His aim was to gain time, in hopes,
the three hundred Deputies would difagree, and their
diffention, by prolonging the Negotiation, give him time

X. That Lee and Leightcm, Vifilors of theMonaficries, t r~{ u
fhould be impiifoned, and brought to account for their
briberies and extortions.

As the Deputies had not power to qualify thefe de- Tit Cnrfe-
mandn, fo the King's Commimoncrs were not authorized "' ' •' '■'■'
to grant them. The King took care not to deftrov in a
moment the work of many years. Thus the conieience
ended without any fruit. The Duke of Norfolk was tery Ttc D:<y of
forry to fee that the affair was like to be decided by Arms. Nl ■'■ ,|: '"-
He heartily wifhed, the King would grant the Rebels all *1"JJ/ 8 w " fa
their demands; but knew too well his humour and cha- without a
rafter, to venture to make him fuch a propofal. Mean Battle.
while, he was extremely embarrafied. He muft either be- Burnt**'
tray the King's intereft, or refolve to fight the Rebels, Herbert.
contrary to his own inclination, and with great danger
of a defeat. At lcaft, he could not avoid, purfuant to
the intent of the Court, to prolong the affair till the King
was ready to march, and then he faw, the ruin of the
Rebels was inevitable. In this perplexity, he chofe to Hall.
write to the King, that the number of the Rebels daily Burner,
increafing, there was danger of their making fome at- Herbclt-
tempt which it would be difficult to refift ; and therefore,
to prevent the threatened mifchief, it was his opinion, if
his Highnefs pleafed, that fome of their demands fhould
be granted. Upon this Letter, the King impowered him
to offer them a general pardon without exception (Si),
and promife them in his name, that the next Parliament
fhould be held in the North. But withal, he ordered
him not to make ufe of thefe remedies except in extre-
mity, and when there was no other refource. The
Duke receiving thefe Powers, thought proper to ufe them
without delay, fince it was the only way to free him
from his prefent embarraffment. He was unwilling open-
ly to betray the King's interefts, and on the other hand,
did not care to be inftrumental in the Rebels deftructi-
on, whofe fentiments he approved, though he durft not
fhew it. So, after having, by his Correfpondents, pre- the Held,
vailed with the Leaders to comply with the King's offers, am t' ef'k
the agreement was concluded, and every Man returned p,ird ° r -
to his home, to the great forrow of the Monks and Bi-
gots, who had expected quite another thing from their

Htibert. to prepare his Army. A few days after, the Duke of efforts to excite the People to rebel (9). But this agree


Norfolk returning to Doncajler, fent word to the Rebels
that he had brought them a general pardon, ten only ex-
cepted, fix of whom were named, and four not. But
this pardon was unanimoully rejected , becaufe the fix
Perfons named were fome of the heads, and every one
was in fear of being one of the four whom the King had
referved. And indeed, the King had no other view but
to fow difcord among them, and make way for the Treaty
at Doncajler, which they accepted at laft, and fent their
three hundred Deputies thither (6). The Court had ex-
pected, thefe Deputies would never agree about their de-
mands, and fo would afford the time that was wanted.
' But as it was eafy for the Leaders to difcover the Court's
intention, they gave the Deputies their inflections in
writing, from which they were not to depart. Thefe

Tbi /;,/..


ment hindered not the Friers and Ecclefiafticks of thofe
parts, from continuing to foment among the People a Spi-
rit of Rebellion, which broke out again, as we fhall fee
hereafter. Something muft now be faid of the Emperor's
affairs with the King of France, wherein all Europe was

When Francis I. began the War in Savoy, about the Affair, he-
end of the laft year, the Emperor was in Sicily, upon his twa * '*'
return from his Tunis expedition, but unable to affift the fw-T ""*
Duke of Savoy. This made him chufe to try to cool the Bellai.
King of France's ardor by a Negotiation, till he could p - D ™xl.
aid his Ally. The death of Francefco Sforza, which hap-
pened in the mean time, furnifhed him with an oppor-
tunity. He intimated to the French AmbaiTador refiding
at his Court, that he would not difpofe of the Duchy
inftru-ctions contained ten Demands, which the Deputies of Milan, till he knew the King of France's fentiments.

Francis being informed of it, demanded the Duchy for Negotiation
his fecond Son the Duke of Orleans, and the Emperor at "" 'i*
put him in hopes, he would give it to his third Son thc^S
Duke of Angouleme, upon certain terms, which left it in
his power to prolong the Negotiation as much as he pleafed.
And indeed, he amufed him in this manner till April 1536,
one while infilling upon the Perfon of the Duke of Angou-
Ume, another while feeming inclined to confer the Duchy
on the Duke of Orleans. Francis willing to end this af-
fair, and knowing, the Emperor intended to go to Rome,
fent the Cardinal of Lorrain for a pofitive anfwer, but
left the events of the War fhould bring fome obftacle to
this Negotiation, he ordered Admiral Brian, who com-
manded in Piedmont, to ceafe hoftilities.

Whilft the Cardinal of Lorrain was on his journey, The Empenr
the Emperor arriving at Rome, went, a few days after, 'm'va at
to a publick Confiftory, which was alTembled at his re- H "^- ert
queft. There, before the Pope and the Cardinals, he in- before the
veighed againft the King of France, intimating, he was p <f ""d
the fo!e Author of the Wars that had afflicted Europe C £*"f is "
ever fince his Acceffion to the Throne. He thence took Shunel

made at the conference held at Doncajler the 6th of De-

I. They demanded a general pardon, without any ex-

II. That a Parliament fhould be held at York.

III. That a Court of Juftice fhould be erected there,
that the Inhabitants of the northern Counties might not
be brought to London upon any Law-Suit.

IV. That fome Acts of the late Parliaments which
were too grievous to the People, fhould be repealed (7).

V. That the Princefs Mary fhould be declared Legiti-

VI. That the papal Authority fhould be re-eftablifhed
upon the old foot.

VII. That the fuppreffed Monasteries fhould be reftored
to their former State.

VIII. That the Lutherans and all innovators in Reli-
gion fhould be punifhed feverely.

IX. That Thomas Cromzve/l, and Audky Lord Chancel-
lor, fhould be removed from the Council, and excluded
fiom the next Parliament.

cccafion to fay, that inltead of ftiedding fo much innocent »'** *

3 ' ° French King

in finite
wh'm the ReMs lent with him. Hcbeit, p. 206. Cimkat.

that lime of their Chiefs wouid compound for thcmfclves, and leave the reft to the Gallows.

that the Rebels h.id broken the Ceffation. Hid.
15 to Herbert, & t . till after the Conference at Dtncajlti

(1) Tegcther with Sir Ralph Elector «nd Ribei t Bitot!,

(2) Rurrours were induiTriOully fpread among them,
Hubert, ibid.

(3) He alio detained Elecher and Bowes, under pretence

(4) The fecond Swelling ot the River was not, accordm
jeering their Demand 1 ;, refolved to attjile Doncajler. p. 10-.

(5) Ey the Duke ot Norfolk. Hcrkit, ibid.

(6) Among whom were John Lord Scroop, Lmd Latimer, J.bn Lord Ltmley, Thcmeti Lord d'Any, Sir Thomai Perry, Ru
treat with the Duke of Nor/elk, Sir William Fitx-William Admiral of England, tec. Herbert -.bid.

(7) N'.inu-ly, Thofe for the laft Subfiliy, Icing a Fifteenth, for Ul'es, lor nothing of Words Mifnrifiori of Treaiun, fci the Clergy's paying theii Tenth-
arid Firft-Fruits to the King. Herbert, p. 207.

{81 Their Paid, n was ligncd by King Hinry at Richmond, December -. Ueibert, p. 20-T.

(5} The King lent alio a leng Anlwer to their Demand;, wh:ch the Reader may les in Burnt, Tom. I. p. »3». and Herbert, p. 20;.

when the Rebels upon ths King's re-

Aike. Sec. who were to



Book XV.


8i 7

1536. Blood, it would bs better to decide their quarrel by fingle power in his own hands, whereas they had nothing mire
Combat with Sword and Poignard, [in their Shirts J in to lay, afier quitting their Arms. The King knowing
i'ome Illand, or in a Boat. But the next day, the French how the People of the North (bod affected, ordered the

<5 37'

bit tartel.


draivl bit

Ainhallador demanding whether he dellgned to challenge
the King his m. liter, he replied, he had no fuch intention ;
but meant only, that the expedient lie propofed fcemed to
him more realonable than a War.

Some time after, the Emperor being at Sienna, the
Cardinal of Lor rain waited on him, and in his Audien-
ces, difcovered he had never intended to give the Duchy
of Milan to a Prince of the Royal Family of France.
He writ therefore to the King, that he was to expert
War. And indeed, the Emperor was now aflembling all
his Forces, propofing to bring three Armies into the
Field, one in Piedmont, which he intended to command
in perfon, another in Picardy, and a third in Champagne.
This defign was already fo publick, that Francis could
not be ignorant of it. So, believing the Emperor meant
1ror.fi out cf to make his mod powerful effort in Picardy, he recalled
Italy, the greatelf part of his Army in Piedmont, having ordered

Turin and his other conquefls in that Country to be well

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