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ffored with Ammunition.
i^?«''«o The French Troops quitting Piedmont, the Emperor
Provence- caufed Turin to be inverted, and during the Siege, headed
his Army, and marched towards Provence. Francis, who
was then at Lyons, fpeedily provided Marfeilles with ne-
ceffarieSj and ordered two Camps to be fortified, one at Ca-
vaillon, under the command of the Marfhal de Montmo-
rency, the other at Valence^ where he came himfelf.
There he received the fad news of the death of his Son
the Dauphin, poifoned by Alontecuculli.
Ubi Emptror The Emperor having entered Provence, took Aix, and
then laid Siege to Marseilles, which was begun the 25th
of Augujl, and raifed the 9th of September. He had fo
ill taken his mcafures, that not knowing how to fubfift
his Army in Provence, he was forced to retire in the ut-
moft diforder, not without danger of being defeated in
his retreat, if Francis had thought proper to attack him.
He came to Genoa the 2d of Oilober, and imbarked for
Spain. This was the fuccefs of the Provence expedition,

for mi fwo


Duke of Norfolk (1) to remain there with his Army, to
keep them in awe. So the Duke was employed for I'ome
time, with caufing Perfons of all conditions to Avear to
be true to the King (2), a very improper remedy for fuch
fort of eviK, fmte the fame compullion which extorts Oalh';
from a difcontcnted People, fcrves alfo for pretence to
break them upon occafjon. In the mean time, Ashe, who " a,,#
had commanded the Rebels, was ordered to Court, where Burnett
he was well received ; but the Lord d' Any, who had
not fo readily obeyed the like order, was fent to the
Toivcr, upon his arrival at London.

Shortly after, two Gentlemen of the North, Nicolas ^Znt-]
Mufgrave and Thomas Tilly, put themfelvcs at the head mjhed.
of eight thoufand Male-contents, and appeared before Car- HlU -
lijle, in order to take the City. But being repulfed, and s'owV'
thereupon fuddenly attacked by the Duke of Norfolk, they Fbllinfft.
were entirely routed. Alufgrave had the good fortune H * r!,CI t-
to efcape, but Tilby and feventy four others taken with
him, were hanged on the Walls of Carlifle. Sir Francis
Bigod and one Halam with another body of Rebels, at-
tempted at the fame time to furprize Hull; but were
made Prifoners themfelves, and executed.

Thefe attempts rendered the Kin^' fo fierce, that he Aikc and
put to death Aske and the Lord a" Arcy, notwithftand- ifj£j* •
ing the general pardon to appeafe the firlt InlurrerStion. ,< ut ,d.
The Lord d' Arcy accufed the Duke of Norfolk of favour- Hil1 -
ing the Rebels, which perhaps was too true. But the Hubert

Mar eilies,

and ruijei
tile Siege,

mnd returm
11:9 Spain.

Duke cleared himfelf, or rather, the King thought not fit Hol/in>;/ri.
ftrictly to examine this accufation (3). Mean while, as he
knew, the Emperor was contriving fome Plot in Ireland, f! x %- »
he gave order that Thomas Fitz-gera/d, Son of the late Kli<Ure*«i
Earl of Kildare, and five of his Uncles, after a long im- 10 death.
prifonment at London, fhould fuffer death for a terrour to **■"■
the Iri/h. But the Earl of Kildarc's youngeft Son had ,V,.
the good fortune to efcape, and fled for refuge to Car- Herbert.
dinal Pole {+).

The King could not be perfwaded but that it was 7* *""*
which he had been long meditating, and by means of the Monks who moil contributed to prefervc and foment faZ^jialt

the People's difcontents. He confidercd them as the chief r' 1.
Authors of the late Inlurrecfions, and confeijuently as his "'
perfonal Enemies. He believed to fee in their behavior, Hcr^.!.
that if they had power, they would not fpare him, and
therefore he projected their ruin, to prevent their defigns.
Herein he found two confiderable advantages, the one to
free himfelf from his enemies, and the other to enjoy

which he hoped to give a mortal wound to France.
Campaign in Whilft the Emperor was waging War in Provence,
Rcardy. t y je Q, un t c Najj'au entered Picardy with an Army of

thirty thoufand Men, and took Guife by ftorm. After

that, he befieged Peronne, which was relieved by the

Duke of Guife.
Marriage of Francis returning to Paris with unfpeakable fatisfadfion,
Scoth'nT at having difappoinicd the Emperor's defigns, met upon their fpoils. It is not to be doubted, this laft confidera




■witb Mag- the way James V, King of Scotland, who was come to de-
daleno/ mand his Daughter Magdalen in marriage. He was not
without great difficulty prevailed with to grant his requeft,
becaufe the Princefs being fickly, it was thought marriage
would but fhorten her days. However, the King of Scot-
land expreifing a very earneft defire for the Marriage,
it was concluded in December, and the Nuptials were cele-
brated the tftof January 1537. Let us return now to
the affairs of England.

The Northern Rebellion was appeafed, but in fuch a
manner, that the caufe ftill fubfifted, the Male-contents
Word -with having received no redrefs of their Grievances, except 011-
ibeReMi. ly that the King had promifed to call a Parliament in
the North, which he never intended to do. The pre-
tence he ufed was, that they left in the Monafteries the
Monks, they had reftored. But this was a precarious ex-
cufe, if ever there was one, fince it was not their bufi-
nefs to turn them out, but the King's, who had the


breaks bit



tion had alfo a fliare in his project of vengeance upon
them. The fuppreflion of the lefler Monafteries having
only whetted his appetite, he refolved to fupprefs all the
reft and feize their immenfe poiTeflions (5). The more Hcapf-Antt
eafily to accomplifh his defign, he ufed the fame means, he a fi r,cl *ifi m
had praclifed to fupprefs the lefler Monafteries ; that is, (j Urnrt ,
he appointed a very ftrict Vifitation of thofe that remain-
ed, not queftioning but the difcoveries which fhould be
made, would promote his- defign.

The 1 2th of Qflober the Queen was delivered of zBinbcf
Prince, who was called Edward. But his birth coft his

Pnr.ce Ed-

Mother her life, who died two days after her delivery (6). Hall.
As the Kins had caufed his two Daughters by his for- " crbcrt *

• ° 1 1 1 1 tii • • 1 ■ 1 1 Death of

mer marriages to be declared Illegitimate, nothing could c^ een f aHC ,
be more acceptable than the birth of a Soq, who put the
fucceflion of the Crow/i out of all difpute. And there- Edward
fore in a few days he conferred on him, as his Heir appa- Se >'J n °J ir
rent, the title of Prince of JVales^ Duke of Cornwall and Hertford.


(1) And the Earl of Shrew sbury. Herbert ', p. an-

(2.) The Contents of the Oath they toot, were, [1. To revoke all Oaths and Promifes made in the former In'urre£Uon, asking the King's For-
givenefs on their Knees, i. To be true to the King, his Heirs, and Succeflbrs. 3. To obferve and maintain all Acls of Parliament, fince the firfl
Tear of the King's Reign. 4. Not to take Arms again, but by the King's Authority. 5. To apprehend all Seditious Perfons. 6. To remove all
The Monks and Nuns, they had reinplaced in the late dilTolved Monafteries. Herbert, p. ill.

(3) Aike had left the Court without Leave, and being taken again, was hanged [in Chains on a Tower in Tvrk. The L-rd <f Arcy and the Lord
Huffy were arraigned at JVtdminJltr, before the Marquil's of Exeter, then High-Steward, and found guilty of Trcaf.»n. The Lord Hujfy was beheaded
at Lincoln, the Lord J* Arcy on Tcwer-bill* the 20th of June, and buried in St. Botolpb's Church. He endeavoured to purge himfelf, that he was
forced to a Compliance with them ; and pleaded, that the long Services he had done the Crown for fifty Years, he being Fourfcore, trgether wirh
his great Age and Infirmity, might mitigate the King's Difpleafure. He died much lamented, eveiy Body thinking he had hard Meafure. Sir Ro-
kert Conjlabie was hanged at Hull j Sir John Bulmer, Sir 'Thomas Percy, Sir Stephen Hamilton , Nie-olat 'Tempeji, and William Lumley, fullered at Ty-
burn ; and Margaret Cheney, alias, Lady Bulmer, was burned in Srr.itbfield. Hall, fol. 232. Stow, p. 574. Burnet, Tom. J. p. 234.

(4^ Gerald Yitz>-Gerald the eighth Earl of Kildare, was made Deputy of Ireland, in 1515, and again in 152+* But a Quarrel arifing between
him and 'James Butler Earl of Oj/bry, the Earl of Kildare was charged with Male-Adminiftration, and ordered by King Hmry to repair to Lcnjsrt.
At his Departure, he left his Son Ibomat Deputy in his room ; who, upon a falfe report, that his Father, (then a Pnfoner in the Tower) was be-
headed, dcried King Henry and his Authority, proclaimed open War, and applied to the Emperor for alfiftance j whereupon, he and five of his Uncles
were attainted, and upon the King's landing m Army into Ireland, were taken, and brought over to London, and now beheaded on Februjry 3.
Gmld Fitx, iivald, the E^rl «f Kildar,-'s yourigeft Snn was patkt up in a Bundle of Clothes and conveyed to Ireland, and lb to France, and from
thence to the Low-Cvuntnei\ *in both which Places being required of our King, he at length fled to Cardinal Pole, who rinding him a fit Inftrument
tor his purpufe, kept him till he might lie reitored to his Country and Place. Herbert, p. 212, 181.

(<;) In the Records of this Year there arc extant, the Surrenders of three Monarteries only ; namely, of the Abbey of Fumefe in Lirrcslnjbire, on
April 9, valued at nine hundred and fixty Pounds a Year. Of Bermondjey in Surrey, 'June I, valued five hundred and forty eight Pounds, and oi"
Bajblijbam, or Bt/btam, in Berkjbire, jfu.'y 5, valued two hundred and thirty feven Pounds. Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 235- Collet?, p. 143.

(6) The Queen was delivered at Hamf -.n-Ccurt, and died the 24th cf Oflo^er, as appears in a Journal written by Cecil, that was in twelve Diys
after Edward '$ Birth : So it is in the Herald's Office. Strype Correct, to Burnet, Tom. 3. p. 406, 419. She died not by the CrueJty of the
Surgeons lipping up her Belly to make way fot the Prince's Birth, as fome Writers gave out, but as the Original Letters yet extant, fliow, (he di«d,
-rter being wdl de.ivered, of a Dii'emper incident to Women in that Condition. Burnet, Tom. 3. ibid. Queen 'Jane was buried in the Quire at
Winder, v.h( le lofs fo much aftaiileO the King, he having always found her Dilcreet, Humble, and Loyal, that notwithstanding fame good 03ei9, bt
Cdmuiucd a Widower above two Years. tfcrt?*t, p. 2ia.



Vol. I.




Vol. I.



Mary of
Guife in

Dll'tfitiTlt .

Germany *-

Earl of CheJIer. At the fame time, he created Edward
Seymour the Queen's Brother, and the new-born Prince's
Uncle, Earl rf Hertford ( i ).
The War Whilft thefe things palled in England, the War ftill

Tl'Z'tu'' continued between the Emperor and the King of France,
Tm^nraml but was interrupted in Picardy by a fix months Truce
Francis. concluded in July, which was followed by another in
2r"«ft, November, for Italy. As by the laft Truce, it was agreed
Kmfymi that each fhould keep what he poffeiTed, the Duke of
'o'y- Savoy remained equally defpoiled by his enemies, and by

thofe he had called to his affiftance ; the common fate of
petty Princes !
Death of the The Ql ,een of Scotland died in July, to the great joy
<$ucc*of of thofe who dreaded the progrefs of the Reformation,
becaufe that Princefs had been educated by her Aunt the
Queen of Navarre. Buchanan fays, the Cuftom of wear-
ing Mourning was firft introduced into Scotland on occa-
fion of her death, which Cuftom, though of forty years
ftanding, was however not yet eftablifhed in his time.
James V removed the uneafinefs of thofe, who were afraid
of his being biaifed by the deceafed Queen in favor of the
new Religion, by demanding in Marriage Mary of Guife
Sifter of the Duke of Guife and the Cardinal of Lor-

The affairs of Religion daily grew more important in
a great part of Europe, by reafon of the progrefs of the
sfci'/' / ' i "' '" R ef ° rmat ' on - Thofe who had embraced it, wifhed only
to live in quiet with liberty of Conlcience. But this was
what the old Religion would never allow them. The glory
of God, and zeal for the interefts of the Church, ferved
for pretence to this refufal. But the real Caufes were,
firft, The pride of moft Men, who cannot bear to be
told that their opinions are wrong. Secondly, The tem-
poral intereft of the Clergy, who, wherever the Refor-
mation was eftablifhed, faw themfelves deprived of their
rich Benefices ; the Revenues of the Church being ap-
plied by the Reformed to ufes very different from thofe
in which they had hitherto been employed. Thirdly, The
Pope's interefts, who daily loft his Subjects, his Reve-
n,jp art fc- nueS) his Credit, his Authority. There was another
5™^*'''** particular Caufe in Germany, which inflamed the troubles

£, o.piror* * J * it-

occahoned by Religion, and that was, the Emperor and
his Brother the King of the Romans, had formed a de-
fign to ufe the pretence of obliging the Proteftants to re-
Crievanas enter tne f a ' e of tne Church. For this reafon, inftead of
of the Pra- healing, they fomented the divifions to the utmoft of their
lefiamt. power. The Proteftants complained, among other things,
that a Council was called at Mantua, contrary to an ex-
prefs pronnfe that it fhould be in Germany. Befides, they
meant not to fubmit to the decifions of a Council, where
the Pope prefided, and which, as they perceived, would
lb, Emtt- ^ e ^ ar trom being free. The Emperor amufed them with
w'j nmfii* evafive anfwers, till tilings fhould be ready to attack
Atfascrt. them. Mean while, the Pope, having deferred the ope-
ning of the Council from May to November, charged in
that Interval the Cardinals Contarini, Sadoletti, Pole, Bem-
bo, all Perfons of great reputation, to examine wherein
Tb:Pcpt?r the Church wanted Reformation. Thefe able Divines
dm Ctmmif- found nothing amifs as to the Doctrines. They only
."£'*" drew up, as to Difcipline, a lift of fundry trifles, which,
State 0/ the in their opinion, deferved to be rectified. To thefe alone
cburcb and tne y thought the Reformation ought to be confined.
Tb/'EmtK- Mean while, the Emperor was very ferioufly thinking
rtr'sDefigiti. of the affairs of Germany, though he took great care to
conceive his defigns from the Proteftants. In order to free

himfelf from all other incumbrances, and attack them 1537.
with advantage, he had concluded the Truce with Francis,
in hopes it would foon be followed by a Peace. He per-
ceived, the Smakaldick League would be an everlafting ob-
ftacle to the execution of his vaft Projects, by Francis's
and Henry's endeavours to gain it to their interefts. So,
his chief aim was to diflolve that League, that he might
afterwards proceed againft England with all the Forces of
Spain, Italy, Germany, and the Low-Countries (2).

Henry eaiily judged, Charles V and Francis I, had a- 1558.
greed to a Truce, only in order to conclude a Peace very Final 8e/i-
foon, which would rob him of the affiftance of France. '"""/"V"?'
So, finding he had no refuge but in his own Forces, in Monajienn,
cafe of attack, he confidered early of means to prevent Herbert.
InfurretStions at home, which mull have greatly emba- Buinet -
rafted him, if he fhould be engaged in a foreign War. He
knew, the Monks hated him mortally. They were the
Pe'rfons that inlpired the Englilh with a Spirit of Rebel-
lion, the more dangerous, as Religion was the principal
Caufe. So, to deprive the Pope and the Emperor of fuch
a fupport in his own Realm, he refolved to fupprefs all
the religious Houles ftill remaining in England. He had a
farther motive, which was not inconfiderable, namely, to
have a Fund fufficient to maintain the War, without be-
ing forced to over-burden his Subjects. But as the fup-
preffion of parr of the Monafteries had already occaficned
troubles in the Kingdom, it was likely, the fuppreflion
of all would raife ftill greater. Wherefore he believed he
fhould prevent all commotions, by removing the People's
veneration for the Monks. To this end, the report of Henry pub-
the laft Vifitation being brought to him, he ordered it to i 'l h " f' R '~
be immediately publifhed. Very probably, the Fads in- *j^ y,ji, a -
ferted concerning the diforderly lives of the Friers and ri'oa.
Nuns, were fet forth fo as to be fubfervient to the King's Durnet -
defigns (3). But what conduced moft to recover People S«w«i>Mu
out of their fuperftitious fondnefs for the religious Houies, l . r r Jui "7
was the difcovery of the frauds committed there with re- Herbert. '
fpect to Relicts and Images. Had the bufinefs been only p. n;.
the debaucheries of the Monks and Nuns, it might have Eurnet -
been objected, that it fufficed to make ftrict inquiry of
thofe who were guilty, and to punifh them feverely. But
for the pious frauds ( as they are called, ) it could hardly
be thought but that the whole Society was concerned.
For this reafon therefore, the King, to make them as vi-
fible as the Sun, took care publickly to expofe the coun-
terfeit Relicks found in the Monafteries, and the Springs
by which the Images of our Saviour, the Virgin Mary,
or any of the Saints were made to move, which was
looked upon by the ignorant mulsitude as the effect of a
divine Power. If the Reader defires to fee a particular
account of thefe pious Impoftures, he will find it, though
withal very fhort, in the Hiftory of the Reformation of
England. Thefe frauds being thus detected, whatever Hall,
had ferved to engage the People in fuperftition, was by Stow-
the King's order burnt in Publick (4). But what grieved
the Votaries moft was, to fee the Bones of Thomas Becket, Bcck "''
commonly called St. Thomas of Canterbury , publickly aid";,"*'' '
burnt. They accufed the King of acting from a motive Shrine
of a facrilegious Avarice, in order to have a pretence to-t,' zf< ''
feize the rich Shrine of that Saint, whereon, befides other H°m'ngih.
precious Stones, was a very fine Diamond, offered in 1179 Herbert -
by Henry I, King of France, when he came in Pilgri-
mage to Canterbury (5). This proceeding fo exafperated
the Adherents of the old Religion^ that they writ in a
moft virulent manner to Rome againft the King, com-

(1) Sir William Fitx Williams was made Earl of Southampton, and in March following Sir Wibiam Paulet Treafurer of the King's Houfc, was
created Lird St. John, and Sir John Rufjel Controler, Lord Rujfel. Herbert, p. 212.

(2) This year, the manner of calling Pipes of Lead fur Conveyance of Water under Ground, was firft invented by Robert Brock, one of the King's
Chaplains J Robert Cooper Goldfnaith nuking the Inftruments, and putting the Invention firft in practice. Hollingfh. p. 944.

(3) Of the Coofeffiona then made to the Vifitors, there J6 only now one extant, which, probably, efcaped the Deftruetion of all Papers of that
kind in Queen Mary's Time. It is from the Benedtdinet of St. Andrews in Northampton, wherein they acknowledge their part ill Life, fur which
the Pit of Hell was ready to fwallow them up. They confefs, they had neglected the Worlhip of God, lived in Jdlenefs, Gluttony, benfuality, C3V.
Burnet, Tom. I. p. 237,

(4) And here, lays Lord fierbeit, out of our Records I Hull mention fome of the Images and Relicks to which the Pilgrimages of thefe times
brought Devotion and Offerings j as our Lady's Girdle mowed in eleven places, and her Milk in eight. The Felt of St. Thomas of Lancaf.er, a Re-
medy for the Headach; the Penknife and Boots of St. 'Jbomat of Canterbury, and a piece of his Shirt, much reverenced by great-bellied Women j
the coals that roalted St Laurence ; two or three heads of St. Urjula \ Malchus's Ear: and the pairing of St. Edmund's Nails; the Image of an
Angel with one Wing, which brought hither the Spear's Head that pierced Chrift's Side ; an Image of our Lady, with a Taper in her Hand, which
burnt nine years together without wafting, till one forlwearing himfelf thereon, it went out, and was now found to be but a piece of Wood. The
Crucifix cf Bo.\tey in Kent, commonly called the Rood of Grace, was a famous Impofture, to which many Pilgrimages were made, being contrived
fy as to be able, by the help of Springs, to roll the Ejes, and move the Lips, to bow, to (hake the Head, Hands and Feet- It was (hewed publickly
at Paul's Oofs, by John Bilbop of R'xbefler, and after a Sermon upon it, there broken in pieces, Feb. 24. Another great Impofture was at Hales in
Gloucejlerjhire , where the blcod o( Chrift brought from 'Jerusalem was lhowcd in a Chriftal Vial, and was faid to have this Property, That if a Man
was in a mortal !>in, and not abfo lvcd, he could not fee it. Therefore every Man that came to behold this Miracle, was forced to continue to make
Prel'ents, till he bribed Heaven to give him the fight of fo bleffcd a Relict. This was now difcovered to be the blood of a Duck renewed every
week, and the one fide of the Vial was fo thick, that there was no feeing through it, but the other was tranlparcnt- It was fo placed near the
Altar, that one in a fecret place behind could turn which fide he pleaied outward. Thare was brought out of Wales a huge Image of Weed, called
Darvet Galberen, which ferved tor fuel to burn one Frier Torreji, who advifed People in Confeflion not to believe the King's Supremacy. Befides
which, the Imjges of our Lady of Walfingbam, of Ipfwicb, of tenrije, of Ijltngton, and St. John of Ofuljlon, called otherwife Mr. John Sbi,rr.c, who
was faid to (hut up the Devil in a Bont, and many others, were publickly burnt. Herbert, p. 213. Compl. H'Ji. Slow, p. 575.

(51 For three hundred years he was accounted one of the greateft Saints in Heaven, as appears from the accounts cf the Leger-bcoks cf the Of-
ferings to the three greateft Artars in Lhrilt's Church in Canterbury. In one year there was offered at Chrift'fi Alur, 3/. 2r. 6 d. At the Vir-
gin's Altar, 63/. 5 j. 6 d. But at St. Thomas's, 832/. 121. 3 d. The next year the edds grew greater: At Chrift's Altar not a Penny; at the
Virgin's only 4 /. I J. % d ; but at St. Thomas's, 954 /. 6 J. 3 d. The rich Stone was offered by Lneil VII of France, which our King let in a
King and wore on his Thumb. The Spoil of the Shrine in Gold and precious Stones filled two cherts, which were fo heavy, that thty were a
Lt.ad to ci^ht ftrong Men to carry them out of the church. His name was ftruck out of the {Calendar t The day of raifing his b> dy, or as they
called it, hi, Ttanlbtion, being the 7th of 'July, which was not only a Holiday, but every 50th year th»re was a Jubilee for fifteen days together,
trt Indulgence granted lu all that vifitcd his Shrine. Burnt, Tom. I, p. 244. Stow, p. 576,


Book XV.



151S. paring him to the greateft Tyrants that ever lived.

IT '''' Whereupon, at Rome and other places, numberlefs Satyrs
raiiijt tie ' wcre penned, which painted Henry as the moft execrable
A5 ng fc;t u of Men, to thofe who were not ufed to the hyperboli-



He is very
angry with

the King.

A vsalelt

Back -if

cal expreflious of the Italians. The King had his Spies
at Rome, who acquainting him with what was publifhed
againft him, told him withal, that to Cardinal Pole the
Informations lent from England were generally addreded,
and that his ftile was vifible in fome of the Satyrs. This
fo highly incenfed the King againft the Cardinal, that
he made all his Family and Friends feel the effects, info-
much that he would fooner have pardoned any Crime,
than a correfpondence with him. It is ftrange that the
Cardinal, who feemed otherwife very prudent and mode-
rate, fliould fo give way to his zeal, or his paffion againft
the King, that he feared not, by fo unadvifed a behaviour,
to expofe his Friends to Henry's utmoft refentment. His
obftinacy in this refpeCt was fo great, that at length he was
the occafion of his Mother's loling her head on the Scaf-
fold, as will be feen hereafter.
^ . ltI All the King's proceedings convincing the Pope that could fucceed

fubUJbese ne was t0 expert no change in him, he publifhed at
BM agmnH length the Bull of Excommunication (1) , drawn and
figned in 15?;. Moreover, he tried to excite all the
Princes of Chri/lendom againft Henry, and offered the
Kingdom of England to the King of Scotleind. Nay ,
Pole maintained in a Book, publifhed fhortly after, that
it was more meritorious to fight againft Henry, than a-
gainfl the Turk. But the Pope's Thunders had fo loft

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