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London, though a favorer of the Pope, and perfuaded that T,L ' lC; '
the King had no fpiritual authority, took a Commiffion
from him, which adjudged to him both the fpiritual and
temporal power of his Bifhoprick, during his good Plea-
fure (3). After this, the exceffive powe^which the King
daily acquired muft not be thought ftrange, fir,cc every
one ftrove to fubmit to his Will. Gardiner Bifhop of Ifin-
chejler was one of the principal favorers of the old Reli-
gion, to which he was very ferviceable by a profound dif-
limulation,' He expreffed great zeal to execute as well
the Act of the fix Articles, as thofe made againft the Pope.
He thereby maintained his credit, though the King had
but little efteem for him.

The actual Suppreflion of the Monafteries was begun *dn cf
and ended in the courfe of this year (4). The Com-
miffioners appointed for that purpo'fe, fettled every thing ,.
relating thereto. They awarded penfions to the Abbots,
Priors, Monks, and Nuns, for their livelihood. They " ehau
valued the Plate, Goods, Ornaments of the Priefts, ftfrlT |.
the Altars, of the Churches, and ordered what Buildings k& V '5>i
fhould be demoiifhed, and what left ftanding. I have ""'
already obferv'd that the Rents of all the fuppreffed Mo- ^' 6 '
nafteries amounted to one hundred fixty thoufand [one
hundred] Pounds Sterling. But if it be true that this
valuation was made only upon the foot of the fail Leafes
and that thefe were not above the tenth part of the real
Value, as fome affirm, it follows that thefe Rents were
woreh above fixteen hundred thoufand Pounds (5), befides
the ready money which accrued to the Kino- by the Sale
of the effects (6). Here was Wherewithal to make ufeful
Foundations to the Church and State, had all thefe riches
been employed that way. The King feemed at firfl to Strype.
have formed fuch a defign. Nay, it was what had ferved
for the principal ground of the SuppreiTion of the Mona-
fteries. But the greedinefsof the Courtiers and Favorites
allowed but a very fmall part to be expended on things
ufeful and neceffary. Henry had at firft refolved to erect 1U ISng
eighteen new Bifhopricks (7), but as the money was lavifh- U A
ed away, he found reafons to reduce them to a much fmall- t[
er number. In fhort, he contented himfelf with foundin
fix, and eftablifhing Canons in fome Cathedials which Rj : "
the Monks had pofl'efled. In all this he employed but a ""^
revenue of eight thoufand Pounds. He laid out likewife
part of the money in fortifying fome Ports, and all the
reft was fquandered away in prefents and other needlefs

the Biihops (hall (it in til's Order, on the right hand fide of the Parliament Houfe ; firft, the two Archbilhops of Canterbury and Tori, then the B : fticr=
cf London, DurbaM, ix\\WineheJlcr, and the reft according to the time of fLeir Creation. 3. That the Lord Chancellor, Treafurer, Prcfident of the Coun-
cil, and Loid-Pnvy-Seal, being, Baron?, lhall lit, on the left fide of the Parliament-Houfe, above all Dukes, except the Royal Family. 4. That the L rd
Chamberlain, Marlhall, High-Admiral, Lord Steward and Chamberlain, lhall be placed above all Perfons of the fame Eftates and Degrees they (hall
happen to be of. c.. And the King's Secretary, beine a Biron, (hall fit above all Barons. See Statut. 31. Hen. VIII. c. 10.

(1) Burnet fays, the King fent for him ritft, on June 2S, and next day ordered the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and Crcrrnuell, to dine with him.
When they were at Table with him at Limbctb, they ran out much in his Commendation, and acknowledged he had oppofed the Act with (o much
Learning, Gravity, and Eloquence, that even thofe that differed from him were much taken with what he laid, and that he needed to fear nothir.c from
the King. Crcmtucll (aid, when Complaints were brought againft any of his Councilors, the King received them, but would not fo much as hearken
to any Complaint of the Aichbifhop. From that he went on to make a Parallel between him and Cardinal rVolfey : That the one loft his Friends br
his Haughtinefs and Pude, but the other gained on his Enemies by his Mildnefs and Gentlenefs. Upon which the Duke of Norfolk faid, he might b-:t
fpeak of the Cardinal, for he knew him well, having been his Man. This nettled Cromwell, who anfwered, that though he had ferved him he never
liked his manner, and that though the Cardinal had defigned (if his Attempt for the Popedom had luccecded) to have made him his Admiral yet he
refolved not to accept it. To which the Duke of Norfolk tepiied with a deep Oath, 'Hat be tied, with other reproachful Language. Ci.iter lays
C> mwell told the Duke, that he (the Duke) offered to ferve the Cardinal as his Admiral, upon which the Duke faid that it was a Lie. This trou-
bled Cranmer extremely, who did all he could to reconcile them. But they were never afterwards hearty Friends. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 265.

(2) Cranmer*s Secretary having writ out the Book in a fair Hand, and returning with it from Croydon, where the Archbifhop was then, to La'tbclb,
found the Key of his Chamber carried away by Cranmer's Almoner ; lb being obliged to go over to London, and not daring to truft the Book with any
One, carried it with him. Some that were in the Wherry with him, would needs go to Soutbivark-StAe to fee a Bear-baiting, where the King was in
Perlbn. The Bear broke loole into the River, and the Dogs after her. They that were in the Boat leaped tut, and left the Secretary alone. The Bear
got into the Bo. t with the Dogs about her, and funk it- The Secretary dinting for himfelf, loft the Book in the Water. But being brought to L2nd
he faw his Book floating upon the Water. So he defired the Bear-ward to bring it to him; who taking it up, gave it to a Prieft that fto;:d there to
fee whit it might contain. The Prieft finding it to be a confutation of the fix Articles, told the Bear-ward whoever claimed it would be hinged for
his pains. The Secretary thinking to mend the Matter, faid it was his Lord's Book. This made the Fellow more untraceable, beine a forceful Paz::':,
and an Enemy to the Archbiftiop. So that he would not give it back. Whereupon the Secretary applied to Crctrrzvdl, who was then r^irg to Court,
where he expected the Bear-ward would be, in order to deliver the Book to fome of Crannttr\ Enemies. And (0 it happened, whereupon C'-cm^j.-..' caiied
to him, and took the Book out of his Hands, threatning him for meddling with a Privy-Counfellor's Papers, Burnet, Tom. I. p. 20;, 266.

(3) The Subftance of the Commiliion was: That fince all JunfdiCtaon, both Ecelefiaftical and Civil, flowed from the King as Supreme Head, it be-
came thofe who exercifed any Power only by the King's Courtefy, gratefully to acknowledge, that they had it only of his Bounty ; and to declare thev
■wxild deliver it up again when it fheuld pleafe him to call for it. And iince his Vicegerent could not look into all Matters, therefore the King did
empower B'-nncr in his own ftead to exercife all the Parts of Epifcopal Authority, for which he was duly commiffioncd j and this to laft during the Kane's
l'k. fure only. See the Original in Burnet, Tom. I. Coiltff. p. 1S4.

4'. There are fifty-fcven Surrenders upon Record this year J and the Originals of about thirty of thefe are yet to be feen. Th'rtv fe-.en of them
wen- Abbies or Priories, and twenty Nunneries : Among the reft, Godjhtu, tVeftminJier, St. A!bar.s, TVahkim, Ghftenhwy, St. Pettr\ in Gbuajif, &c.
The method ufed in the Supprcliion of thefe Houfes, m3y be fcen in Burnet, Tom. I. Col.'e:!. p. 151, &V. The Hofp.tal of St. Tccmai ;n StvtbwagQ
was alio fupprcfled this year. See Burnet, Tom. I. p. 267, 26S.

;0 Some compute, that the Lands taken from the Monafteries, at twenty years purchafe, would amount, at this prefent time, to thirty nvllion?,
five hundred and three thoufand, four hundred Pounds. Thofe formerly belonging to the Abbey of St. Albjnt , being worth at this dav, abut two
hundied rhoul..ud Pounds a year j and thole that belonged to Ghfenbury Abbey, above three hundred thoufand Pounds yearly. See Ste-jens tiiji. cf Taxes,
p iSS 216.

'(>) The Trcafure found in the Monafteries was valued at one hundred thoufand Pounds. If^d. p. 217, As for an account of the other valuable
effects f.un.l thfre, fee Monajiicon Anglic.

(7 ; On which he intended to beftow eighteen thoufand Pounds a Year. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 1031

7 Expences,



Vol. I.

expences. For this caufe he could not avoid the blame of
having plundered the Church ; whereas had he employed
the beft part of thefe Lands in things ufeful to the Church
and State, he would have gained the Bleflings of his Sub-
jefts and their Pofterity. As to the Parliament, they are
inexcufable for having put into the King's hands fuch im-
menfe Riches deligned for pious ufes, without taking care
how they were to be employed. This is no (lender evi-
dence of what has been already obferved, that the Parlia-
ments met in this Reign only to be inftrumental in grati-
fying the King's Paffions, without ever examining either
the motives or confequences of what he required. Henry
T.I. p. 269. had al( - f orme( ] t he projeit of founding a College for young


upm tbe con
duf? of the


wonderful ufe. The King was fo jealous of his Supre- 1519.
macy, that he neglected nothing to fupport it. Indeed,
the abfolute power acquired over his Subjects placed him
above all oppofition, but he wifhed of all things, the
Nation was convinced of the julrice of that Prerogative.
Hence the Reformers took occafion to remonftrate to him;
that nothing but the reading of the Holy Scriptures could .
undeceive the People ot their falfe notion of the Papal
Authority. By this means they had already obtained, Burnet,
that there fhould be a Bible faftned with a Chain in every
Church, to be freely perufed by all perfons. But as
many fcrupled publickly to read the Scriptures, for fear
of being fufpected of Herefy, Cranmer, meeting with a Pafii ah

Students that they might be qualified for the Service of the favorable opportunity, reprefented to the King, flbatit /|rf JV

J Bibla

State, either in Embaflies or other affairs of the Govern
ment(i). But this projeft mifcarried with many others,
becaufc the King having fold the Lands of the fuppreffed
Abbies, was very loth to put to fuch ufes the ready money
raifed-by the Sale. He chofe rather to lavifh it upon his
pleafures, or his Courtiers, who ufed all forts of Artifices,
Condefcenfions, and bafe Flatteries, to procure fome part
of thefe vaft Treafures.
Tbe Pniif- Whilft Henry was employed in his domeftick affairs, he
tant, avsiJ^ j ia( j an e y e however to what palled abroad. The Empe-

Sn,fr? s f ,' r ° r '' ror fe'gn ed the laft vear a firm def, g n t0 ad J uft the reli g ious
Skidan. differences which occafioned troubles in Germany. But this
was only to draw money from the Proteilants, to be ex-
pended in his War with the Turk. He expeded that upon
the bare hopes, he was pleafed to give them, of redrelTing
their Grievances, they would on his account drain them-
felves of Men and Money, and fo become lefs formidable.
But the Proteftants would not fuffer themfelves to be de-
ceived to fuch a degree. They plainly anfwered to his

was neceffary to give his Subjects leave to have a Bible in Hiufa.
their Houfes. He insinuated to him, that every one ldem -
having liberty to read it, would eafily be convinced,
that the Pope's pretended authority had no foundation in
the Scriptures. This was an innocent Stratagem, to
procure the People an opportunity to inftruct themfelves
in many other Articles, though the King had only one in
view. Gardiner readily perceived the confequence of the Gardiner
Archbifhop's requeff, and feeing the King inclined to grant \££
it, did all he could to divert it. He difputed upon this
Subject with Cranmer in the King's prefence, who heard
them very attentively. At laft, perceiving folid Learning
in what Cranmer faid, and nothing but vanity in the rea-
fonings ot his Adverfary, he fuddenly rofe up, faying to
Gardiner, that fuch a Novice as he was not fit to con-
tend with an old experienced General (2). Shortly after, Frzdamasi^i
he ifTued out a Proclamation, declaring he was defirous to "t'l'i. ***
have his Subjects attain the Knowledge of true Religion in Aft. Pub.
God's Word; and therefore he would take care they xiv.p.640.


demand, that they could do nothing for him, without fuf- mould have an exad Translation of the Bible. He for- Nov(

ficient Security of being left in peace. bid however, in order to prevent the inconveniencies stryp*.

Henry finding that a rupture between the Emperor and which might arife from the difference of the Verfions, the

the Proteftants was not very remote, fent frefh AmbafTa- felling of any Bible but what fhould be approved by the

dors to Germany to Strengthen the refolutions of the Smal- Vicegerent (3)

caldick League, by hopes of his coming into it, and being About the end of this year was feen a frefh erFeS tf "' f;£~

declared Protector. But the Germans had now difcovered the mutual confidence which appeared between Charles V, ,/ glltt ,

his defiVn which was to amufe them, and keep the Em- and Francis I. A mutiny aril'mg in Gaunt by reafon of Caunt.

a Tax laid upon Wine by the Governor of the Low- Hj, 5"'"

peror in continual fear of his uniting with them. They
returned therefore the fame anfwer as before, that the fole
intent of their League was to maintain the Augsburg
ConfeiTvon, and if the King refuted to admit that Con-
feflion, it was in vain to treat of other points : That
moreover, they heard with extreme grief, that he per-
fecuted in his Realm fuch as held the fame opinions with
them on fundry Articles of Religion, and therefore, fo
long as the Act of the Six Articles fubfifted, there was
410 likelihood that he really intended to join with them.
Melanahon even writ him a Letter in very ftrong, though
refpedful terms, to mew him the unreafonablenefs of that
Gardiner Henry, to whom all was obedient in England, and whofe

rrW« tbe Win was a Law, was offended at the firmnefs of the Ger-
K b-" g J}Z to man Princes. On the other hand, Gardiner, who dread-
je-h-witbtbt ed of all things the King's union with the Smalcaldtck
Pnttftam. L ea g U e, failed not to ufe this occafion to divert him from
it, by flattering his vanity. He reprefented to him, that
it was very Strange, petty Princes fhould pretend to be a
pattern to a great Monarch, and dictate to the moft
learned Prince in Europe, in matters of Religion. He
added, that whatever the Proteftants might pretend, they
would never approve of his Supremacy in England, be-
caufe it would be a tacit engagement to own that the Em-
peror had the fame right in Germany. This was falfe rea-
soning, fince there was a wide difference between the Au-
thority which the King had over his Subjects, and that
which the Emperor could claim over the Sovereigns and
free Cities of Germany. However, he attained his ends,
that is, he begot a great coldnefs between the King and the
Bible, are Jet Gardiner's artifices might have been more prejudicial to
„y in the t h e Reformation, if, on the other fide, the Reformers
Cbunbes. had nQt ra jf ed a Counter-battery, of which they made


Countries, the Mutineers applied to the King of France to aA- ■■
implore his protection, and even offered to fubmit to him. Herbert.
But he did not think proper to accept of their offers.
On the contrary, he informed the Emperor of what was
plotting againSt. him. This feems Something Strange,
confidering that hitherto he had never profelfed much
generofity to that Monarch. But the reafon of this pro-
ceeding was, the Emperor Still allured him with the
hopes of the Duchy of Milan, and fo diverted him from
the thoughts of recovering it by Arms. However this be,
the Emperor's prefence in Flanders being alone capable
of appealing the Sedition of Gaunt, he was at fome lofs
which way to get thither in time. It was dangerous go-
ing by Sea, as well on account of the Seafon, as becaufe
he had no Fleet to convoy him. The way through Italy
was no fafer, by reafon he could not afterwards crofs Ger-
many without paffing through the Territories of the Pro-
teftant Princes. There remained no other way but by
France, which he refolved upon, though he had as much
reafon to fufpect that Kingdom as Germany. But he
hoped to amufe the King by means of the Duchy of
Milan, as he did in effect. He fet out therefore and en-
tered France with a fmall train, upon the bare fecurity of
a fafe-conduct. Nay, he refufed to take in Hoftage the
Dauphin and his Brother the Duke of Orleans, who came
and received him at Bayonne, offering to Stay in Spain fo
Ion" as he Should be in the King's Dominions. Where- Hal!.
ever he came, the fame refpect was paid him as to the
King himfelf, and he arrived at Paris the firft of January

Henrys Marriage with Ann of Cleves being at length 1< K'g'
concluded by Cromwell's diligence, who had been charged ^.^'^ n s r
with the Negotiation, the Princefs arrived in England cwvk it-
about the end of the year 1539 (4}, at the time the Em- '^tud«U


(i) As this was the nobleft Defign that ever was projected in E&toJ, it will n.t be amirs to give fome fcort account of it. Sir Nicdat Bant (who wa,- .^ ^^ -
3 frerwarr's one of the wileft Mm.lters that ever th,s Nation bred,) together w.th 7boma> Demon and Ribcrt Carey where ordercd.to mate .a lull _P/oie« of ^^
the Nature and Orders of fuch a Houft, which they brought to the K,ng in writing, the Original whereof is ft.U extant. The Dehgn.ot it wa.. That there HoUicfik
fhould be frequent Pleadings, and other Exerciles in the Latin and French Tongues ; and when the King s Students were brought to lome n f enefs. they fhould
teftnt with q his "AmbafladoK to foreign Parts, and trained up in the Knowledge of foreign Affairs; and fo the H.ufe fhould >e the Nurfery |or Ambalfadors.'
Some were alfo appointed to write the Hiftory of all Emtames, Treaties, and foreign Tranfa.fti.ns ; as alfo of all Arraignments and pubhclc Tnals at Home.
BoTbefore anv of them might write on thefe Subjefts, the Lord Chancellor was to give them an Oath, that they fhculd Ao .t truly w.thout refpeit o. PerV .
Ls or any other corrupt Affection. This noble Def.gn mifcarried: But if it had been well regulated, it is eal, to- gather what great and pubhclc Advantage.
rn rht hive flowed from it. Among which it is not inconfide.ablc, that we fhould have been delivered from « Rabbfe of .li Writers of Hiltory, who hav£
'"kh Jut due Care and Inouirv delivered to us the Tranfaction* of that time fo imperfectly, that there is (till need^of in a uir.ng into Rcgifters and Papers for thefe
Matters : Which in fuch a Houfe had been more clearly conveyed to Pollerity, that can now be expected after fuchrazurc of Kecords, and other ConfuBons,
in wtveh manT of "thefe Papers have been loft- Burnet, Tom. I. 269. . ' ■ _.» ...

(2) Gardner AMcnvd Cranmer to fhew any difference between the Authority of the Scriptures, and of the Apoflohcal Canons, which he portended were
equal to the other writings ot the Aportles. Upon which they difputed fome time. Bu,net, Tom. I. , p. 27P, ,..„... _ . _ „

(3) And about the lame time iflued out a Proclamation for Uniformity in Religion, which the Reader may fee in itrjpe s-M.w: Tom. I. p. 354. Uli.

^ u/'on December " She landed at Deale. William Fin-William- Elrl of S.u,b.,m[,t n, being fent with aFteet of fifty Sa,l to bring her over. Hajl, fol.

23 g._ This lime 'Month, King fle»v rene.ved his. Guard of fifty GensjenJea Kt^mcts, with a Salary of tifty.Pouoi i^Vw ; They had been dilcon-

tuiueJ fince the tint Year of^is- Reiijn. J/O.V, .fol. 237. VsOingJheaH, ci.igfc. '■ . '.

'• P«qr

Book XV.




Tie King

dijliku her.

P- 579-


T. I. Cell,
p. loy.

prevented by fliong reafons(i). The fame confiderati
ons which had made him conclude it, fubfifted, and there
were others which obliged him to tonfummatc it. The
Duke of Clcves was the Emperor's Neighbour in Flan-
ders, and had alfo a pretention as well as he to the Du-
chy of Guilders, after the death of the Duke of that
name. Confequently, in cafe of a War between the Em-
peror and England, that Prince could give the Emperor a


He ntarr.cz
bcr boivi-


and bein
en ill-tvill*

Ill King

hen to txa~

peror was travelling through France in his way to the ving the precedence of all the Lords in the Kingdom, e:;- 1540.
Low-Countries. Henry receiving advice of her arrival at ccpt the Royal Family. All the Nobility 1 him.

Rochejler, went down Incognito, being very impatient to The whole popifh Party alfo hated him mortally, deem-
fee whether he had been deceived. But, to his fnrrow, ing him the firft advifer of the fuppreffion of the Ab : :.
he found her very different from what her Picture, drawn and out- of the principal incoiiragers of the King
by Ham Holbin, bad caufed him to expect. This firfl the innovations be had made in Religion. Among thi
light gave him fuch an averlion for lser, that he would have who were very numerous, the Duk 'folk and Gar-

immediately broke off the Marriage, if he had not been dine) were the Perfons that could do him mod hurt, bc-

1 fe they had free accef, to the King. Thefe two
Courtiers perceiving the King's eoldnefs for the new
Queen, doubted not of his ill-will to Cromwell, for in-
gaging him in this Marriage, and refolved to make \xk of
this occafion to ruin him. They hoped when he was
removed, it would not be impoffible to procure an agree-
ment between the Emperor and the King, and then, a
reconciliation with the Pope, which Cromwell hail always
very tro.ublefome diverfion in Flanders. On the other oppofed to the utmoil of his power. Two ngS

hand, his Siller was married to the Duke of Saxony, greatly contributed alfo to the downfal of this Minifter.
head of the Smalcaldick League, with whom it was of The King had always employed him, in his correfpon-
great moment to the King to live in a gotd underftan- dence with the Smalcaldick League, and fo long as he
ding. But this was not all. The Emperor, then in thought he wanted that League, he could not be with-
Erance, was labouring with all his power to difingage out his affiftance. But growing cold at length to the
Francis I, from the interefts of England. Nay, Henry German Princes, as I before obferved, and knowing, the
had private intelligence, that the Emperor offered to give dreaded Union between Charles V and Francis I, was on-
the Duchy of Milan to the Duke of Orleans upon that ly a Chimera, and confequently he fhould have no need
confederation. If therefore, in fuch a juncture, he had of Germany, Cromwell became lefs neceflary. The fe- Euwct,
fent b.ick the Princefs of Clcves without marrying her, cond thing which helped to ruin Cromwell was, the King
he ran the hazard of an entire rupture with the Princes fell in love with Catherine Howard, the Duke of Nor-
of Smalcald, at a time when he law himfelf upon the folk's Niece. Norfolk finding his credit confiderably in-
point ot being forfaken by the King of France, who by creafed, made ufe of it to procure the Minifter's deftruc-
degrees forgot the afliftance he had received from him in
his moft urgent occafions. So, lamenting his misfortune
to be forced to marry a Princefs for whom he had con-
ceived an averlion, he refolved to make this Sacrifice the
6th of 'January 15+0. But he was ftill lefs pleafed after
his Marriage than before, and from that very moment
was determined to be divorced from her. He concealed
his fentiments however as much as poffible, though it
was eafy for all to fee his vexation and trouble. Cromwell,
who had drawn him into this marriage, quickly felt the
effects of his refentment, though the King was exceeding
careful to bide it from him (2).

The Parliament meeting the 1 zth of April, Cromwell
made a Speech to both Houfes, informing them, that the
King feeing with extreme concern fo great divilion a-
mong his bubjctSs in matters of Religion, had appointed
Commiffioners to examine the points in difpute, that the
Articles of Faith might be fixed without refpedt of Par-

Defirinti cj ties, by the word of God : That he was very defiroes
Btligim. bis People fhould have the knowledge of the truth ; but

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