M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Str; pe.

tion. As foon as he had a fair opportunity, he reprefen- The Duh

ted to the King. " That there were many Male-con- f.

" tents in the Kingdom, and good Men could not be K ]'.

" perfwaded that a Prince like him, would willingly give Cromwell.

" any occafion of difcontcnt to his People : That they

" interred from thence, he muff have been ill-ferved by

" his Minifter, who doubtlefs had abufed his confidence :

" That as the People feemed difiatisfied only with re-

" gard to Religion, it was natural to think, this happened

" through the Vice-gerent's fault, whole conduct perhaps

" it would be proper to examine : That he was acta

" by the publick of many things, which, if true, render-

" ed him the moft guilty of all others, confidering the

" favours heaped on him by the King : That betides,

" though no particular Fa£t could be proved upon him, it

" was however a very great crime to rob the King of

" the hearts of good part of his Subjects : That he took

" the freedom therefore to tell him, in order to quiet

" their minds, there was no better way than to facrifice

" to them fo odious a Minifter. " Thefe infinuations,

then he was refolved to punifh without mercy, fuch as which were doubtlefs feconded by Gardiner and other

enemies of Cromwell, produced at length the defired et-

fedL The King, prejudiced againft him, refolved to dif- CromwelTj

. de 11b i-

fhould prefume to prefer their private, before the eftab-

lifhed, opinions. The Commiffioners named by the King

were approved of, and hail orders to begin this examina-
Cromwell tion without delay (3). Two days after the King crea-
cnaudEarl te j Cromwell, Earl of EJfex (4).

Kmb'n'of During this Seffion, the Parliament fupprefled the order on account of the Marriage, he had drawn him into. Se-
St. John of the Knights of St. John of Jerufalem, who are now condly, he believed to make his People a facrifice capable

called Knights of A'Ldta. Their dependence on the Pope of filencing all their murmurs (6). This refolution be- //,,,. - >

and the Emperor was the caufe or pretence of their ruin, ing taken, and the Parliament meeting the 13th of June, tfBi\

patch him out of the way, without knowing yet of what J " ft
he was guilty. But he found in his death a double ad-
vantage. Firft, he difcovered his refentment againft him


Stow. There is no doubt, the defile of injoying their fpoils in- the Duke of Norfolk accufed Cromwell of High-Treafon T n 'J°"'^™*

Holiinglh- duced alfo the King to procure their fuppreffion. And at the Council-Board, and received orders to arreft him ; 'y


indeed, the Parliament gave him all their Lands as they and fend him to the Tower. This illuftrious Prifoner had Hal),
had given him thofe of the Abbies. Though they had the common fate of all difgraced A'linifters. In a mo- ".'UmgiJi.
large Revenues both in Ireland and England, the King ment, he was forfaken by all but his friend Cranmcr, w . : ', r , ]. : B } t
allowed however but three thoufand pounds for their who alone ventured to write to the King in his favour, btbalf.
maintenance after their fuppreffion (;). The affair be- though to no purpofe. \\T\T'

Cromwell being in the Tower, the Articles of his im- Hi iscon-
peaebment were drawn, confiding in Generals, of which &md



ing ended, the Parliament was prorogued to the 25th of

A few davs after, there fell upon Cromwell a ftorm,

which probably had been gathering fome time before.

This Minifter had many enemies, and enviers. He was

not fo much as the leaft proof was offered to be given. J';'

...rig Cia'd*'

The King knew, if his procefs was made according to Burnet.

the ufual forms, he might produce Warrants which would
Son of a Farrier or Lock-fmith ; and though his birth was fully clear him, and which could not be difclaimed. For Hall,
fo mean, he was raifed to great honour, even to the ha- this rcafon it was thought proper to bring his affair before Sr - W -

(r) He fwore, when he firft faw her, they had brought over a Flanders Mare to him. Nicholas Wottcn Di.^or of Law, employed in this nufinefs, T. I. p. 27$.
gives her this Chandler : She could bjth write and read in her own Language, and lew very well ; but lor Mufick (in which the King delighted) it
was not the manner of the Country to learn it. Herbert, p. 221.

(2) Cromivell asked him next Day how he liked her j the King told him, he liked her w>irfe thin he did. For he fufpefted (he was no Maid,
and had fuch ill Smells about her, that he loathed her more than ever, and did not believe he fliouid ever ton ummate the Marriage. Ti.is was fad
News to Cromivell, who knew how nice the King was in thefe Matters, and that fo great a misfortune mull needs fall heavy upon him, whs was
the chief Promoter ot it. Burner, Tom. 1. p. 273. Stotu, p. 57S.

(3) The King appointed the two Atchbifllops, with the Bifnups of Londm, Durham, Winchcjier, Rubefler, Hereford, St. Djv ds. and eleven Doctors,
to draw up :in Expofition of thofe Things that were necellaty for the Inftitution ei a Chriftian Man. He alio appointed the Biihops of Bath and Wt&h,
Ely, .larum, Cbiebeller, Worccjicr, and Landaff, to examine what Ceremonies ihould be retained, and what \.as the true u.e of them. Thcle Com-
mittees were to lit conftantly Mondays, Wedr.eldays, and Fridays, and on other Days in the Afternoon only. Burnet, Tom. i. p. : - •

t4) April 17. One wouid think by this that the King was not angry with him about his Marriage, fxnee he conferred lo great a Title on him.
Hairy Bourcbitr Earl of Effix, the laft of his Family, venturing to ride a young Horfr, had the Misfortune to be thrown, and by the FaJl to break

his Neck. Dugdalc. Vol. II. p. 130, 137. On he.vttr.ber 29, 1 53S. Sir Ibomas Audlty , Lord chancellor, was created Lord Aud.'ty of Waldin :

And on Mareb 9, 1539, Sir William Poulet was advanced to the Title of Lord St. Jobn ; on the 29th, Sir Join RttffeJ, to that of Lord Rujftl ; ani

r Parr, to that of Lord Parr. Idem. p. 376, 378, 381


(5) He allowed a thoufand Pounds Penfion to the Prior of St. John's near Londm, and five hundred Marks a Year to the Prior in Inland, (for there
was but one Houfe in each Kingdom ) with very contideuble Allowances for the Knights, amouating in all to three thtuf.nd Pounds a Year, Th; Houie
in Irt'.and was at Kilmamnn. Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 276. o.'.a . p. 579.

(6) See above, p. 790. Note \z\.

(7) tie was arretted 'July 9. Hill, fol. 242.

No 42. Vol. I.

9 Z





Vol. L

'1'be King ii

determined to

null bit





Pretence of
lie Divine.

Tit Par-
liament pray
the King to
examine the
•validity of
bh Mar-

the Parliament, and caufe a Bill of Attainder to be patted
againft him, without allowing him to make his defence (i).
In this manner had he himfelf proceeded in the affair of
the Marchionefs of Exeter and the Countcfs of Salisbury,
and therefore could not think it llrange the fame thing
fhould be practifed in his cafe. The Parliament, ever
fiaves to the King, deemed the impeachment juft, though
deltitute of proof. So by an Act, declaring him attainted
and convicted of Herefy and Treafon, he was condemned
as a Traitor and Heretick, the Parliament leaving it to
the King's choice to make him fufter the punifhment cf
either of thofe crimes. This, joined to fome other forego-
ing, as well as following inftances, fhow to what height
the King had carried his authority, fince to difcover his
will was fufEcient to be immediately obeyed, even by
thofe whofe bufinefs and intereft it chiefly was to reduce
his power within due bounds. The execution of the
Sentence was deferred till after the Seffion of the Par-

Henry was fo tired of his Queen, that he could not
bear the vexation to fee himfelf ingaged for the reft of
his life in fo difagreeable a Marriage. He refolved there-
fore to divorce her, let what would be the confequence,
efpecially as the reafons which induced him to marry her
no longer fubfifted. He had loft all hopes of making a
League with the Proteftants of Germany, and his fears of
the Emperor were vanifhed, fince he faw every thing
tending to a rupture between him and France. He only
wanted a pretence to demand a Divorce, and give fome
colour to the proceedings of the Clergy and Parliament,
of whofe concurrence he was fure, however flight the pre-
tence might be. He found one in a precontract between
the Queen and the Duke of Lorrain s Son. But this con-
tract was fo flight, that the confequences were to be much
preffed, to make it ferve for the foundation of diffolving
Ann's Marriage with the King. The Duke of Cleves
and the Duke of Lorrain had formerly, it feems, in a
Treaty, agreed upon a Marriage between Ann of Cleves
and the Prince of Lorrain, both minors. This agreement
had never been confirmed by the Parties when of age.
On the contrary, the Ambaffador of the Duke of Gueldres,
who acted as mediator in that Treaty, declared after-
wards by an authentick Inftrument, that this Article was
deemed null. However, when Henry's Marriage with
Ann was concluded, this pre-engagement raifed a diffi-
culty. But the Ambafiadors of Sax/my and Cleves pofi-
tively promifed to clear that point, and put it out of all
doubt as foon as the Princefs fhould arrive in England.
Ann being come to Greenwich, the King, who liked her
not, infilled upon this fame point, in order to fend her
back. For that purpofe, he called a Council, and fend-
ing for the Ambaffadors, the explanation, they had pro-
mifed, was demanded. But they had brought nothing
with them, looking upon this difficulty as little material.
Mean while, the Council telling them that good proofs
were expected and not bare words, they offered to pro-
duce within three months an authentick abftract from the
Chancery of Cleves, to prove what they had alledged.
This alone would not have been capable of inducing the
King to proceed, if, as has been faid, there had not been
ftrong reafons to caufe him to accomplifh his Marriage.
So, the Council was of opinion, that if there were no
other objection, the Marriage might be lawfully folem-
nized. The abftract from the Chancery of Cleves being
come, great exceptions were found to it, upon the am-
biguity of the word Efpoufals, becaufe it was not ex pref-
fed whether they were Efpoufals by the words of the pre-
fent or of the future Tenfe. But as the King would not
yet commence the affair of his Divorce, he caufed the
abftract to be kept, in order to make ufe of it when there
fhould be occ.ihon. Upon this therefore he refolved to
found his Divorce.

The Parliament, after a prorogation of fome days,
meeting again, Henry lent the Queen to Richmond. A
few days alter, a motion was made in the Houfe of Lords,
to prefent an Addrefs to the King, to defire him to fufter
his marriage to be tried. After what has been feen, it can't

be imagined any Lord would be fo hardy as to dare to make 1 540.
fuch a motion, unlefs he was fure of the King's approba-
tion. So, the motion being affented to, the Lords defired
the concurrence of the Commons (2); after which, they
went in a Body (3) to prefent their addrefs to the King.
Henry protefted to them, that he fought only the Glory of
God, the Good of his People, and the Declaration of
Truth. Then he agreed that the affair fhould be referred ThtMtttct
to the Clergy, who immediately appointed Commiffioners 'f.t™*!''
to examine the Witneffes (4). All that could be gathered Cnmcatttm.
from the King's own Depofition, and thofe of the Wit- Extraordi-
neffes, was, That there had been a Pre-contract between 1°%/"$™
the Queen and the Prince of Lorrain, which was not fuf- the Dimnu
ficiently cleared : That the King having efpoufed the Burnet.
Queen againft his Will, had not given an inward con- i?*" *
fent to his Marriage, without which, it was affirmed, his T.I. Coll-
promifes could not be obligatory, a Man's act being only P- 3 o6 >3°7*
what is inward : That the King had never consummated &c '
the Marriage : That the whole Nation had a great inte-
reft in the King's having more Iffue, which they faw he
could never have by the Queen.

The King muft have had a very ill opinion of the
Convocation, the Parliament, and the Publick, to alledge
fuch extraordinary caufes of his Divorce. The firft had B;rne.
been difcuffed before the Celebration of the Marriage,
and the Council was of opinion, it could be no juft im-
pediment. As to the fecond, if that maxim took place,
Contracts would be of no ufe, fince one of the Parties
might fay, he had not given an inward confent. This
would be eftablifhing, without remedy, Infincerity, Fraud
and Perfidioufnefs in the higheft degree. As for the third,
the King had doubtlefs forgot what he had alledged in
the procefs of his Divorce with Catherine. He then
maintained, purfuant to his Clergy's opinion, that the
Confummation of Arthur's Marriage with Catherine was
not neceffary to render it valid, but that the bare confent
of the Parties made it compleat. The fourth was of no
greater weight, fince there was no neceffity of nulling
the Marriage, under colour that the King was not pleafed
to lie with the Queen. Befides, he had now an Heir.
In fhort, his word muft be taken, when he faid, he had
not confummated his Marriage ; his word, who fued for
the Divorce, and who ufed this argument to obtain it.
Mean while, the Clergy thought thefe Reafons folid, and Sentence 0/
paffed a Sentence of Divorce upon them, and the Par- Divorce.
liament were fo abject, as to proftitute themfelves to the Bl, n>«-
King's paffion, and confirm the Sentence (5). There is
no distinction to be made here, fince neither in the Con-
vocation, nor in the Parliament, was there one fingle
Vote againft the Divorce ; fo much did every one dread to
incur the King's difpleafure. This is a remarkable evi-
dence of what I have often intimated, that in every thing
tranfacted in England innng the latter part of Henry VIII's
Reign, the Parliament and Clergy ought to be confide-
red only as the King's inftruments to gratify his passions.
To him is due the praife of whatever was good and
ufeful, and he it is that ought to be blamed for whatever
was amifs. Mean while, the Parliament and Clergy are
inexcufable for not having endeavoured to fupport the
Caufe of Juftice and Truth, when they believed them to
be oppreffed.

The Queen was not much troubled at what had been Ann cm : ntl
done in her abfence, and even without her being exami- to ibe Di-
ned. Probably, fhe had entertained no great affection for vm '-
a Spoufe, who had never given her any token of his love. St0 ' w .'
However, though the King had thought it needlefs to ask liumet.
her approbation, when he was meditating the Divorce, Hcrb " t '
becaufe then the Clergy and Parliament only were con-
cerned, whom he knew to be at his devotion, he demand-
ed her confent to what had been done, thinking no doubt
the better tojuftify himfelf to the World. At the fame .„ „.
time he offered by Letters- Patents to declare her his adop- xiv.11.7tc1.
ted Sifter, with a Penfion of four thoufand Pounds a Burnet,
year (6), and her choice either to live in England, or
return home. She agreed to all without follicication, and
chofe to live in England, where fhe hoped to pafs her
time more agreeably than at Cleves , in her Brother's

(:) The Bill was brought into the Houfe of Lords, Cranmer being then ab/ent, on the 17th of June, and read the firft 'time ; and on the 19th
was read the fecond and third time, and fent down to the Commons, where it ftuck ten Days. And then a new Bill, conceived by the Commons,
was brought up with a Provifo annexed to it. They alfo fent back the Lords Bill. It feems they rejected the Lords Bill, and yet lent it up with
their own, either in refpeel to the Lords, or that they left it to their Choice which of the two they would offer to the Royal Alicnt. Which was an
unparliamentary Proceeding. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 277.

(») The Lord Chancellor, the Archbilhop of Canterbury, the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the Earl of Soutbamflon, and the Brlnop of Durban,
were fent to defire their Concurrence. Bnrnef, Tom. I. p. 2S0.

(3) The whole Houfe of feers, with twenty Commoners, on July 6. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 180.

(4) On the 7th of July it was brought before the Convocation, and the Cafe was opened by the Hifliop of rVincbef'er, and a Committee appointed to
eonfder of it ; and they deputed the Biftiops of Durham and Wincbcftcr, with Tbirleby, and Leigbton Dean of Turk, to examine Witneires that Day.
Burnet, ibid.

(5) Sentence was given the 9th of July, which was ftgned by both Houfes of Convocation ; and had the two Archbi/hops Seals put to it, of which
whole Tryal the Record docs yet remain, having efcaped the Fate of the other Books of Convocation. The Original Depositions are alfo extant. Burnet
obl'cives, this only can be faid for their Excule, that the King's Reafons were as juft and weighty as ufed to be admitted by the Court of Some (or
R Divorce : and moft of them being Canonifts, and knowing how many Precedents there were to be found lur luch Divorces, they thought they mi;lH
do it as well as the Pcpes had formerly d.me. Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 281.

(6) There is in Kyrr.er, a Lift of the feveral Manors and Eftatcs, granted her by the King for Life ; but it is no where fain, that they w.'re foor
•hcuftnd Pound; a Year. See Tom. 11. p. 710, SV. Bilhop Burnt: fays, it was only three thoufand sounds, a Year. See To u. 1 p. i'S2.

6 Court.

Book XV.


icao. Court. Befides, it Is likely flic believed her Peniion knowlcdgmcnt ( as they (aid in their Addrefs ) of hi care
would be more fecure if fhe remained in England, than if to free the Church of England from the tyranny of the

Pope. The King gladly accepted their prefcnt, whic h was

82 7

1 5 j <^.

fhe lived abroad. Every thing being thus fettled, fhe
writ to the Uuke her Brother, that fhe approved of the
Divorce, and defired him to live in good underftanding
with the King (1).

This grand affair being finifhed, the Parliament pafTcd
an Act to moderate one of the fix Articles in the bloody
Statute. This Article, as the other five, made it death
for the Priefts to break their vow of Chaftity ; but by
this laft Act, the pains of death were turned to forfeiture
of Goods.

All the reft of this Reign will be only a continued feries ney procured by the fuppreirion of the Abbift
'" of fenfible proofs of the flavifh Subjection the EngUJh the Commons reprefented, that if in time of IVa'-e, and
„. Nation was reduced to. But, in this very Seffion of Par- within the (pace of one year, the Kin" had fpent'l
liament, there are three, which ought not to be parted
over in filence.

The Commiflioners appointed by the King, purfiiant to
an Act of Parliament, to examine the Doctrines of Re-
rbi Ki»g Kgion, having drawn a long Memorial, and fet down cer-

ihaiifUjfe tain Articles as undeniable and abfolutely necellary, it was and that the keeping his Subject in peace "f aiul plenty
Kw&itf moved ln thc Hou(e of Lords, to pafs into a Law what coft him more than the molt burthenfome War. Thefe
thefe Commiflioners had already done, and whatever they reafons, though very weak, palled for income;'..
fhould do for the future by order of the King. This mo-
tion being received, a Bill was brought in immediately,
and [ when parted J fent down to the Commons, who
agreeing to it, fent it up again the next day. By this
Statute it was enacted, That not only thc Memorial drawn

ttB term-

derate the

pain*, fait Statute

if tit fix


Proof tofth
Jlaiift at
the Parti*

The Parlia-
ment corf rmt


readily confirmed by the Parliament. But this v., 1
fufficient for thc King's occafions. In a few days, he de
inanded alfo an aid of Moncv of the Commons. Though
for feme time the Parliament had ken wont to fubmii
without examination to the King's pleafure, this demand
met with fome fort of oppofition in thc Lower- Houfc.
And indeed, it could not but fecm ftrange, confidci ing thc
King was in peace with all the World, and befide , I
could not be imagined to have already con fumed the Mo

immenfe Sums, there was nothinj more to do but to give
him all the Lands in the Kingdom, which too would 1 oj
fuffice for thc expence of few years. But theft StXKlu .
had no great effect. It was anfwered by thc King's Partv, t „„ .
that he had laid out vaft turns in fecurine the Coaftsfi)


the Commons granted the King a Subfidv, 1
he had been actually engaged in a dangerous W ir
This is a third proof of the Parliament's flavcry. .Mean
while, the People could not conceive what was become of
all the Money the King had lately received, and which
by the Commiflioners, provided it were approved by the fhould have fupplied his neceffities for many yean
King, but likewife whatever the King fhould enjoin for This Parliament, which had given the King fo great lie Partis.
thc future in matters of Religion, fhould be believed and teftimonies of a boundlefs compliance, was dillolved the "" " " ■''/'
obeyed by all his Subjects. This was inverting the King 24th of July. But the King was pleafed fi[ft to requite ' "'
with the infallibility taken from the Pope. Greater Signs his Subjects with a free and general Pardon, as it was cal- rJ-
of Slavery can hardly be feen, fince the Parliament gave led, though the exceptions limited the benefit to few wMt *—



the King Power over Confcience, after having in a man- Perfons. All thofe were excluded who had been condein
ner render'd him matter of Life and Fortune. Moreover ned for denying the King's Supremacv, or for tranfgref-
a Claufe was inferted in this Act, which under colour of fing fome one of the fix Articles of the bloody Statute
limiting the King's Authority fenfibly enlarged it, namely, and even thofe who were only accufed of" thefe Crimes
That nothing Jhauld be done or determined by virtue of this which were then unpardonable. The Countcfs of Salif-
Acl, which was contrary to the Laius of the Realm. Thefe bury, Cardinal Pole's Mother, and Thomas Cromwell were
contradictory Claufes in the fame Statute render'd the King excepted by name.

Arbiter of the lives of his Subjects, fince on the one hand, As Cromwell's execution had been deferred he was in Co «ll'
they were enjoined to fubmit to the King's Will in mat- fome hopes of obtaining his Pardon, and the more as **««*•.
ters of Religion, without knowing however what he would having writ to the King a very fubmiffive Letter he 'was H '"'
pleafe to prefcribe, and on the other, were forbid to do any fo moved with it, that he caufed it to be thrice read But Horn, ft
thing contrary to the Laws. Confequently, in cafe the the follicitations of the Duke of Norfolk and Gardiner fe- *»<«*• '
King commanded any thing contrary to the Law, they conded by thofe of Catherine Howard, who acted in 'their
were liable to be profecuted by virtue of this Statute, whe- favour, rendered the endeavours of the Prifoner fruitlefs

The King figned a Warrant to cut off his head the 28th
°J J u b (s)» about fix weeks after his condemnation. As Burnet.
Cromwell left a Son of whom he was very fond he
would fay nothing on the Scaffold that might do him a

ther, againft Law, they obeyed the King, or, in Obedi-
ence to the Law, refufed to comply with his Will. The
Acts pafled in this Reign are full of fuch Contradictions,
which were not inferted without defign.
Law abut The Parliament parted another Bill which carried no
Marriage in ] e fs marks of fervitude. It was enacted, that a Marriage
tt-K* already confummated fhould not be annulled, on pretence
of Pre-contract or any other impediment not mentioned
in the Law of God. Without doubt the Parliament had,
or perhaps feigned to have, forgot, that the King's Mar-
riage with Ann Bullen was annulled by reafon of a Pre-
contract, and upon this fame foundation, during this very

prejudice. He contented himfelf with fhowin

ubmitted to the fe:
on him. He prayed for the K

that he Ha ll.
willingly fubmitted to the fentence the Law had palled W- ***•

ing's profperity, and declared pi^go.
he died in the profeffion of the Catholick Religion {(,). HoUbgfli.
Thefe laft words were varioufly interpreted, according to
the paffions and prejudices of the two Parties in matters of

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