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Religion. Though it was certain, Cromwell had live,) in
the opinions of the Lutherans, the contrary Party main-

Seffion, they had approved the dillbkition of his Marriage tained, he recanted at his death, and that by the Cat!

with Ann of Cleves. It is true, the King declared, it was Religion was to be underftood the old Religion, profelled

not confummated. But Catherine of Arragon protefted in the Kingdom before all the Innovations. The others

the fame thing with refpect to her Marriage with Prince pretended, thefe words ought to be taken in a more ee-

Arthur, and yet it was decided, that a Party concerned neral fenfe, and at molt to fignify only the Religion whfch

fhould not be believed even upon Oath, when there were was then eftablifhcd. However this be, the care Crom-

Ir.tm of tht prefumptions to the contrary. Thefe were real contra- well took when he came to die, to fay nothini

might offend the King, turned to his Son Gregory's ad- A& Pub.
vantage, who was this very year created a Peer of the X| V ».-og.
Realm, by the Tide of Lord Cromwell. The Office Dil ' ' i-

dictions, but not minded by the King. His aim was to
legitimate the Princefs Elizabeth by virtue of the former
branch of thc Act, and to remove, bv the latter, the im-

pediments in the Canon Law, to his intended Marriage of Vicegerent enjoyed by the Father, died with h


grdU a tO

the K

the tin,


\g by

with Catherine Howard, who was Coufin-German to
Ann Bullen (2).

Before the Parliament broke up, the Clergy of the Pro-
vince of Canterbury, aflemhled in Convocation, offered thc
King a Subfidy of four Shillings in the Pound, of all Ec-
clefiaftical preferments, to be paid in two years, in ac-


one deliring a Poft fo obnoxious to envy, and fo fat
the firft Pofleffor. Befides, the Duke of Norfolk and the
Bdhop of ll'inchijlcr, who were then in great credit, took
care not to follicite the King to fill a place, which 'wo.li
engage the Perfon who held it, to ule all 1
hinder a reconciliation with Rome (7)


his uiterett to

(1) The loth of Jf'y, Crtnmer reported to the Houfe of Lords, the Convocation's Sentence, who tent him down to the Commons to repart th- fjme.
On the 1 nh, the King lent the Lord Chancellor, the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Southampton, and the Bifhop of lVintbefttr ro the Queen, to let h-r
know what was done, and to make her the Often above mentioned. Next Day, being the 12th of July,] the Bill was brought into the' Hoafe for
annulling the Marriage, which eahly went through both Houfcs. Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 2S2.

2. by other Statutes it was enacted, I. That Phyficians in London (hail be difcharged from Watch and Ward, and not Jerve the Office of Conlbble
or any other. That the Prelidcnt, and four Fellows of the College, (hill fearch and examine the Wares and Drugs of thc Apothecaries ■ and that th- •
may practice Surgery. 2. l,y another, the Barbers and Surgeons were oMtf* one Company. 3. And by another it was ordered. That a Cmrt ot Firft.
Fruits ^nd Tenths, ^ conliiiinc of a Chancellor, Treasurer, two Auditors, two Clerks, a Alcliengej-, and an Ulhcr, ) ihouid b- erected a- A alio 2C
or Wards. This laft was atfolifticd 11 Car. 2. See Statat. 32 Hen. VIII. * ' C

(3J In building Havens, Bulwarks, and other Forts for the defence of the Coafts. Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 284.

,4) A Tenth, being two Shillings in the round of Lands, and twelve Tcnce of Goods \ and four Fifteenths. Halt, fol. 2±t. Stoic p. e-a

(O Wlrch it leems was done very barbaroully. Halt, fol. 242.

(6j His Words were, " 1 pray you that be here to bear me Record, I die in the Catholick Faith, not doubting in any Article of mv Faith no nor
" duubting in any Sacrament of the Church." Halt, fol. 242. ' *

(7) Thomas Cromwell from being but a Blackfmith's Son at Putney, found means to travel into f Teign Countries, to learn their Lanjruag-s a-d -
fee the Wars, being a Soldier in the Duke of Bnurtont Army at the facking of Rime, Whence reur.iing, he wj> received into Cardiyal HVe/i i r'.'

8 2 3


Perfons of
both Reli-
gions exe-




Howaid de-
clared ^uecn


The Friends
of the old

triumph a t

Dejigns a ■
gamjl Crarl'


Some days after Cromwell's death ( 1 ), was feen at Lon-
don a fight, which very much perplexed both Parties.
This was a company of People condemned and executed
all together ; fome for denying the King's Supremacy ;
others for maintaining the Lutheran Dodtrines. Among
thefe Iaft were Robert Barnes [ Dodtor of Divinity ]
Thomas Gerard [ Parfon of Hony-Lane, ] and William je-
rom [Vicar of Stepney]. Thefe three being impeached
before the Parliament, were condemned to be burned upon
a general accufation of fowing Herefy, perverting the
Scriptures, and maintaining errors destructive of Religion,
without the Adt's mentioning any particulars, and in all
appearance, without the Parliament's examing the proofs.
Bv the fame Adt were condemned to fuffer the fame
punifhment, four Men, one of whom was accufed of
maintaining the papal authority ; another for holding cor-
refpondence with Cardinal Pole ; a third for defigning to
furprize Calais ; a fourth for harbouring a Rebel (2) ; and
laftly, three more convicted of denying the King's Su-
premacy (•;) All thefe were burned or hanged at the
fame time and place. It is to be prefumed, they were
not admitted to fpeak for themfelves, fince Barnes, af-
ter a declaration of his Faith to the People, asked the
Sheriff whether he knew why he was to fuffer. The
Sheriff anfwering , he did not, he turned to the
Stake, and faid, the punifhment he was going to fuffer,
plainly taught him the crime of which he was fuppofed to
be guilty. He prayed however for the King, and even
for Gardiner whom he fufpedted to be the author of his
death. The Bifhop endeavoured to clear himfelf by a
primed Apology ; but had the misfortune not to be be-
lieved (4).

On the 8 th of Attgujl, Catherine Howard, the Duke
of Norfolk's Niece (5) was declared Queen, the King
having privately married her fome time before. She was
fo devoted to the Duke her Uncle, and the Bifhop of
Winchejler, that file was entirely guided by their Coun-
fels. As fhe had a great afcendent over the King, veiy
likely fhe would have induced him to give himfelf over
to the guidance of thefe two Minifters, who were pre-
paring to procure by her means great alterations in Reli-
gion, had not her fall, which will be prefently related,
confounded their projects. However, they improved as
much as poffible fo favorable a juncture, to ftrike at the
Reformation and the Reformed. Certainly Cranmer was
then in a very dangerous fituation. He could not doubt
that the authors of CromwelTs ruin, defired his deftruc-
tion with the fame aTdor, nay, were privately working
it. Complaints of him were already heard in feveral
places, and even a Member of Parliament (6) faid openly
in the Houfe, he was the protector and head of the In-
novators. Thefe things would have doubtlefs taken effect,
had his enemies had a little more time to prepare all their
Plots. But as they knew the King had a real efteem
for him, they intended to proceed by degrees, plainly
perceiving, they could not without danger to themfelves,
prefs his ruin fo diredtly as Cromwell's. Befides, there
was but one Article which gave them any advantage upon
Cranmer ; namely, Religion, in which too he had been
very cautious, well knowing that the way to advance the
Reformation under fuch a Prince as Henry, was not di-
rectly to oppofe his Will.

Vol I.

The change produced at Court -by Cromwell's difgrace,
and the new Queen's advancement, was quickly perceived.
The Commiffioners appointed to draw up a Declaration
of the Chriftian Dodtrine, having prefented their Work
to the King, he ordered it to be immediately publifh-
ed (7). Though this Declaration corrected fundry abufes,
the popifh Party had fo prevailed, that in (lead of promo-
ting, it fenfibly put back, the Reformation, as it is eafy
to fee by the Abltradt Doctor Burnet gives of this Book
in his Hiffory of the Reformation of England. How-
ever, as feveral principles were laid down which might
be of great ufe in a more favorable juncture, the Re-
formers were glad, in hopes thefe principles would ferve
one day to deftroy the errors advanced in the Declara-
tion. On the other hand, the popifh Party thought they
had gained much, becaufe they faw Doctrines laid" down,
to which probably the Reformers would never confent,
and hoped this oppofition would draw the King's indigna-
tion upon their whole Party. As for themfelves, having
always had an abfolute compliance for the King,, they
intended to purfue the fame courfe, in order to put him en-
tirely into the difpofition they defired. Other Commif-
fioners, who were ordered to reform the Miffals, made
fo flight alterations, that excepting a few razuies of thofe
Collects, in which the Pope was prayed for (8), there was
nothing changed, nor was it neceflary to re- print the
Mafs-Books. Thus by the credit of the Duke of Nor-
folk and Gardiner, fupported by the new Queen, Arch-
fhop Cranmer, and thofe of his Party, faw a florin ap-
proaching, which probably would overwhelm them all.
Perhaps it was very fortunate for them, that the King
was diverted fome time by other affuiis, from his atten-
tion to what concerned Religion.

The Emperor's pafTage through France feemed at firft
to create a fincere reconciliation between him and Fran-
cis I. During his flay at Paris, he pofitively promifed to
give the Duchy of Milan to the Duke Orleans. But
when Francis preil'ed him to fign an inftrument of in-
veftiture, he anfwered, fuch an Act would be looked upon
as extorted, if dated in France, and that it was more ho-
norable for him and the King too, that it fliould be
figned in fome Town of Flanders. Afterwards, when
he was out of France, he found fome frefh excufe not
to perform his promife. Mean while, he fubdued the
Gantois, and | punifhed them feverely for the trouble they
had given him of a journey to Flanders. After that,
when Francis claimed his promife, he clogged it with
fuch reftridtions, that it was eafy to perceive he had no
mind to part with a Country, by which Spain had a
Communication with his other Dominions in Italy and
Germany. Francis vexed to be thus deceived, turned out
of favour Chancellor Poyet, and Conftable Montmoren-
cy, who had advifed him to take the Emperor's word.

About the end of the year 1540, there were fome be-
ginnings of a quarrel between Francis and Henry, which
ended at length in a War. Francis ordered a Fortrefs
to be built at Ardres, and a Bridge to be made over to
the Englijb Pale. But the Governour of Calais not fuf-
fering this incroachment, fent a Detachment of his Gar-
rifon and beat down the Bridge. The French re-built it,
and the Englijh demolifhed it a fecond time. Where-
upon the King of France ordering Marfhal it Biez to raife


of the thrij-
tian Dee-
trine, ichicb
every one
•was obliged
tt recazt.
/.' is 1 1'\
dtfadevat '
gious !'- ■ ■■
Ref*in .

of the Mif-
fals very in-

Tie Emfe-
ror breaks
his word
with Fran-


Beginning of

a quarrel


Francis and




vice; and after his Fall, the King voluntarily, (for his Fidelity to his old Mailer) took him for his Servant. He obtained fucceffively the Offices and
Dignities of Privy Counfcllor, Mafter or the Jewel-Houfe, Clerk of the Hanaper, Principal Secretary of State, Julrice of the Forefb, Mailer of the
Rolls, Lord Privy-Seal, Baron, the King's Vicegerent in Spirituals, Knight of the Garter, Earl of EJ/'ex, Great Chamberlain of England, &c. Herbert,
p. 2:5. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. II. p. 370. Strype's Mem. Tom. 1. p. 363. As his Extraction was mean, his Education was low; all the Learning
he had, was, that he had got the New leftament in Latin by Heart. His Miniftry was in a conftant courfe of Flattery and Submiflian, but by that
he did great Tilings that amaze one, who has confidefsd them well. The fetting up the King's Supremacy, and the rooting out the Monaftick State
in England, confidering the Wealth, Numbers and Zeal of the Monks, were bold Undertakings, and executed with great Method- But in the end an
unfortunate Marriage, to which he advifed the King, not proving acceptable, and he being unwilling to deftroy what himfelf had brought about, 'was
nj doubt, backward in the Defign of breaking it when the King had told him of it. And then, upon no other vilible Ground, but becaufe Ann of
CUma gtew more obliging to the King than (he was formerly, the King fufpedted that Cromwell had betrayed his Secret, and engaged her to a fofter
Deportment, en defign to prevent the Divorce, and did upon that difgrace and deftroy him. He carried his Greatnefs with wonderful °Temper and Mo.
deration, and was thankful to mtan Perfons of his old Acquaintance. Burnet, Tom. 1. p. 284. A'/ew. p. <.8o. Hcllmpllj n o;2
(t, July 30. Halt, fol. 14.3. " T "

(2) Thefe four were, Gregory Buttclfb, Adam Damplip, Edmund Brinholme, and Clement Philpit, who were attainted for aflifting Reginald Pool, ad .
hering to the Biftiup of Rome, denying the King's Supremicy, and defigning to furpri-ze the Town of Calais. Derby Gunnings, was alfo attainted for afli'rt.ng
Fitz Gerald a Traitor in Ireland. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 297.

(3) Ibomas Abell, Richard Fetberfton, and Edward Powell. Hall, fol. 243. ftow, p. 58 1.

l+j At the fame time was attainted and executed the Lord Hungerford His Crimes were, keeping a Heretical Chaplain, applying to a Conjurer 10
know how long the King was to live, and the praitifing Beaftiairy. Herbert, p. 225. Hall, fol. 243.

(5) She was Daughter of Edmund Howard ( third Son of Ibomas Duke of Norfolk, Son of John firft Duke of Norfolk ) by Joyce Daughter of Sir R. -
'- . ■..' Culpeper of Hollingburn in Kent. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. II. p. 272.
(6; Sir John Gotlivick Knight of the Shire for Bedford/hire. Burnet, Turn. I. p. 285.

(7) It was publiftied with a Preface written by thofe who had been employed in it. Firft, the true Nature of Faith is ftated. After this, there fol-
lowed an Explanation of the Apoflles Creed, with practical Inferences. From that they proceeded to examine the feven Sacraments. Then followed an
Explanation of the Ten Commandments, which contains many good Rules of Morality. After that, an Explanation of the Lord's- Prayer was added.
Then followed an Expofition of the Angel's Salutation of the blelled Virgin, and the Ave-Mana explained. The next Article is about Free-Wiil, which
they fay muft be in Man. Alter this they handled Juftification. Next Good-Works are explained, which are laid to be abfolutely neceflary to Salvation.
The Method they followed was this, ( as appears in fome authentick Writings, ) Firft, the whole Bufinefs they weru to confider was divided into fo
many Heads or Queries, and thefe were given to fo many Bifh.ps and Divines, and at a prefixed time every one brought in his Opinion in Writing upon
all the Queries. When their Anfwers were given in, two were appointed to compare them, and draw an Extract of the Particulars, in which they agieed
or dilagreed ; which the one did in Latin, the other in Englijh. As this was the way that was ul'cd concerning the feven Sacraments, ( as. may be
leen Collect. N. 21. Vol. I. of Bit-net's Reformation,) fo 'tis reafonablc to believe they proceeded with the fame Maturity in the reft of their Delibera-
tions, th. ugh the Papers are loft. Burnet, Tom. I. p, 2S6, (Sic.

(8) And of Thomas Beckett Office, and the Offices of other Saints, whofe Days were by the King's Injunctions no more to be obferved. So the old
Books ferved (till. n. ut j n Queen Mary's time, Care was taken that Pofterity ftnuld not know how much wj! d.ifhed out or changed. For as all

lie Paiifhes were required to lurji.ih themfelves with new complete Books of the Olfices, fo the dallied Books wen: every whire brought in and deftroved.
Burnet, Tom. I. p. 294.

5 Troops

Rook XV.



notbinp- fl)>l

tie Emp >
And Pope.

1540. Troops in Picardy, Henry re-inforced the Garrifon of
Calais (1), and repaired the Fortifications. Meanwhile
the two Kings willing to avoid a rupture upon fo flight
an occafion, agreed to fend Commifhoners (2) upon the fpot,
with powers to adjuft the difference. But this conference
producing no good effect, each provided for his defence in
cafe of an attack.

Tb t Order of It was this year that the famous Jcfuitical Order was
tbtjtfuiit. f oun (] ea by a Bull oiPaullll, dated the twenty ftventh of
September (3).

1541. The unealinefs the Emperor had given Henry for fome
Hen .7 ./;■'" time, was now almoft vanifhed, lince Franeii : had been

difnppointed in the affair of Milan. Henry knew fuflki-
.jgntly that Prince's temper and character, to forefee with-
out much difficulty, that he would foon break with the
Emperor. A War between thefe two Monarchs could
not but be advantagious to Henry. It would of courfe
procure him quiet, and enable him to prcferve an equality
of power between them, which was the firmeft foundation
of his own and his Kingdom's fecurity. So fearing no-
thing from the Pope or the Emperor, or the King of
France, or his own Subjects, whofe attempts mull be m
vain without a foreign aid, he confined faimfelf wholly
to his domeftick affairs. He had chiefly two things in
view. The firft was, to preferve and even enlarge the
authority he had acquired ; the fecond, to take care that
no alterations fhould be made in Religion, but luch as
he himfelf judged reafonable. Thefe were the two af-
fairs which wholly employed him. As he was poiitively
bent upon thefe two points, and the Parliament durfl not
oppofe his Will, it may be eaftly judged, that none of
his Minifters had the courage to contradict him in any

te/i ttjitutt thing. So, it was himfelf alone that ordered every thing
according to his fancy, his Council only approving his
motions. However, there were in the Council, as well
as in the Kingdom, two oppofite Parties with refpect
to Religion. But every one had always his eyes upon the
King, to try to difcover his thoughts, for fear of combating
his opinion.

Archbifhop Cranmer was at the head of the Party who
wifhed for a greater Reformation. He was ftill very much
efteemed by the King, efpecially on account of his inte-
grity. But fincerity, which he profefled, rendered him
unfit for political affairs, in a Court where inftead of
hearkening to Reafon, Juftice, and Equity, the King's in-
clination only was to be confidered.

Audlcy'j. Chancellor Audley was a Perfon of good fenfe. He ferved

the Reformers when he could without danger. But he
was too much a Courtier to infift upon what he judged
reafonable, ii the King was againft it.

The Duke of Norfolk was as eminent for his merit as
for his birth. He was reckoned a good General, but was
ftill a better Courtier. Ever fubmiflive to the King's
Will, he outwardly approved whatever he was pleafed to
command him. But in private, he giieved at all the late
innovations in Religion, and could not endure either the
Reformation or the Reformed. He would have been
glad to fee the King reconciled to the Pope ; but the fmall
hopes of their reconciliation made him very cautious how
he offended fo unforgiving a Mafter. Neverthelefs, as
the King was not always in the fame difpolition, the
Duke found frequent occafion to ferve his Party, efpe-
cially in the punifhment of thofe who difliked the fix Ar-
ticles, and were fo hardy as publickly to fhew it. In a
word, he was as head of the favourers of the Pope, and the
old Religion. But he carefully concealed from the King
his inclination for the former; and as for the latter, he
dewed his Zeal only in fupporting what the King had

Gardiner's. Gardiner Bifhop of JVinchcfler, was in the fame fen-
timents, and behaved in the fame manner. But he was

in his A~rV~

d n .


The D.uke of

very far from being fo much efteemed by the King, 1541,
who made ufe of him however becaufe he was pliant and
dextrous, and had an extenfivc knowledge of foreign af-
fairs. As this knowledge rendered him of greater infight
than the reft of the Miniftcr;, he fometimes ingaged the
King in proceedings, the confequences whereof might
be advantagious to his Party, and of which the King him-
felf did not always know the motive. By a blind fub-
miflion to the King's Will, he kept himfelf in fome de-
gree of favor, being convinced himfelf, and having alfo
convinced his friends, that this compliance was the only
means to procure a revocation of what had been done againft
the Pope.

Bonner Bifhop of London, wns alfo one of the heads of Bonnerti
the fame Party, but however always ieady to facrifice
every thing to his fortune. He was naturally bold, paf-
fionatc, and exceflively cruel, as he plainly ftewecJ upon
many occafions. As he was of very little merit, he /up-
ported himfelf by making Court to thofe who »cre in
favour, and by taking the King's Will for the rule of his

(^tieen Catherine blindly followed the directions of the lit $»nfh
Duke of Norfolk her Uncle, and ufed what power (he liad
over the King, to fuppoit the credit of the enemies of the

Such was the fituation of the Court, when the King,
fieed from his foreign affairs, was wholly employed in his
domeftick concerns. The Kingdom, however, was in pro-
found tranquillity, becaufe the terror with which Peo-
ple were feized, iilenced all contradiction. In December
the laft year, he began the foundation of the new Bi-
fhopricks, by converting the Abbey of IVeJhninJler into a
Bifhop's See (4). In this year 1541 fie founded three Foundation
more, Chejler (5), GloceJier{6\ and Peterborough (7), and '^* ■•"
the next year, Oxford(S), and Bri/hl ( 9 ). Thefe foun- %&%£'
dations, andfomeotheisoflittleconfequer.ee, were the XIV. p.-jit,
only charitable ufes to which he applied the immenl.c
riches acquired by the fuppreflion of the Abbies ( 1 o). Bu '" cU
His Courtiers magnified thefe pious Acts, whilft others
took notice of the little proportion between feven or eight
thoufand pounds a year, employed in thefe ufes, and what
was acquired by the ruin of near feven hundred Religious

Mean while, Henry had a mind to fhew his zeal for The fang
Religion, as if his fole aim was to procure the eternal f t 'J"^ s jf/'
Salvation of his People. The Book of the Expofition of,, "A \°t, rt .
Chriftian Faith being printed, he prefixed an Ordinance,;''' '«£*-
declaring all thofe to be Hereticks, who believed more or^" A °" °f
lefs than was contained in that Book (11). However, as Herbert.
it was not poffible that all fhould conform to it, and it Burnt*
does not appear, any Perfon fuffered upon that account in
the courfe of this year, it is likely the King had inti-
mated, that he defired not his ordinance to be rigoroufly

Whilft Henry was congratulating himfelf upon triumph- Franca/«-
ing over the Pope, and enjoying a tranquillity which the^"" ^jj
Court of Rome had in vain attempted to difturb, the Empent.
eyes of all Europe were fixed upon what palled between p - D.niel.
the Emperor and the King of France, and upon the
preparations in Turkey. The War between the Em-
peror and Francis was going to be renewed, but very
unfeafonably for the Emperor, when Soli/nan was pre-
paring to invade Hungary, on occafion of the death of
'John de Zapol, Competitor of the King of the Romans,
Thefe two Princes, after long contending for the Crown
of Hungary, being at laft tired of War, were agreed
that Zapol fhould hold, during his Lite, what hepoffelfed,
with the title of King, but after his death the Crown
fhould defcend to Ferdinand. Zapol dying, and leaving a
Son called Stephen, under the Gtiardianfhip of his Mother,
Ferdinand expected that the Treaty fhould be executed,

(1) He fent fifteen hundred Workmen, to wall and fortify Gutfnes, and five hundred Soldiers to defend them. And alfo Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey,
H'ltltam Fitx-rVilltams, Earl of Southampton, and John Lord Rujj'el, were lent over with two hundred Horfe. Hall, foi. 243.

(2) The Englijh Ccmniillioners were Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, and Sir Edivard Karne. Herbert, p. 226.

(3) The Founder of this Order was Inigo (or Ignatius) de Loyala ofGtupvJaa in Spain. He was born 1492, the very Year the Indies were difcovered, and

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