M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Granada taken by Ferdinand. He lived obfeurely till he came to twenty nine Years of Age, and then turned Soldier in the Wars of Navarre 1 >2j, where
being hurt in the Knee, the Pain thereof leems to have wakened Devotion in him to a religious Life ; for as loon as he recovered, he went to our Lady of
Montjerrat, and offered his Sword and Dagger \ then giving away his Cloaths to a poor Man, took upon him a Slnrt and miferable Habit, which he girt about
him with a Ripe of Ru/hes ; and in thele Arms (as Sandiv.it terms them) he watched one whole Night before our Lady, and fo went to an Hofp.tai three
Leagues oft, and there attended fick Pet ions, whence he travelled to the Hdy Land; being returned, and in his thirty third Year, he began to learn Grammar
at Barcetcna, which in two Years he attained. Then he went tu the Univerlity of Aleata, and \a to Salamanca, where being oppoled and perlecutec, he
left all and came to Paris, and there ftudied till he had found djvers others, with whom he agiecd to return in Pilgrimage to J 'ervjaum. Thus about 1536
going to Venice, he ftaid till his Companions overtook him, and went from thence to Rome, where he obtained of Paul 111, the foundation oi' the Jefuites

Order 1540. Herbert, p. 226.

(4) With a Deanery and twelve Prebends, with the Officers for a Cathedral and a Choir. Of which Thomas Tbirleby was the only Bifhop. Rymcr's Feed,
Tom. XIV. p. 705.

(5) Augujl the fourth, out of the Monaftery of St. IVerburgh at Chejler, with a Deanery and fix Prebends. Rymer, Ibid. p. 718.

(6) September the third, out of the Monaftery of St. Ptter\ at GLucejler, with a Deanery and fix Prebends. Ibid. p. 724.

(7) The fourth of the fame Month, out of Peterborough Abbey, with a Deanery and fix Prebends. Ibid. p. 731.
(S) September the firft, out of the Abbey of Ofney it Oxford, with a Deanery and fix Prebends. Ibid. p. 754.
(9J jtune the fourth, out of St. Auftin% at Brtjlot, with a Deanery and fix Prebends. Ibid- p. 74S.

(10J The Priories at moft Cathedrals, as Canterbury, V/mchejler, Durham, Iforcejier, Carlijle, R:.befier, and Ely, were alio converted into Deaneries, and
Colleges of Prebends. As all this came far ftiort ofwhat the King had once intended, to Cranmer's delign was quite difappuintea. For he had pro-
jected, that in every Cathedral there fhould be Provifion made for Readers of Divinity, and of GreaJi and Hebrew, and a great numoer or Students to be bcth
exercifed in the daily Worihip of God, and trained up in Study and Devotion ; whom the Bilhop might tranfplant out 01 this Nurlcry, into all the Parts of •
his Diocefe. Burner, Tern. I. p. 300, 301.

(11) He added a fort of a Preface about two Years after the Book wa^ firft pubjilied. Idem, p. 293.

No. 42. V o l. I.

10 A


8 3 o


Vol. I.

E541. and would have taken polTeffion of all Hungary. But
young Zapol's Mother implored Soliman s protection, which
he readily granted, intending to improve this diffention,
to become mafter of Hungary, and penetrate afterwards
into the imperial territories.
TjtEmpt- The Emperor feeing Hungary threatened with apower-
m'lArtifiu Cxi \ i nva f 10rl) which might be of fatal confequence to
fomT/w" Germany, ufed all his art to pacify the Proteftants, with-
imading out giving them however any fatisfaction, endeavouring
Hungary. on ]y to amufe them, and obtain fome affiftance again it the
Turk. On the other hand, he laboured to perfuade So-
liman, that he was in perfect union with the Kings of
France and England, that the dread of a general League
of the Chriltian Princes might divert him from his de-
fign. Wherefore, he tried to amufe Francis, with put-
ting him in hopes, he would give the Low-Countries to his
Francis to fecond Son, and erect them into a Kingdom. At the
tnak the f ame j j le ye t j le Q Ucmitn p or t to underiland, this

Emperor 1 . & iijr 1 ■ - 1 1

Mtafura, affair wfas in a manner concluded, trancis rell not into
fad* Ambaj- the fnare. But hearing from all parts, that the Empe-
%?",' " . ror's Minifters every where gave out, the Negotiation

Turkey and I Jo ' , . =, ,

Venire. was upon the point oi concluhon, he relolved to lend an

Mezerai. Amballiidor to Venice, and anotlier to Conflantinople, to

y ' undeceive the Emperor of the Turks and the Senate of

Venice. He chofe, for thefe Emballies, Rincon and Frcgofa,

Tbi Ambaf who fet out in order to pals through Italy. But the

«ww<. n Marquifs of Guajh, Governor of Milan, receiving advice

the Po. that they were to imbark at Turin, and go down the Po,

caufed them to be fb narrowly watched, that they were

murdered in the Boat. Francis made great noife about

this afTaffination ; but the Emperor gave him no fatisfaction.

This was a frefli occafion of the rupture between the two


The Interim About the fame time, the Emperor called a Diet at

granted in R at - n i, m for the fifth of April. As it was then no proper

thPr!tlf- " juncture to dilturb the Proteftants, the Diet refolved at laft

tmts. to grant them a fecond delay, which was called the In-

Sleid.m. terim, that they might continue quiet, and more readily

ingage to furnifh Supplies againft the Turks.
EattU of In the mean time, the King of the Romans ordered

fc^Torfa Buda -> Capital of Hungary, to be inverted, in hopes of
'taking it before the Turks {hould arrive. But the Siege
proving more difficult than was expedted, the Turks had
time to relieve it, and give the Germans battle, over
whom they obtained a fignal Vidtory. Shoitly after,
Soliman coming to Hungary, made his entry into Buaa,
and under colour of taking young Zapol under his pro-
tection , became mafter of the City, and great part of the
The Empt- Mean while, the Emperor having ended the Diet, in-
nr'i Expe- fl. ea( j f marc hing into Hungary to affilt the King his
Africa. ' Brother, took the rout of Italy, and embarking at Pcrto-
Hift.d'Efp. venere with an Army of twenty thoufand men, failed for
Mezem. Africa, to make war upon Barbaroffa, who had made him-
felf King of Algiers. This proceeding gave occafion for
many Speculations. It was ridiculed at the French Court,
as if, inftead of fighting the Turks, he had fought a pre-
tence to fly from them. But as the African expedition
was projected the beginning of the year, and the Troops
were now on the Coaft of Italy, it is certain he would
not have had time to relieve the King of the Romans, if
he had attempted to march his Army into Hungary.
It miftaniei. However this be, he landed his Army near Algiers the
twenty fecond of Oftober. But two days after, a fudden
and violent ftorm deftroyed part of his Fleet. This acci-
dent obliged him to reimbark the beginning of November,
Mezerai. after having loft good part oi his Troops and Ships. It is
pretended, Francis out of mere Generality would not pro-
claim War againft him, whilft employed in this expedition.
It is however difficult to believe that Francis, who actually
held intelligence with Soliman, and afterwards fcrupled not
to make ule of the afliftance of the Turks, fhould ftick at
interrupting the Emperor's defigns againft the Infidels of
Affairs 0/ Henry faw with pleafure that the King of France and

Buchanan. *' ie ^ ur ^ s were t om g to f> n d the Emperor employment,
which would hinder him from thinking of England. But
though he was eafy in that refpedl, he was however in
fome pain with regard to the King of Scotland, who,
though his Nephew, had no reafon to love him, and could
eafily amft the Engiijh Male-contents, who were very nu-
merous in the northern Counties. Henry was afraid alfo,

that a religious zeal would carry that Prince to undertake 154:.
fomething againft him, becaufe he began to fuffer himfelf
to be governed by the Churchmen, who under colour of
perfuading him to deftroy Herefy, ftrongly attached him
to the Pope's intereft. The Reformed had now been
burned many years in Scotland. But thefe punifhments
caufed there the fame effects as elfewhere, that is, they in-
crealed, inftead of lelTenuig the number, and yet the Clergy
were ftill obftinately bent to root them out with fire and
fword. James V. was a Prince much addicted to his plea- Burnet,
fures, and very greedy of Money. Befides, he had feveral
natural Sons whom lie could not inrich as he wifhed, be-
caufe he had exhaulled his Treafure in needlefs expences.
Theie were two Parties in his Court, whereof the orTB
favoured the King ol England and the Reformed, and the
other, chiefly confuting of Churchmen, was entirely
againft Henry, and continually ftrove to induce the King
to extirpate all who fwerved from the old Religion. The
former endeavoured to perfuade him to imitate the King
oi England his Uncle, and fecure a large Revenue by the
fuppreiiion of the Abbies. The latter reprefented to him,
that by ftrictly executing the Laws againft Hereticks, he
would raife by forfeited Eftates above a hundred thou-
fand Crowns a year. After fome confideration, James
doled with the laft advice, and fuftering the Clergy to take
their own courle, there followed in Scotland a violent per-
fection ( 1 ).

Henry perceiving the King his Nephew to be thus go- Henry n-
verned by Perlons wholly aildidted to the Court of Rome, f : ""-' ! bii .
feared, he would at lait be led to unite againft him with gaimnrtbt
the Pope and Emperor. This apprehenlion feemed to King if
him the more iuft, as he could hardly rely any longer Scotlan<1-

1 /rii c .1 ■ v rn l ' ° Burnet.

on the ailiftance or the King or trance, who was wont Buchanan,
to direct the Court of Scotland, becaufe that ancient Ally
was grown extremely cold to him. Whereupon, he re-
folved to ufe all his art to gain the King his Nephew, and
perluade him to break, like him, with the Pope. To
this end he fent Ambaliadors to defire an Interview at
York, not queftioning, that, in an amicable conference, he
fhould have eloquence enough to perfuade him to what he
pleafed. James accepted the Overture, and promifed to James agrea
come to York, where Henry went and expedted him. But " ":
the Scotch Eccleliafticks and their whole Party fo beftirred Herbert,
themfelves, to prevent this Interview, the confequence
whereof they perceived, that they fucceeded at laft, and
prevailed with the King to find ibme pretence to be ex-

Mean while, Henry who knew nothing of this change, Henry gut
impatiently waited at York for the day appointed for the "^P'pf"
Interview. In this interval, he ilTued out a Proclamation, Proclamation
That all who had been aggrieved for want of juftice, by •" favour of
any of his former Minifters, fhould come to him and his a ^ Pn f k -
Council for redrefs. His aim was to throw all part mif- stow,
carriages on Cromwell, and put his Subjects, particularly Burnet,
the northern People, in hopes of better times (2). But Herbert.* ""
whilft he was preparing for the King of Scotland's recep-
tion, he received Letters of excufe, that he could not
have the honour of waiting upon him. He was ex-
tremely provoked, and this refufal, which he deemed an
affront, loon after caufed a breach between the two King-
doms. But his vexation at this affair was not comparable
to the unexpected afflidtion he met with upon his return to

Since his laft marriage, he daily blelTed God for the hap- The Slatm't
pinefs he enjoyed with his Queen, and upon all occa- ^"^"'A "
lions publickly teftified his extreme fatisfaction : Nay, Hall.
during his journey to York, defiring to give God thanks Hollingfli.
in a manner fuitable to the fentiments of his Heart, he Burnet>
ordered his Confeflor (3) to draw up a pajticular Thankf-
giving, and prayed him to join with him in the fame. All
this fhewed his efteem and tender affedtion for the Queen,
who feemed to have the fame londnefs for him. But
when he came to London, he heard things which it would
have been well for him never to have known. Whilft he Herbert,
was at York, one John Lajfels came to the Archbiihop of?- - zS -
Canterbury, who remained at London, and told him, that
his Sifter, an old Servant of the Duchefs Dowager of
Norfolk [under whofe care the Queen was brought up,]
faid to him, that the Queen had been very lewd before an J
fince her Marriage, and that two Men, among others,
namely, Dirham and Mannock (4), had often enjoyed her.
Cranmer communicating the fecret to the Lord Chancellor

(1) George Buchanan, the famous Scotch Hiftoiian, was in danger at this time, and would have died with th-? reft, had not he efcaped out of Prifon. See
his Hiftoty of Scotland, J. r4- The fiia»fncfs of his Poems againft the Clergy Was the caufe of his Confinement. He went beyond Sea, and lived twenty
Years ill Exile, and v* as forced to teach School moil part of the time. In his Writ.ngs there appeers not only all the Beauty md Graces of the Latin Tongue,
but a great Vigour ol Mind and Qmckncfs of Thought. His Stile is fo natural and nervous, and his Reflections I n things arc :o folid, ' 4 belides his immortal
Poems) that he is juftiy ftiled the belt of our modern Authors. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 2tl.

(a) In slpnt this Year, there broke out a new InfurrcCtion in Yorkjbirc, which was foon fupprefTed. During this Progrefs, the Places the King paffed
through made their fubmimon to him, thanking him for his pardon, and made him the following Prefents : SramJ A ' ■: 40 /. Bfi-n rcl. Lindfty

300/. Kefttwn, jnd the Church of Lincoln 50/. The chief Perlons of TorkJbireQQol, The Aichbifhop of T.rk, with three hco^red Priclts, 6co /. The
Mayois.l Vc> !. Nrwcajlli, Hull, 100/. a-piece. Hall, fol. 244.

(3) The Bifhop of Lincoln, on November I. Herbert, p. 22S.

(4.) Two of the Duchefs of" A'j-_/j« - s Domcftickt. Herbert, p. ziS.


Book XV.

20. HENRY Vllf.



infortni the
King *>f it.

air taken
in frivett'

Several JPit-

ijl" •':"'"J l

the 2%ueen,




The Siueeti'l




AR. Pub,

AH 0/
etgainfi the
Hhteen and

and other Privy-Cour.fcIWs, it was agreed, that the Arch-
biftrop fhould inform the King of it, as Toon as he returned
to London, though they were not ignorant of the danger
they expo.fed tJiemfelves to, if the accufation could not be
proved. But on this occalion it wai no lefs dangerous to
be fiJent.

Cranm/r not knowing how to execute his Comrniffion,
cliole to fet it down in writing, and put it in the King's
hands (r), defiring him to read it in private. Henry took
it at firft for a Calumny, refolving in himfelf to prrnifh
the Authors fevercly. Nay, it was with this view only
that he was pleafed thoroughly to examine the matter,
though with all poflihlc llrrccy, for fear of vexing the
Queen. He ordered therefore the Lord Privy-Seal to ex-
amine Lajl'els in private. Lajjcls boldly (food to what he
had faid upon his Siller's report, who alfo confirmed what
{he had told her Brother. Upon thefe depositions, fome
pretence was ufed to arreft Dirbam and Alannock, who
difcovered in their Examination more circumftances than
were defrred. They confelied not only that they had
lain with the Queen, but alfo that three Court Ladies,
her confidents, were commonly eye-witnefl'es to her lewd
practices. One of the three was the Lady Rochford, who
accufed the Lord Rochford her Husband of a criminal
commerce with Queen Ann Bullcn Iris Sifter (2). They
farther depofed, That the King being at Lincoln, one
Culpepcr, by the Lady Rochford's means, was brought
into the Queen's Chamber at eleven a Clock in the
night, and itaid there till four in the morning, and that
when he went away the Queen gave him [a Gold Chain
andj a rich Cap. Moreover, the Queen had taken Dir-
bam into her Service, which fhewed file intended to con-
tinue the fame courfe of Life. The Queen at firft de-
nied all. But in a fecond Examination the confclTed (3),
that before Marriage fhe had pioflituted herfelf to feve-
ral Men. This Confeflron flioolc the King's Refolution,
who lamenting his misfortune, could not forbear burn-
ing out into Tears. In fhort, after Dirbam, Mannock,
and Culpeper were condemned to die (4), he was pleafed
the Queen's Impeachment fhould be brought before the
Parliament, which met the 1 6th of 'January the next
' Year 1542.

The Commiflioners(5) named by the Parliament to ex-
amine the Queen, reported, that the Faffs fhe was accuf-
ed of, were fufficiently proved. Whereupon both Houfes
declared her guilty, and petitioned (6) the King that fhe
might be punifhed with Death, together with the Lady
Rochford, Complice of her lewd Practices, the Duchels
Dowager of Norfolk, the Lord JPllliam Howard and his
L;:dy (7), the Countefs of Bridgewater, five other Wo-
men, and four Men, for mifprifion of Treafon, in con-
cealing what they knew of the Queen's vicious Life. Here
again may be oblerved, the Servitude of the Parliament,
who did not dare to condemn the Queen and her Com-
plices, without knowing whether the King would be
pleafed to fuffer them to be punifhed. They did not pro-
ceed in this manner with regard to Ann BulLn and the
Lord Rochford, becaufe the King's Authority was not
arrived to that height, as at the time I am fpeaking of.
The King confenting they fhould be punifhed, they were
condemned to die by an Aft of Attainder. There was
alfo a very extraordinary Claufe in the Aft, declaring :
" That whoever knew any thing of the Incontinence of


' Unmet.

•' a Queen, mould reveal it under the pains of Treafon: 1542,

" That if the King Or his Succeflbrs fhould intend to

" marry a Woman as a Virgin, if fhe, not being f.>, did

" not declare the fame to the King, it fhould be High-

" Treafon ; and all who knew it, and did not reveal

" it, were guilty of mifprifion of Treafon: That if the

" Queen or the Princefs of /A7//« fhould procure any by

" Meflages or Words, to know her carnally; or any

" other by Meflages or Words fhould foilicite them;

" they, their Counfellors and Abettor.,, are to be ad-

" judged high Traih 1 ."

Hi'. 1 11. ■ his A f lent to the Aft [by his Letters Pa- Titter*
tents (8 J the Queen and the Lady Rochford were be- ''' M >" d '"
headed [on \ ./////] the lath of 1. ruary. The !.'„.,',;,.
Queen flood to what fhe had confefled, concerning (heHota*
mifcarriages of hei former Life before fhe was married y*"*-
but lenied, upon her Salvation, that {he had ever defiled
the King's Bed. As for the Lady Rochford, fhe died
unlamcnted by all. But her death and infamy ferved at
leaf! to raife again the Reputatj n of rhe Lord Rochford
her H is.band, and of Queen Ami Bulttn, w\ I i leath fhe
procured b\ her Evidence, which her own Condemnation
caufed 1 1 be untverfally fufpefted.

I he exti .verity of the Parliament to the Queen's n,Ati<f

Relations was much cenfured by the Publick. It was •"'"'•''
thought unnatural to punifh a Grandmother for not dif- j.
covering her ( iiand-daughter's Incontinence (9). Accord
ingly the King moderated the Severity, by pardoning [her
and] molt of thofe who were condemned, fome of whom
however remained long in Prifon. As for the latr Claufe,
which made it Treafon foi a Woman, courted bv the
King, not to reveal the lofs of her Virginity, it was
turned into ridicule. People jeftinsly faid, the Kings of
England for the future could only marry Widows, there
being no reputed Maid who would run the hazard of be-
ing attainted of Treafon, m cafe the King happened not
to like her (10).

This affair being ended, the Parliament confirmed (l 1) Mind >'»
an Aft parted in Ireland, whereby that Ifland was erected " <a " i '""
into a Kingdom. From thenceforward the Kings of Eng- H^bcrtT*
land inferted among their Titles, That of King of Ire- HalL
lend, whereas before they were ftiled only Lords (1 2). Stow -

Before the Parliament broke up, the King began in Tie fdrg
fome meafure to fhew his intention to feize the Colleges ■'A""*
and Hofpitals as he had done the Abbies. But the exe-fifc? '**,
cution of this deiign was very difficult. By the Local Hofpitals,
Statutes of moil of them, the Governors, Prefidents, or Buracu
any of the Fellows, had no power to furrender the Lands
belonging to their Houfes, without the confent of the
whole Society. So it was not eafy to gain whoJe Bodies
of Men, who were fo much concerned to keep the Re-
venues on which they fubiifted. It is true, the King had
prevailed with fome, who were not bound by fuch ex-
prefs Statutes, to refign their Houfes to him. But, as he
had his eye upon all, an expedient was to be found, for
the reft to follow this example without breaking their
Oath. To this end, all the Local Statutes of CoUeges Ja A3 &>
and Hofpitals were annulled by Act of Parliament, and***™ tbe
the Governors, Prefidents and Fellows were no more W w * jr '
be fworn to the obfervance thereof. This obftaoJe being
removed, a few more were furrendered to the King.
But this affair was not entirely finifhed till 1545, by a
much fhorter method.

(l) November 2. Herbert, p. 228.

{1) In an original Letter lent from divers of the Council to William Paget our AmbafTid r then in France, wherein all the Circumftances of the
affair are fct forth at large, it appears tli.it there were three fundry Women one after another, that had lain in the lame bed with them when Dir-
bam lay with the Qm.cn. One of thefe Women the Queen hud taken into her Service as well as Dirbam, bee the Letter in Lord Herbert, p. "••'S.
Compl. Hijl.

(3) To the Arehblfhtip of Canterbury, who took, the ConfeiTion of the fame in writing fubferibed with her hand. Herbert, p. 229. This Confeflion is
extant in Burnet's lift. Ref. Tom. HI. Collect, p. 1 7 1. whereby it appears that (he contend more than enough.

(4.) Dirham and Culpeper were executed at Tyburn t December 10. Hall, fol. 245.

(5) Cramr.cr, the Duke ol Suffolk, the Earl of Southampton, and the Bifliop of Wcflmir.Jlcr examined the Queen, January 2S. How much (he confefled
to them is not very clear, neither by the journal nor thu Ail of Parliament, which only lays, She conjtjjid, without mentioning the particulars. Bur-
net, Vol. J. p. 312. J our mil i of Parliament.

(6) The Bill for her Attainder was read January 21, for the firft time \ and for the fecond and third time-';, Feb. 6. and S. Jsurnah cf Pari,

The Act, palled in both Houfes, began with petitioning the King: 1. Not to be troubled, fince it might fliortcii his Life. 2. To pat don every thing
fpoken ag.iinft the Queen. 3. That the Queen and her Complices might, &e. Burnet, Tom. J. p. 313.

(7) Rapitt, by miitake, fuppofes thefe to be her Father and Mother, whereas they were her Uncle and Aunt. Her Father was the Lord Edmund
Howard. As the Family of the H'-ivards fpread them (elves into feveral Branches, in order to prevent » infuficudj it will be proper to infert here a IhorC
Genealogical Account of that Family, which (hall be carried on in due time. Sir Robert Howard ^ temp. Hen. VI.) married Alargaret Daughter and Co-
heir to Thomas de Mwbray Duke of Norfolk; by whom he had John, created Duke of Norfolk, Jure 2$, 1 Ric. Ill, and ihm afterwards at Bojwtrtb
fight, who married, 1. Catherine, Daughter of William Lord Molins, by whom he had Tbcmai created Earl of Surrey 1 Rich. Ill, and reflored to the (aim
Title a. Hen. VII, and to that of Duke of Norfolk 5 Hen. VIII. 2. Margaret Daughter of Sir John Ct dvnrth. The faid Tbcmai married, h>ft, £.-za-
betb D^u^htcr and fole Heir to Sir Frederick Tilney, by whom he had Toomas the third Duke of Norfolk, bir Edicaid Knight of the Carter and High-
Admiral, and Edmund Father of Catherine, fifth Wife of Henry VIII. His fecond Wife was Agnes, Sifter and Heir of Sir Philip 'THr.ey, by whom he
had William created B.iron of Bffngbdm March XX. ( \ Mary) and Thomas who died in che Toour in 155 ', where he was confined about Margarei Dmvlgfi
Daughter of the Queen of Scotland. Dugdate's Baron. Vol- II. p. 265— —278.

(8) Which he was empowered to do by this Act. He did it Feb. 11.

(9) It was not her Parents (as Rapi/t repeats here again by miftake) but her Grandmother, the old Duchcfs cf Norfolk [under whom (he had been
bred) that People thought was cruelly dot It by, for not telling the King her Giand-daughter was a Whore, which would have been incondftent with
the Rules of JuJlice or Decency. Her Parents fecm to have been dead before now, feeing there is nothing faid of her Father llnce 12 Henry VUI.
Dugdalt, Vol. II. p. 272.

(10) This part of the AcTt was afterwards repealed in the fyft Parliament of Edward VI.

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