M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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(1 1 J January 23, as appears by the Journals.

(12) Among other Acts, thefe that follow were alfo then made : 1. That Perfons, who by privy Tokens and counterfeit Letters, deceitfully obtain any
Money, Goods, or Chattels, (hall fuffer fuch Punilhment (except death) as lhall be appointed by thofe before whom thry are convicted. 2. That no per-
son, except what has Lands, Tenements, Fees, Annuities, or Offices, to the yearly value of one hundred Pounds, (hall keep or (hoot with any Gun.
3. That no Man (h<Ul be Juflice of Aflize in the County where he was born, ordwelleth. 4. By another, the Court of Surveyors of the King's Lands
is fettled. And 5. the pwmihmcnt of thofe that are guilty of Murder, or Bloodihed, within ih« Verve 01 th* King's Court, btetut. 33 Henry VIII.


8 3 2


Vol. I.

I 542.

Difpute con-
cerning the
Verjion of
the Bible*

Att- Pub.

'The Kfag
luartts the
Commons to

offer him a
iiubjidy ;


but they do

fie endea-
vours to hin-
der the King

of France
from affifiing
T. III. 155.

Whilft the King's affairs were thus doing in the Parli-
ament, the Convocation, which fat at the fame time,
were much divided about the new tranflation of the Bible,
that was going to be publifhed. Many affirmed, it was
full of faults, and to fuffer it to be read before it was re-
vifed, would be very injurious to the People. Gardiner
moved this difpute, in hopes this revifal would take up
fome time, and the King in the mean while alter his
mind ( 1 ). His Party was fo numerous, that he would have
carried his point, if Granmer, who perceived his defign,
had not moved the. King to refer the perufing of the (
tranflation to the two Univerfities, where he had much
more intereft than in the Convocation. Several Bifhops
ftrenuoufly oppofed it, and fome even entered a protesta-
tion againft it (2). But all fignified nothing, fince the
King declared it to be his pleafure : Nay, he granted,
the 1 2th of March, a privilege to a London Bookfellerfj)
to print the Bible in Englijli. This gives occalion to pre-
fume, the Univerfities revifed not the tranflation, fince
it was impoflible they fhould have examined it in fo fhort
a fpace.

The King wanted Money for the War with Scot/and,
on which he was entirely bent, but durft not ask the
Commons. Not that he doubted of fuccefs, but was afraid
of alienating the hearts of his Subjects, who were much
more tender of matters of intereft than of all others. He
wiftied the Commons would voluntarily offer him Money,
without being asked. It was in order to gain their affec-
tion, that he commanded a Sheriff to be imprifoned for
arrefting a Member of Parliament (4), and offered to
leave it to them to punifh him as they thought fit. On
the other hand, he every where borrowed Money to let
them fee his neceffity (5). But for once the Commons
feigned not to understand this language, being unwilling
to introduce the pernicious cuftom of granting the King
Subfidies unasked. Beiides, as they were yet ignorant of
the defign of a War with Scotland, they faw no occa-
fion to offer him Money. So, the Parliament broke up
without granting the King any thing, except the Aft
concerning the Colleges and Hofpitals, which was a
feed, the fruit whereof he was to gather in due Sea-

The War with Scotland being refolved , Henry fent
Sir William Paget to France, to found Francis I, and try
to hinder him by fome Treaty from affifting the King of
Scotland. The Ambaffador's inftructions were, to demand
of the King of France, that the Treaty of perpetual Peace
between France and England Should be renewed. Francis
eafily perceived there was fome hidden Myftery in this
overture. As he knew Henry was difplealed with the
King of Scotland, he did not doubt that he delired the
Peace to be renewed, on purpofe to infert in the new
Treaty fome Article to tie up his hands, and prevent
him from aiding his Ally. He anfwered therefore, that it
was needlefs to renew a Treaty, the conditions whereof
the King of England had not performed. The Ambaf-
fador replied, there was no fort of terms in the Treaty
of Peace, and confequently his Mafter could not be ac-
cufed of breaking them. But this difpute was entirely
founded on a miftake. The Ambaffador underftood by
the Treaty of Peace, a private Treaty of one fingle Ar-
ticle ; namely, That there Should be a perpetual Peace
between France and England. But Francis meant fome
other Treaties figned the fame- day, and which belonged
to the firft, though this was written apart. It was this
feparate Treaty which Henry wanted to renew, imagin-
ing he Should thereby hinder Francis from affifting the
King of Scotland. But Francis did not defign that, under
this pretence, Henry fhould be fuffered to crufh an anti-
ent ally of France, and France not be able to oppofe it.
On the contrary, he deemed it a manifeft breach of the
Peace, to attack his Allies without any juft caufe. Mean
while, as neither would mention the King of Scotland,
though both had him in their thoughts, Francis, to em-
barrafs Henry, demanded, purfuant to the former Treaties,
his affiftance to recover the Milanej'c. Henry required on
his part, that Francis, according to his promife, Should
aboliSh the papal Authority in France. Thefe reciprocal
demands were more apt to produce a breach than a re-
newal of the Treaties. Befides, the Englijl) had already
begun Hostilities , by feizing fome French Ships which
were fuppofed to be Pyrates, and the French had detained
fome Englijl) Veffels by way of reprisal. So, the Am-
baffador having taken his leave without effecting any

thing, reported to his Mafter, that the King of France 1542!
was'ill-aftected to him ; that is, he would not, without
oppofing it, fuffer the King of Scotland to be oppreffed.
This was the meaning of Francis's being ill-affected to
England, he being at that time very far from wiShing
a War with the Englijh, fince he was juft going to begin
another which he much more defired.

Francis was fo provoked at all the Emperor's artifices, Embaflj ef
that, to proclaim War againft him, he only Staid to fee £"„" " f
him fo embroiled with the Smalcaldick League, that there \n dia.
fhould be no more hopes of agreement. To foment this Sleidan,
diffention, he had fent Amballadors to the Diet affembled
at Spire, in February, under colour of clearing himfelf
from the pretended Calumnies he was afperfed with, and
particularly from the imputation of making an alliance
with the Turks. His Amballadors complained to the Diet,
in very Strong terms, of the murder of Rinctrn and Fre-
gofa, pretending; that Rincon was fent to Conjiantinople,
only to diffuade Soliman from his defign of carrying War
into Germany. However, in the fequel of their difcourfe,
they would have perfuaded the German Princes, that it
was their intereft to fortify their frontier Towns and
abandon Hungary to the Turks. So their prefence at the
Diet having produced no great effect, they were returned
very diffatisfied.

Shortly after their departure, the Pope's Nuncio offered The Pop
to the Diet, in his Matter's name, a Council at Trent. c £"' f. ,
The Catholicks gladly accepted the offer, and thanked the Trent.
Nuncio. But the Proteftants rejected it, becaufe they Herbert,
would not have a Council called by their adverfary, and
in a fufpicious place, fince the City of Trent belonged
to the King of the Romans. The Diet however ended
to the Emperor's and Ferdinand's fatisfaction, after having
unanimoufly refolved to give them a powerful affiftance,
under the conduct of the Elector of Brandenburg.

Though the Proteftants refufed the Pope's offer, Paul the catling
III. called a Council at Trent for November following, by fj^^
a Bull of the 2 2d of May. But this was only to amufe
the world. He knew that when a War between the
Emperor and France was going to commence, there
would be obstacles enough to hinder the Council from

And indeed at this very time Francis I. was bringing Francis
five Armies into the field, to attack the Emperor in five '"''"f" ,l *
places at once; namely, in Roufillon, Luxemburg, Pied- f- , places.
mont, Flanders and Brabant. But the fuccefs anfwered not D - ila ■
his expectations. The great effort he made this year to h',"™ 1-
invade his enemy, ferved only to difable him to do the
like again when he came himfelf to be attacked. The
Dauphin belieged Perpignan in vain. The Duke of Or-
leans his Brother took Luxemburg and Montmedy : but
thefe places were retaken before the end of the Campain.
As for the other three Armies , they performed nothing

Whilft Francis was vainly endeavouring to be revenged Henry re-
of the Emperor, Henry came to a final Refolution to^*^*
make War upon Scotland. He had been in hopes, that in Scotland,
the expected Conference with the King his Nephew, he Buchanan.
Should perfuade him to renounce the Papal Authority, and gj^'
was extremely concerned to fee himfelf difappointed. This
Affair feemed to him of the utmoft importance, becaufe
not having much to fear from abroad, where the naval
Forces were not comparable to his, Scotland was the
only Country which could give him any unealinefs. From
thence alone could the Englijh Male-contents receive any
Succours, and he remembred with terror, the danger
he Should have run when the Rebels were in Arms in
the North, had they been fupported by a Scotch Army.
In his War therefore upon Scotland, his aim was not to
make conquefts, but to bend the King of Scotland to his
will by force, fince he could not do it by fair means.
This he deemed abfolutely neceffary, in order to procure
a fettled Peace. At the time of the northern Rebellion,
the Junctures were very favorable to him ; for, being
then in Strict Union with France, King James could not
engage to fupport the Englijh Male-contents without Fran-
cis's confent, who, inftead of approving fuch a Defign,
would have rather diverted him from it. But affairs were
now upon another foot, fince Henry could no longer rely
upon the King of France's Friendfhip. It is true, that
Prince was not to be much feared, whilft at war with
the Emperor ; but he confidered that the equality of thefe
two Monarch's Forces would, probably, oblige them to
make Peace very foon, and this Peace, in which no doubt

(1) Gardiner had a lingular conceit. He fancied there were many words in the New Teftament of fuch Majefty, that they were not to be tranflafed,
but mutt (land in the Englijh Bible as they were in the Latin. A hundred of thefe he put into a writing which was read in Convocation. His deligu
was vifibly to make the Tranflation unintelligible to the People. Some of thefe words were, Ecclrjia, Penitaaia, Cwtritus, Jujtitia, Jtijtlficath, Idtota,
Elementa, Baptizare, Martyr, Sacramentum, iSimulachrum, Gloria, Sec. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 314.

(2) All the Bilhops of the Province of Canterbury, except Ely and St. David's, proteftcd againft it. Burnet, p. 315.

(3) Antony Mai far. Rymer, Tom. XIV. p. 745.

(4) George Ferrers, Member for Plymouth. Hollingjh. p. 955.

($) Stiiv fays, he took in May a Loan of Money of all 1'uch as were valued at fifty Pounds or upwards in the book of SubfiJy, p. 5S3.

2 the

Book XV.



1542. the Pope would interpofe, necclTarily be to his prejudice;
nay, it was a queftion whether it would not occafion a
League againlt him, and the King of Scotland join in it.
In that cafe, England could be invaded in the North
with the more eale, as the northern Counties were mod
inclined to rebel. It was therefore of very great confe-
tjuence to Henry to gain the King of Scotland to his In-
tereft, fince, being fecured from that fide, an Invalion
was not to be much feared, which he looked upon as
impofiible, confidering the fuperiority of his naval

He intended to make ufe of two ways to gain the
King of Scotland in the propofed Conference. The firlt

detained at the Court of England upon frivolous pretences, 1 S4*.
and whilft Henry was making his Preparations, he gave
them no anfwer. Nay, they were not fuffered to return
but with the Army, which was to enter their Country,
under the command of the Duke of Norfolk (*), and where
they were as Pril'oners. Two othei Ambafiadori of Scot-
land who were going to London, meeting the Englijh upon
their march, were alio detained till the Army arrived at

Mean while, King Jama hearing the Duke of Nor- ''
folk was marching towards the North at the head of ''
twenty thoufand Men, fent a Body of ten thouTand to B«
the Frontiers, under the command of George Con Ion, ex-

way was, to fhew him that it was in his power to fecure peeling the reft of the Troops, who were inarching from

to him the Succeflion of the Crown of England, after his
Son Edward, or remove him from it, lince, by the Act
of Parliament made for that purpole, he could call to the
Succeflion his Daughters Mary and Elizabeth, or exclude
them for ever. In the former cafe, King James could
not pretend to the Crown, till after the Pofterity of thefe
two Princefles was extincT: ; but in the latter cafe, he
came immediately after Prince Edward. As therefore to
gain two degrees, was a conliderable Advantage for the
King of Scotland, Henry hoped he would not be founwife
as to flight it. The fecond way he deligned to make ufe
of to win that Prince, was to lay before him the advan-
tages which would accrue to him in cafe he renounced
the Pope, as well by reafon of the facility this would
give him, to fucceed to the Crown of England, if there
fhould be occafion, as by the Riches he would acquire in
fupprefling the Monafteries of Scotland. As James was
very greedy of Money, Henry did not queftion fucceed-
ing by this fecond means, though the firft fhould prove
ineffeclual. He was therefore extremely vexed to fee him-
felf difappointed of his hopes, by the King his Nephew's
refufal to meet him at York. He found, the new Queen
had too great an Influence over him, and even fufpected it
to be the eft'ecl of the Intrigues of the Pope, the Emperor,
and perhaps the King of France. So, defpairing to fuc-
ceed in his Project, by fair means, he refolved to try to
accomplifh it by force.
Tbtitjignof Scotland was little able to refill England, without the
tin IVar. a jj,{j ance f France. But Francis was lb employed, that
there was no likelihood of his interpofing in the quarrel.
Henry hoped therefore, if he could gain at firft fome ad-
vantage, he lhould render the Scots lefs intractable, and
more eafily difpofe the King his Nephew to hearken to
his Propofals. Thus the War he intended to wage with
Scotland, was properly deligned to oblige the Scots to a
compliance with his defites, and not founded upon Ca-
price only, or to be revenged of the Affront he received,
as the Hiftorians pretend. However, as he could not dif-
cover the real Motives, without doing himfelf a prejudice,
he pretended a violation of the Truce, James's denial
of fome Lands of fmall value lying on the Frontiers, and
his reception of fome Englijh Rebels. But as all this was
not very capable of deceiving the world, he bethought
himfelf of reviving the old pretenfions of the Kings of
England to the Sovereignty of Scotland. To that pur-
pofe, he fet out a long Declaration, in which was inferred
the Memorial largely fpokenof in the Reigns of Edivardl,
and Henry VII, containing the pretended Proofs of the
Homage, Scotland had formerly paid to England. This
Declaration was however fo ambiguoufly expreffed, that it
plainly appeared, Henry was willing to have it in his power
to quit his pretenfions without injuring his honour. It is
entirely needlefs to repeat the contents of the Memorial.
It will fuflke to obferve, that the Englijh Writers fpeak of
it, as if the Sovereignty of the Kings of England over Scot-
land was there demonftrated, and the bare Citation of it
fuflkient to carry the Caufe. Doctor Burnet, though a
Scotchman, feems to give into this opinion univerfally
fpread in England, fince he fpeaks of this Memorial in his
fliftory of the Reformation, without making any Remarks.
Perhaps he did not think proper to combat the Sentiments
of the Englijli without any neceflity, in refpeel to his Hi-

Henry published not his Declaration till his Army was
juft entering Scotland. His delign was to furprize the
Scots, which he believed the more eafy, as there appeared
to be no juft caufe of Breach between the two Kingdoms.
However, King James hearing that Soldiers were railing
in England, put himfelf in a pofture of defence, in cafe
he fhould be attacked. In the mean while, he fent two
Amballadors (1 ) to the King his Uncle, to fee to content
him, if poflible, or at leaft to gain time till the King of
Buchanan. France could aflift him. Thele Amballadors were long


tie revives

the Preten-
Jions to tbc
cf Scotland.
vfron that
fcl. 247.
But net.

War vjitb

fcveral parts to join him. But Gordon could not hinder
the Duke of Norfolk from entering Scotland about the
end of October (3), and ravaging the Country Noith of
the Tweed. Alter this fhoit Expedition, the Englijh
Army retired to Berwick, the Scafon which was now
very bad, preventing them from advancing any farther.
In the mean time, King James ordered the Lord Max- H»'I.
well to march with fifteen thoufand Men, whilft the En- ["J,"'"""'
glijh were retiring to Berwick. The Scots pretend, upon
the news of Maxwell's march, the Englijh retreated in
fuch confulion, that they might have been eafily defeated,
it^ Gordon had ventured to attack them, and that the
King was extremely angry with him for this difappoint-
ment. However this be, James heading his Army in The Kl.g of
perfon, held a Council of War, and appeared fully re- Sc .'' "f "
folved to give Battle, let what would be the confequencc.
But he was alone of that opinion. On the contrary, the
danger to which the Kingdom would Le expofed, in
cafe of a defeat, was ftrongly reprefentcd to him. \r\Tie WMa
fhort, as he would not alter his refolution, the Generals
and Nobles told him, they would not obey him, if, with-BucluuuZ'
out any neceflity, he obftinately expofed the Kingdom to
fo manifeft a hazard. This oppolition threw him into
a fury. He fwore he would punifh their difobedierice,
and called them all Traitors, fince they hindered hirn
from obtaining, as he thought, a certain Victory. Car-
dinal Beaton infpired him with this notion, by telling him,
it was impofliblc for fuch Hereticks as the Englijh to
conquer him. The truth is, James was a little difturbed
in his fancy, ever fince he had unjuftlv put to death a
Nephew of the Duke of Albany, whofe Apparition was ever
prefent to hi:, Imagination. So being extremely troubled
to be thus difobeyed, he left the command of 'the Army
to the Lord Maxwell, with orders to march towards the
Enemy, and remained himfelf within diftance to join him,
in cafe there was occafion to fight. But a few days after, He gives th,
as he was extremely incenfed with his Generals, andoreatly '■"■""""' '/
miftrufted them, he gave a Commiffion in form to Oliver stcbir?' "
Sinclair his Minion, to command the Army. The new Buchanan.
General, very unfit for fuch a Poft, repairing to the Camp, f J, , nrt *
caufed his Patent to be publickly read, at which all were *'
offended. This bred fuch difcontent among the Troops,
that they began to disband, when a Body of five hundred
Englijh Horfe appeared on a hill, where they were ported
to watch the motions of the Enemy. This fight increafed
the confulion among the Scotch Troops, who imagined
the whole Englijli Army was approaching to give Battle.
In this condition, being without a General, fince Alax- Rtutcfiit
well's Commiffion was revoked, and none would ob<-7 Sin- Scotch^ngr.
clair, they chofe to retire in a fright, which perr.ritted B^ 1 " 1 -' 1 -
them not to look back, and obferve the fmall number of
their Enemies. The Englijh Horfe feeing them fly with Hall.
fuch precipitation, clofely purfuedthem, and without meet- St "*;
ing any reliftance, flew great numbers, took Prifoners Bur'nTt?" 1 *
feven Lords, two hundred Gentlemen, eight hundred
Soldiers, with four and twenty pieces of Oidnance^}.
Never was Victory fo eafily won. Among the chief Pri-
foners were the Earls of Glencairn and Cajjhu, the Lords
Maxwell, [Somenille, Oliphant, Gray,] and Oliver Sin-
clair the King's Favorite.

The news of this Rout threw King James into a difmal Deeah of ,b,
melancholy, to which he was already too much inclined, f"* °f
He fancied, his Generals and Nobles had betraved him, Buchanaai
and in this belief, refolved to put moft of them to death. Hail.
His vexation was ftill increafed, upon hearing that a He-
rald, fent by the Duke of Norfolk, was murdered by an
Englijh Refugee. He immediately apprehended the lil
confequences of fuch an accident, after his late misfortune.
So imagining it would be impoflible to free himfelf from
his prefent embarrallrnent, he could not withstand his im-
moderate Grief, which brought him to his grave the 1 4th
of December 1542. His death happened (e\en days after jji.th oFtU
the birth of a Pnncefs called Mary, of whom Iris Queen Prhufs


(1) The Bilhop o( Orkney, and James Leirm'.ulb, Mailer cf his Houfliold. Hull, fol.

(2) The Duke was accompanied with the Earls of Sbrttafimry, Derby, Cumberland, Surrey, Hertford, A'.gttl, Rutland; and %\r Jhtbm Br.'jin, M.ftjr of
the Horfe to the King, Sir John Cage, Controller of the Houlhold, <Sc. laid.

(3J October 21. Ibid.

(4) This Battle or Rencounter hipfened on November 2j. Idem. foj. jjj.

No. 42. Vol. I.





Vol. I.



A little before

was delivered, and who was his only Heir,
he loft two Sons in one day.
Henty onkn Henry not knowing what paffed \n Scotland, had ordered
tht b"tTli the ScoU b Prifoners to be brought tc London, where they
to London? arrived the nineteenth of December ( i ). Next day (2) they
were conducted thro' the City from the Tower, where they
had been confined, to JVcJtminJicr, where the King was
pleafed to fee and talk with them. He expoftulated with
them, for having, by their pernicious Counfels, perfuaded
their King to quarrei with him, and told them they juftly
bore the punifhment of a war railed by themfelves. Ne-
verthelefs, as he intended to make ufe of them to procure
fuch a peace as he defired, be ended his difcourfe with
fome obliging expreffions, and granted them more liberty,
by putting them in the Cuftody of feveral Noblemen.
The Earl of Cajfilis had the good fortune to fall into the
hands of theArchbifhopof Canterbury, and to receive from
him, during his fhort fray at London, fuch Inftructions as
induced him to embrace the Reformation when he return-
ed to his own Country.
//- ■/- : 7j a A k\v days after (3), the news of the Birth of Mary

Malth be-
tween his
Son and the
tieiu Queen
He fends
avjay the


P- 959-


Princefs of Scotland, and of the King her Father's death
arriving together, Henry thought it a favourable juncture to
unite Scotland to England, by marrying his Son Edtuard to
the new Queen of Scotland. He caufed the captive Lords
to be founded, and finding them inclined to fecond the
overture, fet them at liberty, on condition they would give
Hoftages for their return, in cafe the project of the Mar-
riage did not fucceed. This condition being accepted,
they were conducted to Newcajlle, from whence they re-
turned into their country. We fhall fee prefently what
was the iffue of this project.

The Parliament of England meeting the twenty fecond

of 'January, granted the King a Subfidy (4), as well for his

";>."' Em'a barges in the War with Scotland, as lor his other occa-





An Ail al-
lowing the
Bible in

H . .


lions. By that was meant, a War with France, of which
there was no longer room to doubt, fmce the King was
upon tiie point of concluding a League with the Emperor.
The Union which was going to be formed between thefe
two Monarchs, was like to be fo favourable to the Adhe-
■ rents of Rome and the old Religion, that they queftioned
not but the deftruction of the Reformation in England was
approaching. However, at tiiis very time they had the

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