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mortification to fee an Act of Parliament palled, which
much checked their hopes. This Act, moved, and at
length obtained by Cranmcr, ran, That Lords, Gentle-
men, Merchants, might have in their Houfes an Englijb
Bible, with fome other religious Books, mentioned in the
Act, for the Inltrtiction of their Families. But it was
exprefly forbid to print, fell, buy, or keep any other re-
lig.ous Books, and to preach or fpeak againlt the Ordi-
Adfuntagi nance of the Year 1540. There was alfo a very con-
euiClaufete fcderable Claufe in this Statute, that the offenders, if Ec-
c'.'i.j'lr' cleliafticks, fliould not be condemned to be burnt till the
third offence ; and the punifhment of the Laity, not ex-
tend beyond forfeiture of Goods and Chattels [and perpe-
tual Imprifonment.] Moreover, the Act allowed the Party
accufeil 10 bring Witnefles for his own purgation, which had
never been practifed before in the cafe of Herefy. Laftly,
It was enacted, that the accufed fliould be tried within a
Paver year at fartheft after the Indictment. But on the other
?<Cfor.-W nanc '> l ' lc ^ aw ol the fix Articles was confirmed, and
Ms ;.:. the Parliament left it in the King's power to annul or al-
ter the Act at his pleafure. By this laft. Claufe the King
Hill continued to be mafter of the Livesof the Reformed,
iince by repealing this Act, he could profecute them upon
the former Statutes (5).

A fortnight after the Parliament broke up, Henry con-
cluded with the Emperor a League, which however
>„.„,.. was not publifhed till June. It was not the Intereft of
Atx Pub. England, that the King fliould join with the Emperor to
XIV.p.768. ren( j er him more powerful. He was already but too po-

February II. ,^ . l . ... . J r

tent. l_M the contrary, it would have been much more
proper, in order to keep the balance even, to have af-
luled France. Atleaft, it is undeniable, that a Neutrality
would have been advantagious to the Englijh. But the
King's paffion ran counter to the Nation's Intereft. He
was extremely diflatistied with Francis upon feveral ac-
counts. In the rirft place, he obferved in him a great
Indifference for his concerns, ever fince he had not want-

Henry con-
cludes a
Lca£Ut •with

February ;

aWcw -f


/'..'<:/ ZV.t

P- »3&


ed his affiftance. Secondly, He perceived at length, that
all his promifes to renounce, like him, the Papal Autho-
rity, tended only to amufe him. He knew, Francis on
feveral occafions, h? \ blamed his Conduct with refpect
to Religion, and ridiculed his Marriages. In the next
place, lie paid neither the yearly penfion of a hundred
thoufand Crowns, nor that of ten thoufand for the Salt
of Brouage, though bound by divers Treaties. As for
the debt of two Millions, Francis indeed could produce
Acquittances for good part of that Sum, but then Henry
bad received no Money, the Acquittances being in lieu of
the Succours he had voluntarily promifed to lend him in
his former Wars. However, there was a round Sum ftill
left unpaid, and the Debtor never endeavoured to fatisfy
him. Moreover, Henry had prefented the King of France
with what was due to him from the Emperor, folely on
condition he would perform the Treaties, and complained,
Francis had not been punctual. But what moft offended
Henry, was, the obftacles Francis had raifed him in Scot-
land, by means of a Faction, wbicS openly oppofed his
defigns. Here was fufficient caufe for a Breach, if the
Nation's Intereft had been the fame with the King's. But
in fuch an oppofition, feldom does it happen that the Peo-
ple's advantage prevails over the Sovereign's. Henry re-
folved therefore to r.iake the King of France fenfible, that
it was worth hv. while to have fliewn a greater regard for
him, and to this end, chofe to be reconciled with the Em-
peror, and join in a League with him.

Charles V. defired nothing more earneftly. He plainly Theadvan-
few that with the alliance of England, he fliould foon 1"*™ of *j£

" League on tbc

bring the King 0/ France to reafon, and deftroy all his Empcrcr't
hopes of recovering Milan by Arms. His conftant fear of^'>
Henry's uniting with France and the German Proteftanfs,
caufed him to confider the alliance with England as what
would enable him to accomplifh his ambitious defigns.
He found his recount much better in hindering Francis
from fetting foot again in Italy, and in fubduing the Pro-
teftants, than in executing, or rather in trying to execute
the Pope's fentence againft Henry ; an undertaking which,
probably, would not have ended to his honour. Befides,
the death of Que*T. Catherine his Aunt had much leflened,
and it may be entirely ftifled, his defire to revenge her.
So, at the very time he was complaining to all the Princes
of Europe that Francis held private intelligence with the
Infidels, he fcrupled not to court the alliance of an excom-
municated King, who, according to the principles of the
Romijh Chuich, ought not to have been looked upon with
lefs horror than the Turk. One Angle difficulty retarded Difficulty
the conclufion of this alliance. The Emperor would have "/"" ,b!
Mary Queen Catherines, Daughter, acknowledged for le- tCiTaTui
g'timate, which Henry obftinately refufed Nay, he could Bumeu
not grant it without condemning his Divorce with Ca-
therine, and all his proceedings upon that occafion. He
promifed however, that purfuant to the power granted
him by Parliament, he would give Mary a place in the
fucceffion ; but would never confent, this Article mould
be inferted in the Treaty. The Emperor's friends in it h
England advifed him to be fatisfied with this verbal pro- """"'i
inife, apprehenfive as they were that the League, from
whence they expected great advantages, would be delayed
by this obftacle. Bonner Bifhop of London, who had
been fent into Spain for this Negotiation, willingly and ar-
dently endeavoured to accomplifh it, in hopes, that an
Union between the Emperor and the King, would re-
eftablifh Religion in England upon the fame foot as before
the Divorce.

The Treaty was therefore concluded at London the Treaty of
eleventh of February 1543. It contained a League for £M i" efc "
England only, with what Henry held in Picardy ; and on Emperor ana>
the Emperor's part, for the Provinces of the Low-Countries Henry,
under his dominion (6), without any mention of Spain or A , & \ Pub ; e
Germany. The League was to this effect: Herbert

That the Emperor and the King of England fliould p. aj6.
fend Ambafladors to the King of France, to declare to
him, that by his follicitations only the Turks had invaded
Chrijlendom. That therefore the two confederate Mo-
narchs exhorted him to break his alliance with the In-
fidels, to hold them for enemies, and renounce his cor-
refpondence with them. That they demanded moreover,
he fhould fatisfy the damages done to Chrijlendom, by his

onducted by Sir Henry Sa-vil, and Sir Thomas Wenpwortk Herbert, p. 234.
, .Iter, mx. the twenty lirli. Hall, fol. 255. Stow, p. 5S3.


(2) T«

(3) December 22. Holliigjljead, p. 9 59.
( + j This bubfidy was as follows : livery Perfon worth in Goods 20 /. and upwards, paid two Shilling ; from 20 /. to 10 /. Sixtacn-pence ; from To/, to 5 ".

ncej from 5/. to 20 r. Four-pence. And for Lands, Fees, and Annuities, they paid according to this rate: They that were we>rch 20 /. and upward',
paid three Shillings in the pound; from 20/. tu 10/. two Shillings; from 10/. to 5/. Sixteen-pence ; and they that were worth from 5/. I0 2OJ. paid Eight-
pence in the pound. All thele were doubled on Strangers. The Clergy alio granted a Subfidy of fix Shillings in the pound ; and every Priejt having but an
annual Stipend, was to pay fix Shillings and Eight-pence. Thefe feveral Subfrdies were to be paid in three years. Stow, p. 585.

(,) In this Parliament, an Ail was m.ide for authorizing the County and City oi CheJIer to fend, each, two Reprefenutives in Parliament ; which they
ttfed not to do before. And another lor empowering perfons that are not common Surgeons to minifter Medicines, notwithftanding the Statute 3 Henry V1U.

(6) The Places and Dominions mentioned on King Henry's part, are, the Kingdoms oi England and Ireland, the Illands of Wight, Jersey, Cernj'ey, and
Man ; the Caltte and Earldom of Guyfnes, and the Towns of Calais and Berwick : And on the Emperor's part, are named, the Kingdom of Spain [regret
Hifpamarum,] the Provinces ot Brabant, Flanders, Huland, Zealand, ILuew, Arms, Litttburr, Luxemburg, tfauur, Ft.tltland, the" Countries of Durejlil,
Utrtcbt, and Mechlin, Rymtr's Futd, Tom, XIV, p. 769, 7J o.


Book XV.



1543. calling in thofe cruel enemies. That he fhould give over
the War he had begun in feveral places, that the Empe-
ror might apply himfclf to the defence of Chrijlendom.
That he fhould caufe the Town of Maran, taken by
the Turks, to be reftored to King Ferdinand ; and to the
Emperor, Cajlro-novo, which they had befieged with the
aid of twelve French Gallies. That he fhould repair the
lofTes the Germans had fuftained by the Turkijh invafion.
Laftly, that he fhould fatisfy the King of England for
whatever he owed him, and give him fecurity for the pay-
ment of the hundred thoufand Crowns.

Alter thefe preliminaries, the two confederate Monarchs
agreed, that they would not make Peaceor Truce but upon
thefe conditions : That Francis fhould pay the King of
England whatever was due to him, and for fecurity of the
annual Pcnfion, furrender into his hands the Earldom of
Ponthicu, Boulogne, Alontreuil, Ardres and Terouenne, free
from all Homage, for which however Henry fhould con-
fent that the yearly Revenues thence arifing fhould be in
lieu of the penfion. Moreover, that Francis fhould reftore
to the Emperor the Duchy of Burgundy.

That if the King of France fhould delay but ten days
to accept thefe conditions, the two confederate Monarchs
fhould proclaim War againft him, with a Declaration that
they would never make Peace, till the King of England
was in pofleffion of Normandy, Guienne, and the Kingdom
of France, and the Emperor of Abbeville, Amiens, Bray,
Corbcil, Peronne, Ham, St. £hiintin, and the whole Duchy
of Burgundy.

Laftly, They agreed, that each fhould take the Field,
and invade France with twenty-five thoufand Men, of
whom five thoufand fhould be Cavalry (1).

Thefe were vaft projects. But thefe Princes were too
wife to imagine, that with twenty-five thoufand Men each,
they were able to conquer France. It is likely there-
fore, they agreed in the Treaty, to bring into the Field
fo fmall a number of Troops, only to ingage Francis to
make preparations accordingly. And indeed we fhall fee
hereafter, that they invaded France with above a hundred
thoufand Men.
Henry 's One of the chief reafons why Henry joined in a L&gue

ibufAm. w ; tn the Emperor, was to find the King of France fo
much employment at home, that it fhould not be in his
power to break his meafures for the Union of Scotland with
England, by a Marriage between Mary and Prince Ed-
ward. Henry had this affair extremely at heart, and very
juftly, as it is eafy to imagine. But unhappily for him,
there was a Queen Dowager in Scotland of the Houfe of
Lorrain, and a Cardinal Archbifhop of St. Andrews, who
being both devoted to France and the Pope, laboured with
all their power to defeat his projects. As the affairs of
Scotland wdl be very foon intermixt with thofe of Eng-
land, it is abfolutely neceffary to fee what pafied in that
Country, after the death of James V, without which it
would be very difficult to underftand what will be faid
Jffrirs of After the deceafe of James V, Scotland was in a very
Scotland. J)] fituation. The late King had not fettled the Regency
Bunch ' during n ' s Daughter's minority. The next Heir to
Mary, was James Hamilton Earl of Arran, a Perfon of
a very mean genius, a lover of Books and eafe, but little
capable of managing the publick affairs, and ftill lefs thofe
of War (z). He had fhewn fome inclination for the new
Religion, and thereby rendered himfelf as much fufpected
and odious to the Clergy, as agreeable to thofe who had
embraced the Reformation. The Queen Dowager, Sifter
to the Cardinal of Lorrain and the Duke of Guife, had
an extreme averfion to the Reformed. This averfion
was cherifhed by Cardinal Beaton, Archbiftiop of St. An-
drews, a violent and cruel Man, who had already given
feveral proofs of his barbarous temper towards thofe who
embraced the new Religion. Moft of the Lords who, by
their Counfels, could have fupported the State in fuch a
juncture, were either flain in the late rout, or in the hands
of the Englijh. But tho' they had been alive, or in Scot-
land, it would have been very difficult to fucceed. There
had long been fuch a diviiion among the Nobles, that
what one moved was fure to be oppofed by another. This
was the confequence of the Factions raifed by the Kings
of France and England in the Kingdom, and which were
continued by different opinions in Religion. To all thefe
evils was added that of a War againft a powerful Neigh-
bour, who had juft gained a very confiderable advantage,
and could eafily improve the confternation, all Scotland
was under.

Amidft this confufion, Cardinal Beaton feeing none able
to withftand him, formed the defign of feizing the Re-
gency. To this end, he forged a Will for the late King,

wherein he was appointed Regent or Vice-roy during ; 543.
Mary's minority, with three Counfellors or Afliftants, of 6 **"™*'
whom the Earl of Arran was one, and caufed it to be „"',!' ' „,
publifhed till the Parliament fhould meet and confirm it. °" ,n6m '
Mean while, he ftrove by all forts of ways to gain pro-
per Perfons to fupport him, as well among the People, as
among the great Men. The Queen Dowager was the
firft that declared for him.

But whilft the Cardinal was labouring to ftrcngthcn his
Party, the friends and relations of the Earl of Arran were
earneftly folliciting him, not to yield the Regency to one
who had no right to it. They reprcfented to him, That
the Will on which the Cardinal grounded his pretentions,
was a forgery, becaufe the late King never valued him
fo as to commit the Regency to him, to the prejudice of
the Princes of the Blood : That it was a contrivance to
deftroy the Hamiltons with their whole party, and hinder
the progrefs of the Reformation : That the Cardinal wa3
known to be a Man of ill Principles, of little or no con-
fcience, cruel, and fuperftitious, and if once he had the
power in his hands, the flames of perfection would quick-
ly be kindled all over the Kingdom, not only againft the
Reformed, but againft all in general who would not blindly
fubmit to his orders, tliat infallibly the Princes of the
Blood, and the chief of the Nobles would be firft facri-
ficed to his ambition and jealoufy. The Earl of Arran
was of a peaceable temper, and without ambition. If he
had followed his own inclination, he would have left the
Cardinal quietly to enjoy the authority he had ufurped.
But his friends having in a manner forced him by their
remonftrances, to profecute the right due to his birth, he
refolved to demand the Regency, and fhew the forgery of
the pretended Will, on which the Cardinal refted.

Whilft thefe things were tranfacting, the Prifoncrs, who Hall. .
had been releafed, came to Scotland, and with them Ar- s m :
chibald Douglafs Earl of Angus, and William Douglafs his Hnbnt. '
Brother, who had been fifteen years exiles in England.
By their arrival, the Earl of Arran's Party was confider-
ably ftrengthened, whereas the Cardinal loft many follow-
ers, who had joined with him more out of fear than affec-
tion. It was publickly faid, that the Earl of Arran's ri^ht
was indifputable, though the King had capricioufly dif-
pofed of the Regency in favor of the Cardinal, which how-
ever was incredible. The Parliament meeting in March,
the Will was examined^ and the forgery being detected
the Cardinal was removed, and the Earl of Arran declared
Regent with almoft unanimous confent. It was not
without reafon that moft of the Lords and Nobles were
defirous to free themfelves from the dominion of Car-
dinal Beaton. Before the Parliament met, a paper was Buchanan,
found written with the King's own hand, wherein were
fet down the names of three hundred Lords and Gentle-
men, whom he had refolved to difpatch. As moft of
thefe profcribed Perfons were of the Reformed Religion,
or favored the Reformation, it was not doubted, that the
Cardinal had greatly contributed to put the Kino- upon
this barbarous refolution, by reprefenting to him, that
thofe who had refufed to fight againft the Englijh, were
fecret friends of the King of England, and favorers of
the new opinions. It is certain , many of the Nobility
were of the Reformed Religion, or well-wifhers to the
Reformation. The Earl of Arran was of this number,
and upon that account was fo well fupported when he
demanded the Regency, becaufe thofe of the new Religion
intended to make him their Protector. But this was
an ill choice, the Earl's unactive and timorous temper
rendering him very unfit to fupport the Party who put
themfelves under his protection.

Whilft the Parliament was fitting, Henry fent an Am- Henry />«.
bafl'ador (3) to Scotland, to propofe the Marriage offf" " ,tc
Prince Edward his Son with the young Queen, according V. .''', f
to the agreement with the captive Lords. The Amballa- ttt •
dor was furnifhed with a good funi of Money to facilitate ""'* l ' r ' n "
the Negotiation , Henry knowing by experience how ^^uud.
effectual that means was in Scotland. The Queen and Hall.
Cardinal Beaton ufed all their credit and addrefs to caufe Habat *
the overture to be rejected. But as their Party was too
weak to balance the King of England's, the Cardinal
made it his bufinefs to confound all the conferences held
upon this occafion, by long Speeches, affected Difputes,
Invectives againft the contrary Party, with defign to raife
quarrels, which would obftruct the conclufion of this af-
fair. His artifices being at laft perceived, he was confined Buchanan.
to a room till the debates were ended. The moment H; ' b,:rt - ,
the Cardinal no longer appeared, the King of England's p?Jffi '
propofal was accepted without much difficulty, and themtfoA
Parliament appointed Ambafladors to go and treat at
London with the King, concerning a Peace and the Mar-

(1) And alfo each of them fhould fit out Ships, with two or three (houfrnd armed Men.
(z) This is Buchanan's Character of him. Rapin.

(2) Sir Ralph Hadltr, his Secretary. Hcrbtrt, p. 134.

Rjmr. p. 77Ji

8 3 6


Vol. I.


ttoeen Eng-
land 'and
Sc itland.
AS. Pub.

ri i in i c.


B- II. n

t-..^s fkcfi


Ha Party

firmer the

the Regent'

The Prifoner.
re/'ufe to go
ba\ k, c*<:.ft
■,: Emt /


Hage. George Doug'afi, the Earl of Angus's Brother, and
forne other Lords (i) were charged with this Negotia-
tion, which ended at length in two Treaties concluded
at London the ill: of July"\s^- The firft was to fettle
a good and firm Peace between the two Kingdoms.
' The fecond, for the Marriage of Prince Edvjard with
the young Queen of Scotland. Henry did all he could
to have Mary put into his hands. But the Scotch Am-
bafladors not confenting, it was at laft agreed, (he fhould
not be brought into England till file was ten years of
age : That in the mean time the Parliament of Scotland
fhould appoint four Lords (2) to take care of her educa-
tion, and Henry might add a fifth of his own Nation to
convey his advices to the Governors (3) : That the Par-
liament of Scotland fhould give the King fix Hoftages
of diftindlion, for fecurity that the Marriage fhould be

This affair being ended, the Cardinal had a little more
liberty gi anted him, by being given in cuftody to the
Lord Seaton. But that Lord fuffering himfelf to be cor-
iupted by his Prifoner, afforded him means to make his
efcape. As foon as he was at liberty, he ufed all his art
to break the Treaties with England, wherein he was
powerfully affifted by the Queen Dowager. As they
were both firmly attached to Fiance and the old Religi-
on, they could not fee, without extreme grief, the alli-
ance lately concluded with a Prince whom they looked
upon as a Heretick, and whofe interefts had for fome time
been contraiy to thofe of Francis I. They plainly per-
ceived, this alliance was capable of producing great alte-
rations as well in Church as State, and would infallibly
deftroy the antient union between France and Scotland.
To prevent this, the Cardinal affembled at his Houfe the
heads of the Clergy, and reprefenting to them that Reli-
gion was in danger, he obtained a large contribution to
affift him to fupport it. This Money ferved him to main-
tain his Creatures, and gain fome of the contrary Party.
In a word, he fo well caballed, that he quickly put things
in extreme confufion. By his follicitations and intrigues
he fo managed, that the Prifoners who had been releafed
refolved not to go and redeem their Hoftages. The Earl
of CojTilis alone could not be prevailed with upon any
confederation to break his Word. In fhort, the Cardi-
nal's Party being grown very numerous by his liberali-
ties, fhongly oppofed the fending of the Hoftages promifed
to the King of England by the Treaty. Befides^this,
the Cardinal refolving at any rate, to let the two Nations
at variance, caufed the Englijb Ambaffador to be highly
affronted by fome of his Party, and his Servants to be in-
fulted. But the Ambaffador knowing how defirous the
King his Mafter was, that the Treaties fhould be exe-
cuted, bore all with patience, for fear of raifing an un-
feafonable quarrel, which he faw to be the Cardinal's
defign. Thus the Cardinal had brought things to fuch
a pafs, that the Regent, who wanted refolution, tried in
vain to ftop thefe violent proceedings, fince his commands
were openly difobeyed.

At laft, the day being come that the three Hoftages
were to be delivered, the EngliJ/i Ambaffador demanded
them of the Regent, complaining withal of the Affronts he
had received. The Regent told him, " he was very forry
" any difrefpect had been fhewn to his Perfon and Cha-
" racier, and would give him, at a more convenient feafon,
" what fatisfaction he defired, but at prefent it was no
" proper juncture. That he was himfelt witnefs of the
" troubles raifed by the Cardinal, and how contemptible
" the authority of the Government was rendered by that
" Prelate's Cabals: As for the Hoftages, it was no longer
" in his power to put them into his hands, fince the Car-
" dinal and his whole party were againft it, who were
" now grown too ftrong to be compelled." The Am-
ballador was fufficiently convinced of the truth of what
the Regent laid ; and as he faw little appearance of a
change in favour of the King his Mafter, he contented
himfelf with fummoning the Prifoners to return. to Eng-
land, according to their promife. But in that he fucceeded
no better. They refufed to return, tho' they were re-
leafed only upon Parole. The Earl of Cajftlis (4) alone,
abhorring the perfidioufnefs of his Pellow-Prifoners, fet
out for London, and put himfelf into the King's hands.
This action met with its due reward. Henry very civilly
received the Earl. He commended his Faithfulnefs, and
making him rich prefents, difmiffed him without ranfom.
Mean while, finding his party In Scotland was neither very


proclaim war with that Kingdom. He might eafily have
fubdued it fome Months before, if he would have taken
advantage of the coniternation of the Scots, after their de-
feat and the death of their Sovereign.

The Queen and the Cardinal having accomplifhed their ?& %«»'*
enterprize, with refpect to a rupture with England, con- ™ ■ C ^fs
fidered of means to procure the Government of the King- « s nfiku
dom, by fupplanting the Earl of Arran, Head of the con- ''"' &>*"'*-
trary Faction. Indeed, they did not much fear the Earl, y 'j', n . n .
as they had lately fhewn. But he bore the title of Regent, Burnet,
and very poffibly, by the counfels of the able men of his
party, and the King of England's afliftance, he might
find means in the end to make himfelf formidable. The
war Henry had juft proclaimed againft Scotland afforded
them an opportunity to execute their project. They re-
prefented to the King of France, " That it was almoft

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