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" impoffible for Scotland to maintain a war againft Eng-
" land, without a powerful aid from him : That the Earl
" ol Arran, Regent of the Kingdom, favoured the Eng-
" lijh ; and, inltead of oppoiing them, would certainly
" make ufe of them to eftablifh his Authority, and com-
" pleat the Queen's projected marriage : That probably,
" this Marriage would break the old Alliance between
" France and Scotland, and produce a ftrict union be-
" tween Scotland and England: That he might plainly
" fee how much he was himfelf concerned in a war,
" which, as it would infallibly be unfuccefsful, would
" caufe him to lofe Scotland : That indeed they perceived
" how difficult it was for him to aflift them, when he
" wanted all his forces againft the Emperor : but they had
" devifed an expedient to gain time, in breaking the mea-
" fures of the contrary party. The expedient was, that Tt'y f-*i
" he fhould fend over Matthew Stuart Earl of Lenox who : j-'^'^'
" was in France, that they might oppofe him to the Ha- /,,.„. France
" miltons, whofe fworn Enemy he was, becaufe they had »/«*»'» *f
" killed his Father: That this Lord being in Scotland, Jgj* - "
" would be immediately acknowledged for Head of the
" party againft the Regent, and by the afliftance they
" were ready to fend him, wou'd become fo fuperior, that
" it would not be poflible for the Regent to execute his
" deligns in favor of England." The better to perfuade
the Earl of Lenox to come to Scotland, they put him in
hopes of marrying the Queen Dowager, and of being
placed on the Throne in cafe the young Queen died before
file was married. They told him, this would be fo much
the eafier, as before the Birth of Mary, the late King had
defigned him for his Succeffor, though farther removed
than the Earl of Arran, becaufe he looked upon this laft
as a Baftard, by reafon of the unlawfulnefs of his Fa-
ther's marriage. Thefe remonftrances had the defired
effect. Francis I, glad to ftreugthen his party in Scotland,
without being forced to fend great Supplies, fent away
the Earl of Lenox with all fpeed, promiiing him his pro-

Mean while, the Regent having fome notice of this Tie Cardinal
project, refolved to fupport himfelf, by becoming mafter R '" ,'" '&
of the Queen's perfon, then in the Cattle of Limnuch having tie
or Linlithgoe ( 5 ). But as he was not fecret enough, the %<«"'' P&-

fn in bis


nor firm enough to his intereft, he refolved to

Cardinal, who was informed of it, came to Linlithgoe
well attended, in order to hinder the Queen's removal.
Shortly after, the Earl of Lenox arrived from France, and The Earl of
after faluting the Regent, withdrew to his own Houfe L ^ BOX ar ~
where he affembled his Friends, to confult with them t/fJ a ,&
what was to be done. He acquainted them with the Regem'i
motives of his return, and the hopes given him of being fy'i*'-

„, „, ,- 1 r. 1 /-\ -h k 1 ° Buchanan.

put in pofieffion of the Regency, the Queen-Mother,
and the Throne, if the young Queen happened to die.
The Friends he confulted, being all Enemies to the Re-
gent, they unanimoufly advifed him to improve the pre-
fent opportunity, and each made him an offer of his Per-
fon, his Eftate, his Vaffals, and his Friends. So the Earl
being determined to purfue his point, drew together four
thoufand Men, and putting himfelf at their head, came
to the Queen, under colour of guarding her againft the
attempts of the Regent, for fear fhe fhould be delivered
to the enemies of the Kingdom. Indeed, the Earl of Ar-
ran had refolved to fecure her, nay, was preparing to ex-
ecute his defign. But when he found himfelf prevented,
and confidered, the Queen could not be got out of the hands
of the Earl of Lenox, without coming to an open war,
he fent to treat of an Agreement. Lenox contented, on
condition the Queen fhould for the future be educated in
Sterling Caftle, and four neutral Lords, whom both Par-
ties could equally trult, appointed to guard her, and take
care of her Education. The four Lords (6) being chofen

(i) William Earl of Glencairn, William Hamilton, James Leirmoutb, and Henry Balnaviu Rymcr's Ford. Torn. XIV. p. ySr.
I a I Their number is not fpecined in Rymer, it is only laid certos ejuldem rtgni [viz. Scotias] Barones 'Sco p. 795.

(1) The King might lend a Nobleman and his Wife w.th other Perfons not exceeding twenty, to wait on her. And for p=rfotm«nce of the Marriage, fijc
Noblemen were to be lent from Scotland fet Hoftages. Rymir, lb. p. 794. Burnet, Vol. I. p. 3*3.
(4/ Gilbert Kennedy.

( Under her Mother's care. Buchanan,
(i) Will. am Graham, John Erfiin, Jobr. Lindjcy, and William Liiiinojlin, Bmbanan, I, ij,



Book XV.



« 5 + 3-

Ihe Regent
Jidei ivitb
the J^ueea
and the
i uchanan.

He abjurel
at Sterling.

Tbe Queen
and the Car-
dinal try to
fend back the
nox to

7bef pre-
judice the
fting of
France a-
gainli bim.

He takes np

A Peace it

made to bit



Tbe Cardi-
nal bat all
tbe Power
under tbe

and approved of, the Queen wis removed to Sterling
Caflle, where, a few days after ( t _), fhe was crowned.

The Regent feeing the Party of his Enemies daily ga-
thered ftrcngth, believed himielf unable to withftand the
ftorm which was forming againft him. So, his courage
and refolution failing him when molt wanted, he chofe to
give way to the torrent, rather than Have in vain, as
he thought, to refill it. Perfwaded as hi.- was, that he
mould be too weak to oppofe the Qtieen- Mother and the
Cardinal, he believed he ought to alter Ml meafures, and
ftridtly unite with them. But even here he met with
difficulties, which he could not fnrmount, without ail-
ing againft his Confcience. He had hitherto almoft o-
penly profeffed the new Religion. But the Queen and
the Cardinal, as they could not refulve to be reconciled
to him, fo long as he was engaged in the Party of the
Reformed, managed him fo well, that at laft they per-
fwaded him to abjure, in the Church of the Francifcans
at Sterling. By this action he loft all his old Friends,
and was reduced to depend upon, the contrary Party, with
whom the Cardinal had more power than himfelf. From
thenceforward he was wholly guided by the Counfels of
that Prelate, who was the t/ue Regent, whilft the Earl,
that bore the name, was only the fhadow.

When the Queen and 'the Cardinal were poflefled of
the Government, they w;rc at a lofs about the Earl of
Lenox, to whom they v^ere no longer willing to per-
form their promife. So, their chief care was to be rid
of this Lord, who greatly embaraffed them. They
agreed therefore to deli re the King of France to recall
him, and whilft an anfwer was expected, the Queen
fhould continue to cherifti his hopes, but withal fhould
ufe fundry Artifices to put oft* her Marriage, concerning
which he began to be very urgent with her. This Pro-
ject was executed as it had been refolved. The Queen
for fome time amufed her Lover, who, not fufpecting
what was contriving againft him, fperrt his time in pro-
curing her Diverfions, imagining, that would haften his
Marriage ; but the Queen ftill found fome frefh excufc
to defer it. This Behaviour at laft bred in him fufpi-
cion.s which were confirmed by fome Friend of greater
penetration, or better informed than himfelf. He heard,
the Queen and the Cardinal had writ to the Court of
France, that nothing could be more prejudicial to the
King's Intereft, than his ftay in Scotland, fince they had
gained the Regent to their fide.

Lenox was fo provoked at being thus niock'd, that he
fwore to be revenged, and without taking leave of the
Queen and the Cardinal, retired to Duubarton. In the
mean while, Francis, who was not yet informed of the
alterations in Scotland, fent thirty thoufand Crowns to the
Earl of Lenox, to be distributed among thofc of the Par-
ty, or to gain fome of their Adversaries. By thefe
means the Court of France had long maintained a Fac-
tion in Scotland, whilft the Court of England oppofed
her by the fame methods. This Money arriving when
Lenox was at Dunbarton, he fent part to the Lords who
had the care of the young Queen, and gave fome to his
own Friends. But the Cardinal had none, though he
had flattered himfelf with having the beft fhare, and
expected it wirfi impatience. He was fo very angry,
that he perfwaded the Regent to raife an Army and
furprize Glafcow, where Lenox was retired with his Mo-
ney. The Preparations which were making at Court,
though under other pretences, giving the Earl of Lenox
fufpic.ion they were defigned againft him, he refolved to
put himfelf in a pofture of defence. It was not diffi-
cult for him to draw Forces together. The Cardinal
had many Enemies, and the Regent had loft his Friends,
fince they had been forfaken by him. So, the Regent's
Levies were made very flowlv, whilft the Earl's vifibly
increafed. Within a few days, he raifed ten thoufand
Men, and fent the Cardinal word (z), he would fave
him the trouble of coming to Glafcow. The Cardinal
received this Defiance with a feeming contempt, and pre-
tended to purfue his Enterprize. But it was not his in-
tention to come to a battle. He did not fufficiently rely
on the Regent's Experience, who was no Warrior. Be-
fides, he forefaw, that by prolonging the time, he fhould
oblige his Enemy to difmifs his Troops, becaufe he
wanted wherewithal to keep them long on foot.

What the Cardinal had forefeen came to pafs. The
Earl of Lenox finding himfelf deftitute of Money, and
feeing the defertion was great in his Army, was forced
at laft to accept a Peace that was offered him. He
came to Edinburgh, where he was outwardly reconciled

with the Regent and the Cardinal ; after which they 1543,
went together to Sterling. But a few days after, having
notice that the Court had ill defigns againft him, he
privately withdrew, and returning to Glafcru), furnifhed
the Bifhop's Palace with a Garnfon and Ammunition,
and Chut himfelf up in Dunbarton. There he was in-
formed, that the King of France hid ken f > prejudiced
againft him, that thee was no hope of obtaining his
aftiftance for the future. Such was the fituation of the
affairs of Scotland, when Henry refolved to renew the
War againft that Kingdom. We muft now fee what
palled in England.

In July, Henry married his fixth Wife, the IMy Th ' K "!''
Catherine Parr (3), Widow of [ John Nevil] Lord La- fi r 'l hM '"
timer, verifying what was only ('aid in raillery, upon the Hate*
Aft palled 111 1541, that the Km^ muft marry a Wi- H" l K-4».
dow. The new Queen was a favorer of the Reformed. Ba " Kt '
Bust fhe was to proceed with great caution, not to of-
ten i a Husband, whofe ablblute Will it was, that none
fhn-ild believe, but what was believed by himfelf. For Pn/ejlam,
thisi reafon (lie durft not, juft after her Marriage, inter- 6 " r " "
cede for three Protelhnts who were burnt at fFind- Hi'il""'
for (4), at the inftigation of Gardiner Biftiop of ff'ln- Stow.
chcjler. This Prelate never miffed an opportunity to ex- I:"" 1 "'
afperate the King againft thofe who refufed to fubmit to
the Act of the fix Articles. But he fhowed not the
fame zeal ag.linft thofc who were ftill attached to the
Pope. This affair however went farther than he dc- fbidifn.
fired, fince it occafioncd the difcovery of a Plot, formed - i "" t ° ni
to ruin feveral Families at IVi'idfor, upon falfe accufa- b"™'!''
tions. The King was fo offended at thefe diabolical Herbert
practices, that he would have the affair thoroughly exa-
amined. The iffue was, that the contrivers of the
Plot (;) were carried on Horfeback, with their faces to
the Horfe- tails, ami then let in the Pillory. 'Tis faid,
Gardiner had a great fhare in this Project. . But he was
a very crafty Man, who knew how to conceal the hand
that gave the blow, v/hen he thought it dangerous to
fhow it.

It was eafy for the enemies of the Reformation to put age.-.],
peiceive, that Cranmer moft obftructed the execution of (S, ' !nme ' ,
their deiigns, and they mould never fuccced (o long as Burn "*
he was in favour with the King. Wh?rcupon they re-
folned to apply thcmfelvcs before all things to his de-
ftruction, after which, they imagined, the ruin of his
whole Party would follow of courfe. There were in
this undertaking two contrary things, whereof one feem-
ed to promife good fuccefs, and the other rendered the
execution very difficult. The firft was, the King feemed
fully bent not to fpare thofe who were called Hereticks,
that is, thofe who did not entirely conform therr.felves
to the Declaration of Faith lately publifhed. Now everv
one- knew the Archbifhop was of this number, though
l.c u'fed great caution not to give his enemies any ad-
vantage either by word or deed. The fecond was, the
King's fingular eltetm for the Archbifhop, againft whom
feveraf unfuccefsful attempts had been made. Notwith-
ftanding this, his enemies thought, if they could convince
the King, that Cranmer's opinions were very different
from his, it would in fome mc.fure incenfe him. After
that, tiiey hoped the King would require of him, as of
the reft of his Subjects, a blind fubmiffion, and that Cran-
mer's oppofition, would deftroy the King's affection for
him. The bufinefs therefore was to infpire the King
with fufpicions, which fhould induce him to examine

what were the Archbifhop's opinions upon Reli;


this end, no occafion was loft to hint to the King, that cufM u tbe
it was in vain to punifh Hereticks whilft their chief fup- *""•£•
porters were (ufFercd to live unmolefled Henry perceiv-
ing Ctanmer was aimed at, made no anfwer. He hoped,
his filei.ee would demonstrate, it was in vain to try to in-
cenfe him againft that Prelate. But at Lft thefe infill- Henry/ f .^»
uations were fo often repeated, that he feemed to t\\ , e'°. l 'J > ""°
ear to them, in order to know their intent. He hearken- ,,7,, ""
ed therefore to whatever was faid againft Cramer, and
defired to have the intended Articles of accufat'on, with
the names of his accufers. The Duke of Norfolk, the
Bifliop of IVinche/ler, and their Party, believed the Arch-
bifhop ruined, fince the King was plcafed to examine his
conduct. But they took care not to make themfelves
Parties, their defign being to appear unconcerned, to
ftrike the (urer. They caufed therefore the accufation to
be drawn by fome Prebendaries of Canterbury, and cer-
tain Kentijh juflices of the Peace, whom they perfwaded
to be his accufers. The Articles being put into the
King's hands, he went in his Barge to Lambeth, the

(1) Auguji 21. Buchanan, I. If. (2) From Ltitb where he was. Buchanan.

(3) B lighter of i>ir 'Ibomai l-arr of Kendal, on July T2. Stow, p. 584.

(4) J"'y 2 ". Their names were, Anthony Perfinc 1 Prtelt, Robert lelbwiod a Tinging Man, and Henry Ftlmer a Taylor. John Ma'teci another
Tinging Man w-as alo condemned, but paidi»ned atterwaids. He ivas the firft ihjt compiled an Engl.Jb Concordance. Bali, fol- aj6. Burr.et, Tom. I.
p. 326.

(i) Dr. London Prebend of YYmipr, and IVi'Mam Sjnundt. Ibid.

No. 42. Vol. I.

10 C




Vol. I.

1543, Archbifliop's Palace on the other fide of the Thames.
Cranmer hearing the King was coming, haftned down to
his Stairs to receive him, and by his order went into the
Barge. When the King was alone with him, he la-
mented the growth of Herefy in the Kingdom, and told
him, he was endeavouring to find out the chief encoun.-
gers of it, to punifh them according to the utmoft rigour
of the Law, about which he was come to ask his opi-
nion. Cranmer anfwered without any concern, that his
zeal was laudable ; but intreated him for God's fake 10
confider well what Herefy was, leaft, instead of punifls-
Htinformi ing Hereticks, he fought againft God. After fome cor-
bim of ibe verfation upon this fubjeft, the King told him at laf;,
"e'ftrd'ri ne was tne ^ an w k° was accufed of being the protector
bimtafro- and chief encourager of the Hereticks, and then gave rnm
atdagainjl tne Articles of accufation againft him. Cranmer perufing
ccujtn. t j lern> r e ]\ on n ; s j cnecSj an J freely owned to the King,
he was ftill of the fame mind he was of when he oppofed
the fix Articles ; but that he had done or faid nothing a-
gainft them. Then he humbly defired to be tried by
the Laws, becaufe he was fure he fhould never be con-
victed of transgressing them. Whereupon the King ask-
ed him , whether it was true that he was married.
Cranmer confeffed it, but faid he had tent his Wife to
Germany upon the paffing of the Aft of the fix Articles
Henry, who had long feen about him only iuch as dif-
fembied their fentiments, was charmed with the Arch-
bifliop's candor and fincerity. Inftead of being difpleaftd
with his confession, he could not forbear admiring his
fteddinefs, which made him dare the greateft danger he
had ever been in, and that he fo wifely allied it with ?n
inviolable regard for the Laws. Wherefore he gave him
a very fenfible proof of his efteem and affeftion, in dif-
covering to him the Plot his enemies had laid agaiiift him,
naming his accufers, and ordering him to proceed againft
them. Cranmer excufed himfelf ; but the King told him
pofitively he would be obeyed, and that he fhould name
C anmcr n ' s J u( 'o e3 himfelf. If Cranmer had been vindictive, he
exaifa bim- had a fair opportunity of being revenged on thofe who
i''J- would have ruined him, and particularly on Gardiner

chief contriver cf the Plot, as appears in Letters under
his own hand. But he fliowed fo great backwardnefs to
pufti this affair, that at length the King was tired with
preffing him, fince he did it fo unwillingly. Mean
fb Kir. while, he had not the lefs value for him. Shortly after,
tivii bim one of his fecret enemies, known for fuch by the King,
another though he himfelf had no fufpicion of him, defiring his
MarkoJ *" a fl;ft ance ; n a f iut ne h iu j at Court, he went immediately
and fpoke to the King in his behalf. The King fur-
prized to fee him fpeak for this Perfon, asked him if he
knew him well ; and upon his anfwering, that he took
him for his Friend ; No, replied the King, be is your
mortal enemy, and I command you when you fee him next
to call him Knave. Cranmer modeftly anfwered , fuch
language did not become a Bifhop ; but the King infiited
upon his compliance. Neverthelels Cranmer found means
to be excufed, and the King, content with admiring his
goodnefs, would not prefs him any farther. Thus the
Plot, contrived for the Archbifliop's ruin, ferved only to
indear him the more to the King, and demonftrate to
hij enemies how dangerous it was to attack him.
•IheSuaiCt 1 ' le 2 3 d °f December, the King created the Lord
Bmtbirii Parr, the Queen's Brother, Earl of EjJ'cx (1), and con-
made Eart f errec J on Sir William Parr her Uncle, the title of Lord
Hefblrt.' P" rr [ of Norton, ] with the Office of Chamberlain to the

Queen (2).
Continuation Whilst thefe things paffed in England, the War between
o/tbi War tne Emperor and the King of France was carrying on in
tbcEmpe- f evera ' p'aces. In the beginning of the Campain, Fran-
faor and cis hadfome advantages in the Low-Countries, where he
Frame. (qq^ Landrecy, Emery, Bapaume, Mauheuge and Luxem-
Mezerai. ^urg. But the Emperor arriving about the end of the
Stow. Summer with a ftrong fupply of Spanifli Troops, Fran-

cis being inferior in number, was obliged to keep ;it fome
diftance. This gave the Emperor an opportunity to in-
vert Landrecy, of which however he was forced to raife
the Siege, upon Francis's finding means to throw in
fuccours. But he made himfelf amends by taking Cam-
Sug, c f At the fame time Barbaroffa, Admiral of the Turks,

K\txbytbc coming to Marfeilles the beginning of "July, with a hun-
ffcT.-fc? dred and ten ' Turk 'J h G allies, found there the Earl of

Enghien, of the Hoiie of Bourbon, with twenty-two 154;.
French G"'lies. After their junction, they went together
and attacked Nice, the 10th of Augufl, and on the 2cth,
became matters of the Town. But the Cattle made fo
brave a defence, that the Turkijh Admiral finding he loft
both time and icputation before the place, retired and win-
tered in Provence, from whence he returned to Turfy
the beginning of the Spring. I fhall fuy nothing of the
War in Piedmont, becaufe it produced no remarkable
event (3).

During this whole Campain, Henry affifted the Empe- 1544.
ror only with a fmall Body (4) of Troops, commanded The Emfe-
by Sir John Wallop (5) ; But they both formed vafl pro- r °f"»*
jefts for the next year. They intended to enter France, vo ppn-
the one by Champagne, the other by Picardy, each at the ;''#'•
head of forty thoufand Men, and to join about Paris. t% Pab '

rr \.- • n ■ ir n-i • XV. p. 1,2.

1 o execute this project tt was neceilaty to act with union Hill,
and a good understanding. So, Henry cou'd not difpenfe Stow.
witii performing his promife to the Emperor, to give the """'"s" 1 "
Prince's Mary a place in the Succeffion. The Parliament Parliament.
meeting the 14th of January 1 $44, immediately p.ifled an r '/''
Act, fettling the order of thofe who could pretend to the to the J
Crown after the King's death. I have frequently obferved, Crown.
that the Parliament was held in fubjeftion, and did nothing Bu c r r ne e t rt "
but what the King pleated. Several Instances have been
feen, but none more flagrant than the following. In this
Aft Prince Edward was rank'd firft, with his Iflue. In
the fecond piace, the Heirs- Male by the King's prefent
or future marriage, with their Iffue. In the third place,
the Princefs Mary and her Line. Laftly, the Princess
Elizabeth and her Heirs. But there was no mention of
the King's divorces with the Queens, Mothers to thefe two
Princefles. So notwithftanding the Ails, which approved
and confirmed thefe- divorces, and were never repealed,
the Parliament feemed to confider thefe Princefles as legi-
timate, though before they had been declared Baftards,
and, as fuch, excluded from the Succeffion. On the o-
ther hand, to convince them, they were indebted to the
King their Father for this favor, the Act: made them liable
to fuch limitations or conditions, as the King fhould pleafe
to declare by his Letters Patents, on pain of forfeiting the
right which was granted them. Moreover, in cafe of '
difobedience on their part, or if they died without Heirs,
the Parliament gave the King power to fettle the Crown
on any other by his Letters Patents, or his laft Will fign-
ed with his own hand. Was not this considering thefe BemarU m
two Princefles as Baftards, fince their right to the Succef- «W» A3.
fion was made to depend on the King their Father's plea-
furer Without pretending to queftion the right of the
King and Reprefentatives of the Nation to fettle the Suc-
ceffion as they pleafe, I cannot forbear remarking, that
this right was carried on this occaiion as far as it can be
ftretched. Supposing thefe two Princefles Baftards, the
Parliament impowered the King to call them to the
Throne, contrary to the Laws and Customs of the Realm
fince the Conqueft. On the other hand, fuppofing them
legitimate , they left the King free to exclude them
from the Succeffion, contrary to the fame Laws and Cuf-
toms, fince it was in his breaft to impofe on them condi-
tions impossible to be performed. This was a power no
King of England had ever enjoyed, and which fhows, this
Aft flowed not fo much from the Parliament as from the
King himfelf. To palliate in fome measure thefe contra-
dictions, care was taken not to mention in the Aft, the
King's divorces with Catherine and Ann. Only every one
was free to guefs the motives of the Aft, which was not
very difficult, fince there was no other than that of com-
plying with the King's Will. By a claufe in this Statute, jir.t-wOaib
all persons were obliged to take a new Oath againft the ordained.
Authority of the Bifhop of Rome ; which whofoever re- £y" Pub n '
fufed, or fhould break any of the Articles of this Aft, was
to be adjudged a Traitor.

By another Aft paffed this fame Seffion, the Title of <rt e King*-
King of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the T" 1 ' fit-
Faith, and Supreme Head of the Church of England and ,kd S cr ""'
Ireland, was united for ever to the Crown of England.

By another it was enafted, that no perfon fhould be _jg ulint
indited on the Statute of the fix Articles, but upon a tbt Ju-if-
Prefentment by the Oaths of twelve Men, before Com- d £"VW'

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