M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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miffioners appointed by the King : That no peifon fhould a iCurtt,
be imprifoned but upon an Inditement ; and laftly, that
the Prefentment fhoutd be made within forty days after the

(1) He had married Ann Daughter and Heir of Henry Bourcbier Earl of Effex. Stew, p. 585.

(2) Alfo, fome of the Injb Nobility that came and Submitted to King Henry, June 3, were, on July 1, advanced to the following Honours ;
namely, JVtUtam Boruck, or Bourk, alias Macwllltam, was created Earl of Clanreckard, and Baron Dunhellyn. Mawer Obnen, Earl of TcmGtt, or
'Ibomond, and Baron hfykwyne. And Corjugbt Obnen, Baron of Ibrackayn, Sir Conaugbt 0-Neal came alfo and made his Subm-flion to King Henry,
and was created Earl of Tyrone, Scptcmb. 1. Rymer\ Feed. Tom. 14. p. 797 800. Tom. 15. p. 7. Kail, foi. S47, 256.

(3) This year, the firfl caft pieces of Iron (both Cannons and Murtars ) that ever were made in &»gePHd t were made at Huefljjd in Sufex, by
Peter B.iud, Ralpb [L:<-, and Ferer -van Cclen. Stew, p. 584. hollisg/h. p. 960.

(4) Six thoufard M«i. Hall, fol. 256.

(5) Sir 7b:mai Sejm:ur was lvhiftial, and S-r Bitiard Cromwell Ciptain of tie Horfe. Hall, ibid. They deparud StOTi Ci'tis Ju'y 22. Stow,


Book XV.



meat de-
clares the
King clea,

and revive
the Autho-
rity to ap-
point Cont-

The Lord

May J.
War in Pi

y. Daniel.
Sat tie of
P. Djnicl.

pretended offence was committed, otherwife it fhould be
rejected (1 ). Hereby the Ecclefiaftical Courts were tied
up in fome meafure, from opprefling the Subjects on pretenfe
of Hercfy , fince the fame privileges were allowed for
that crime, as were enjoyed by the Englijh with refpedl
to all other offences.
"arl,a- Laftly, the Parliament granted the King a Subfidy, in
a manner unheard of before, by enjoining that tliofe who
had lent him money mould be obliged to forgive the
cf all debts, (j e [j t (2). However unjuft this Act was with refpecT:
to the particular Perfons who had lent the money, the
Parliament was not forry, the King defired it, in order
to put a flop to the cuflom of Loans, whieh in time would
have render'd Parliaments ufelefs.

The Power formerly granted the King was alfo revived
[during Life,] of appointing Commiflkmers to examine all
Canons and Conftitutions Ecclefiaftical, and to make the
neceflary Alterations, which the King had hitherto neg-
lected (3).

Before the end of the Seffion, Thomas Wriothefly great
Wriothcfley friend of the old Religion, was made Lord Chancellor in
cellar ""' tnc room °f tne Lord Audley deceafed (4).

In the beginning of the year, Francis I. fent into Pied-
mont the Earl of Enghien who was but two and twenty
years old, to take the command of the Army in the room
of Boutiers who had not been very fuccefslul. This young
Prince ingaging the Marquifs of Guajio, at Cerifoles, ob-
tained, the 1 4th of April, a fignal Victory over him, which
coft the Imperialifts ten thoufand Men , befides the
Wounded and Prifoners. In the confternation the Mar-
quifs of Guajio was under, after the lofs of the Battle, he
would have found it very difficult to keep Milan for the
Emperor, if the Earl of Enghicn had not been flopped in
the midft of his career by exprefs orders. As the King of
France was inforrn'd, that the Emperor and the King of
England were to join and invade him in the center of his
Dominions, with an Army of eighty thoufand Foot, and
twenty two thoufand Horfe, he deemed it more neceffary
to provide for the defence of his Kingdom, than to think
of making Conquefts in Italy. For this' reafon he order-
ed the Earl of Enghien to fend him twelve thoufand Men
Italy'' "" or " ^' s Army. This diminution difabled the young Prince
to reap any other advantage from his Viclory than the
taking of Carignano, which he reduced to the King's

Mean while, the formidable Armies which were to in-
vade France not being yet ready, Henry refolved to make
ufe of part of his Troops to finifh the Affair of Scotland,wh\ch
he had ever at heart. Though he had declared War a-
gainft Scotland, it was not to make conquefts upon that
Kingdom, but folely to compel the Scots, by the terror
of his Arms, to agree to the marriage of their Queen
with the Prince his Son. He could not conceive, that in
their prefent circumftances, they could flatter themfelves
with the hopes of fuccefs, in a War fo unequal and capable
of ruining Scotland in one tingle Campain. But Cardinal
Beaton, an obftinate Man if ever there was one, who
governed in the Regent's name, chofe rather to expofe the
Kingdom to become a Prey to the Englijh, than confent
to a Peace, which could not be made without ruining his
fortune. So Henry feeing it was neceflary to prefs him
more clofely, refolved to fend into Scotland part of the
Troops defined againft France. The Lord Echvard Sey-
mour Earl of Hertford, and Sir John Dudley Lord Lijle
High-Admiral, were appointed for this expedition. The
former led the Army to Newcajlle, where the Admiral
arrived with a Fleet, and two hundred tranfport Ships, on
which the Troops imbarked. The Earl of Hertford
landing near Leith (5), took that Town without difficul-
ty, and then marched directly to Edinburgh, of which
he became mafter with the fame eafe. The Regent and
Cardinal had not provided for their defence, imagining the
King's threats would be without effect. The City of E-
dinburgh was fack'd and burnt ; but the Englijh attacked
not the Caftle, for fear of being engag'd in too long a
Sie<»e. After that, they returned to Leith, and burning
the Town, retired to Berwick the 1 Sth of May (6). If

Froncis re
1. ills his


War 11



Henry had refolved to improve his advai
have fubdued all Scotland, confidering' the g]
nation of the Scots upon this invafion. But two rcul
prevented him. The firft, that he wanted his Troops to
lend them to Fiance, where he intended aifo to go in
perfon. The fecond, that his aim v;a only to let the
Scots fee what they were to expect, if they did not fpec-
dily refolve to execute the Treaty for their' Q mar-

riage, and he fcarce doubted but this method would fucceed.
Mean while, it muft have been thought very ftrangc, that he
fhould court the young Queen of Scotland for tl<c Prince his
i>on, in fo extraordinary a manner, and the World was of o-
pinion, either he had done too much, or did not do enough.

Tho' Henry had withdrawn his Army o.it of Sc;tland, 7l ' Eirl c f
he had not however relinquifh'd his project of har- 1'",Th-",
raffing the Scots till he fore'd them to agree to the i)ud,inan. rr
marriage. To this end he improv'd an opportunity to St<m •
give the Regent and the Cardinal frefli difturbano .
I he Earl of Lenox as I faid, having quitted the Court,
was retired to Dunbarton, the Governor whereof
was devoted to him, but found himfelf greatly cmba-
raffed. His Friends in France had informed him, that
the King was exceedingly incenfed againft him, and ac-
cufed him of having lavifhed away the Money fent him
to maintain the War againft the Englijh. This was in
effect what had been hinted to Francis by the Queen-
Dowager, the Regent, and the Cardinal, who were fe-
conded by the Cardinal of Lorrain, anal the Duke 1.!
Guife, and in this manner the French Hiftorians reprc-
fent it. The Earl, willing to clear himfelf, had fent
a Man into France, to acquaint the King with all that
had palled in Scotland fince his arrival, and with the
prefent fituatinn of affairs. But the King, prepoffeffed
by the Cardinal of Lorrain, refufed to give the MefTeri 1
Audience , nay , was going to order him to Prifon.
The Earl feeing himfelf thus forfaken, both by the Kin"
of France, and thofe who had at firft joined him in
Scotland, fent to the King of England, to know whe-
ther he would take him into his Service, with the Earl
of Glcncarn his intimate Friend. Henry received the
Overture more favorably than the two Lords durft have
expected. He promifed them his Protection on certain Acl. P..b.
conditions, which he would fettle with them, if they XV. p.19.
would fend fome trufty perfon to England. VVhereupon
the Earl of Glencarn came himfelf to Carlife, with the
Bifhop of Cathnefs, Brother of the Earl of Lenox, and
two others. In a kw days after their arrival, they concluded
with the King's Commiffioners (7) a Treaty, wherein
the Earl of Lenox and Glencarn promifed,

I. That they would caufe the pure word of God to

be preached in their Territories. j,)™""

II. That they fhould hinder to the utmoft of their Henry ant
power, the young Queen from being carried out of (*' E " l 'f
Scotland, and do their endeavour to deliver her into the ft. p. a*.
hands of the King of England. May 17.

III. That they would aJlift the King with all their
Forces, to procure him (8) the direction of the Govern-
ment of Scotland, and the Title of Protector of the

IV. That the Bifhop of Cathnefs, and Hugh Cun-
ningham, fhould be given in Hoftage to the King of

The King promifed on his part :

1. That his Army fhould not opprefs their Lands.

2. That he would conftitute the Earl of Lenox Re-
gent of the Kingdom, provided he would do nothing
without his exprefs confent.

3. That he would give him out of the Revenues of
the Crown, what fhould be reafonable to fupport the
Dignity of Regent.

4. That in cafe the young Queen fhould die, he
would fupport the Earl of Lenox in obtaining the Crown
againft the pretenfions of the Earl of Arran.

5. That he would give the Earl of Glencarn an year-
ly Penfion of a thoufand Crowns.

(t) Here is a miftake. The Prefentment was to be made within a year after the Offence committed. And if any Preacher or Reader mould fpealc
iny ihing in his Sermon or Reading, contrary to any matter contained in the fix Articles, he miilt be complained cf within forty days, unlefs a juft
Caufe w.?re given why it could not be lo foon. See the Ati. This Aft had clearly a relation to the Conspiracies mentioned in the former year,
both againft the Archb.lhop, and fosne of the Ring's Servants.

(2) Nay, thofc who had got payment, cither in whole or in part, of the Sums fo lent the King, were to repay what they had received, to the Ex-
cbeouer. There was fuch an A3 paffed in the lift year of the King's Reign. See above, p. 785, Note (iz). Burnet, Tom. I. p. 330.

(3) There were thirty two Commilitaners appointed, fixteen of the Clergy, and the fame number of the Laity. The Bill for examining thefe Laws
was read, for the firft time, 'January iS ; and for the fecond, third, and fourth times, the 19th, 22d, and 24th of the fame Month, and palled March 6.
Upon mention of this Bill's being read the fourth time, it is obferved in the Journals of the Houfe of Lords, that Bills of moment have been afually

or often read four times. See Jour. Procer. Burnet, Tom. III. p. 161 j and Statut. 35. Hen. 8. In this Seiiioo of Parliament, there was a very

good Act made for the prefervation of Timber and Woods, which ought to be better obferved. See ibid. c. 17.

(4.) The Lord Audley died April 30, and Sir Thomas Wriothefly was created Baron of Ticbfield, January 1. this year. Hell, fol. 257. Slna, p. sSc.
Sir William Petre, Cranmer's great Friend, was about this time made Secretary of State. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 331.
(s) May 4.. Buchanan, 1. 15. They fet out from London in March. Hollingjh. p. 961.

(6) See an account of the Villagps they plundered and burnt, in Hall, fol. 25S ; and Hollmg/b. p. 963.

(7) Thom-is Lord Wharton Waiden of the Well Marches, and Sir Rcbert Bowes Mafter of the Requerts. Rymer't Tori. Tom. Ij. p. 23*

(8) The poffeffian if Jedburgh, K-lfo, Roxburgh, H.m: Calle, the Hermitage, the Mtrs, and TcvioidaU, JbiJ, j>, 14,

6, That


■ 544-


Otbtr Con-
Aft. Pub.
XV. p. 29

'the Earto]
Lenox ctfn-
not furren-
der Dun-
britlon to
the K'ng.

Englilh U-
n/ajson in

!. « 5 .

Diet ef
Spire fa-
vorable to
tbc Pro-


The opening
of the Coun-
tit of Trent
fixed to
March 25.

The Empe-
ror takei

6. That he would confent, that Margaret Douglafs
his Niece fhou!d efpoufe the Earl of Lenox, provided (he
were willing.

This Treaty was figned at Ctylijle the 17th of May,
whilft the Englijh Army was quitting Scotland, and re-
tiring to Berwick.

Some days after, the Earl of Lenox came to the Court
of England, where the foregoing Treaty was confirmed
the 26th of June, with the following additional Ar-
ticles :

That the Earl of Ltnox fhould furrender to the King
the Caftle of Dunbritton, and the I lie of Bute.

That if he married Margaret Douglafs, he fhould af-
fign her an honorable Dower.

That the King ingaged on his part, to aid him with
five hundred Men, to give him a Penfion of feventeen
hundred Marks (1) for himfelf, and one of a hundred
Marks for George Striveling, Governor of Dunbritton,

In confequence of this Treaty the Earl of Lenox came
to Dunbritton with thirteen Ships, and about fix hun-
dred Men. Upon his arrival, he went to the Cattle
with a few Followers, to try to perfwade the Gover-
nor (2) to deliver the Place to the King of England. But
the Governor preferring his duty to his affection for the
Earl, refufed to admit the Englijh. This attempt fail-
ing, Lenox ravaged the Ifles of Arran and Bute, where
he met with no oppofition. Then he made a defcent
upon Kintyre, and after plundering fome Villages, failed
to Brijlol, where he expected the King's return, who
Was now in France.

In the mean while, the Earl of Arran and Cardinal
Beaton, profecutcd, with the utmoft rigour, the Earl of
Lenox's Friends, and confifcated their Eftates. But a
frefh Invafion of the Englijh, who, though few in num-
ber, took Jedborrough, Kelfoe, and Coldingham, caufed
them to ceafe thefe Proceedings, and raife an Army to
enable them to repulfe their Enemies. The Scotch Army
amounting to eight thoufand Men, being ready to march,
the Queen-Dowager, the Regent, and the Cardinal, led
them to Coldingham, where the Englijl), when they re-
tired, had left a Garrifon. But whilft they were em-
ployed in this Siege, the Regent having advice, that the
Englijh were marched from Berwick to relieve the
Town, was feized with fuch a Panick, that fpeedily
mounting his Horfe, he fled all alone to Dunbar. Th : s
hafty flight threw the whole Army into fuch a con-
fternation, that there was no hindering the Soldiers from
disbanding. The Earl of Angus alone refolved to flay
with a few Men, and carry off the Artillery, which wss
going to be deferted. The Scots being difperfed, the Englijh
ravaged without mercy, Teviot, Merch, and Lauderdale,
compelling the Inhabitants to fwtar Allegiance to the King
of England. Buchanan adds, that the Earl of Angus reviv-
ing the Regent's Courage, they aflembled fome Troops,
and caufingthe Englijh to fall into an Ambufh, flew eight
hundred (3) of their Men, and took a thoufand Prifoners.
But there is nothing like this in the Englijh Hiltories.

Whilft the King of England was acting againft Scot-
land, till Things were ready to begin the war in France,
the Emperor was at Spire, where he had called a Diet,
to try to obtain fome afliftance from the Princes of
Germany. The Proteftants at firft fcrupled very much
to aflift him, whilft he left them expofed to the Infults
of their Enemies. But the moment they obtained a De-
cree, that they fhould not be difturbed in the exercife
of their Religion, they granted whatever was required.
This was all they defired, and it was deemed a fignal fa-
vor to grant it, even with fuch Limitations and ambi-
guous Claufes, as would one day render it fruitlefs. So
the Diet broke up about the end of May, to the mu-
tual fatisfaction of the States of the Empire. The Pope
alone was offended at the Decree, in favour of the Pro-
teftants, and to hinder them from long enjoying the To-
leration granted, till the Council fhould meet, he fixed
the opening of the Council of Trent to the 25 th of
March 1545.

Whilft the Emperor was at Spire, he ordered Lux-
emburg to be inverted, which furrendered about the end
of May. Then, he headed his Army in Perfon, to be-

gin the execution Of the Projects concerted v. ith Henry. 1544.
Since the conclufion of the Treaty in February laft year, 7 }' l j'i i
whereby they were each to bring into the Field but ^ fr ' or 'w*
twenty-five thoufand Men, they had agreed to encreafe Henrj.
the number of their Troops, to invade France with two
Armies, which together were to make above a hundred
thoufand Men, and to join them about Paris. The
Emperor's firft Exploits, till the King of England's ar-
rival, were the taking of Commercy and Ligny in le Bar-
rois. After that he entered Champagne, and befieged St. 7tf E
Didier the 8th of July. This place, though weak, held , or befitga
out above fix weeks, and then was taken by a falfe In- Sl - Didier.
telligence carried to the Governor.

The War with Scotland having prevented Henry from ' n " &****/
being ready fo foon as he had promifed, it was about j."° ttt
Whitfuntide before he embarked part of his Army for Cant de
Calais, under the conduit of the Duke of Norfolk (4). Burc -

- 1 • ■ r. Adi Pub

As for himfelf, he ftill remained in England with the xv. P . 40.
reft of his Troops till the middle of July (5). When H»u.
the Duke of Norfolk was beyond Sea, he joined the Count Sluw-
de Bure, who commanded ten thoufand Men of the Em-
peror's Troops, and they jointly befieged the Town of ?£'* te f"Z'
Montreuil. This was probably with the Emperor's con- Herbert!
fent, who at the fame time laid Siege to St. Didier. He
was in hopes that place would detain him but few days,
and then he fhould march to Paris, whilft Hairy was
advancing to join him. Had this projecft been executed V' £"£"/

i- ° J n ■ i 11 1 r^ St - Didier

according to agreement, rarts, and all tlie Country as breaks „■,,
far as the Loire, would have been in great danger, fince Meafiraaf
Francis had not above forty thoufand Men. But the Em- 'f "°° em -
peror was prepofteroufly bent upon the Siege of St. Di-' Mmarck!i
dier, which flayed him above fix Weeks. In the me3n Henry*.—
time, Henry arriving at Calais (6) with the reft of his^f'. 1 "
Army, found that the Emperor's defign was to leave him Snlfelfi the
to march alone to Paris, and keep the King of France Sm/avr,
employed, whilft he purfued his affairs in Champagne. * . f' s "
So, perceiving that inftead of marching to the rendezvous, Aft. t'ub.
the Emperor was employed in a Siege, he ordered likewife xv - F- S3>
Boulogne to be inveftcd, and came himfelf to the Siege H ^',j
the 26th of July. By this means their project was fuf- Stow,
pended, whilft they feparately amufed themlclves with the Herbert.
taking of Towns. This error proved (he (afety of France.
From thenceforward thefe two Princes mutually charging J*' S ™?'~
one another with non-performance ef agreements, had no;,., a „d
longer any confidence in each other. And therefore the Henry open-
Emperor, by indirect means, caufed a Peace to be offer- 3 t ' t °f' r t .
ed to Francis, whilft Henry more openly granted a fafe- Francis,
conduct for French AmbalTklors to come aad treat with
him, at a league from his Camp.

Mean while the Emperor, having at laft taken St. Di- qi: Er "r*-
dier about the middle of Angujl, fent to Henry to march Z'J-m'J'i'i
towards Paris , as was agreed. Henry anfwered, that upm Henry
fince he had given the Emperor time to take St. Didier, '"f"bu
it was but reafonable the Emperor fhould ftay til! he had H j n "' d , ,- M
taken Bouhgne, which could not be long. After the ta- ra-ber to
king of St. Didier, the Emperor advanced to Chateau- [ J<l! Bou "
Thierri, and filled Paris with terror and confufion. But Aet.'pub.
Henry's anfwer convincing him, it would be very dirn- xv. p. 50.
cult to execute their projects during the reft of the Cam- Ha]x ' x "
pain, he renewed his private Negotiation with Francis,
which had been fufpended. Shortly after, he concluded V"" 9 $
with France a feparate Peace, figned at Crepy the 10th fata the
of September, not only without including Hcr.ry, but even Empvu-ani
without acquainting him, for fear of prevention. France.

tt i_ r -iii- , Hellas.

Henry was not much (urpnzed at the Emperor s pro- Herbert,
ceedings. He ought not to have expected lefs from fuch Mezewi.
a friend, who was reconciled to him only in order to do ^'"'„] 'f, m .l e
his own bufinefs. It is certain, Charles V, no more than Emperor
Maximilian and Ferdinand, his paternal and maternal'" vain%
Grandfathers, never pretended much to fincerity, nor was
integrity his principal virtue. Henry complained of his
breach of Faith. But it was eafy to alledoe fundry rea-
fons, little capable however of balancing the Oath he had
taken, to conclude neither Peace nor Truce without the
confent of his Ally. But thefe Oaths are generally fo ill
kept in moft Leagues, that they feem to be confidered
only as a fort of form, not much to be relied upon.
Happily for Henry, Boulogne had capitulated the 1 4th of A ^V Pub '
September, before the Treaty of Crepy was figned (7). Boulojae

The Emperor thought himfelf very politick in tsSmstfu'rendtn ip
himfelf of the burden of the War, and leaving Francis and C^taM"
Henry imbroiled. Indeed, it was a great advantage, had

(t) Which made fix thoufand eight hundred Scottijh Marks. Pymer, p. 31.

(2) His own Lieutenant. (3) Two hundred. Buchanan, I. 15.

(4) Who was accompanied by John Lord RuJ/cl, Captain of the Vanguard. Rymir, T»m. 15. p. 43 ; atd Her.r, Howard Earl of Surrey Marlhal,
John y ITe Earl of Oxford, the Lord Griy of Wilton, Lord Ferrers of Chortley, Lird Mounl'py, Sir Francis B'yan, Sec. Hubert, p. 244..

(5) Before his departure, he appointrd Cjuecn Catherine Regent of the Kingdom; and named tcr her aifurants, the Archbilhop of Canterbury, Lord
Chancellor rVrittbef.j, the Earl of Hertford, the Bifnop of Sfcjlminfler, and Sir William Petre. Rymer, Tom. r;. p. 39.

16) July 14. J cbarles Brandon Duke of Hujfolk was Captain of the Middle-ward, ar.d had with him Edward Xtynmr Earl of Hertford Lord
ChamberJain, Henry Fitx-Alan Earl of Arund<l the Marfhal, Sir Jobn Cage Controller of his Houlhold, and Sir Antc-.ry Brown Mailer of the Horle,
&e. Hal/. The Ship wherein the King was conveyed over had Sails of Cloth of Cold. Herbert, p. 245.

(7) The Reader may fee a veiy full account of the Siege of Boulogne, in a Journal cf it, extant in Rymer't Feed. Tom. J5. p. 52, Sec ; and
Hirbert, p. 245. Ciir-fl. Hift.


Book XV.



1544.. it not been acquired by breach of Faith. Immediately af- mouth, where Jay the Englijh Fleet of fixty Ships only. 154.J,
Mok'^Jum ter the conc,ul ' on of tne T reat y> he fent orders to the Notwithftanding the difproportion between the two Fleets,
nlfJT' 1 Couflt de Bure to raife the Siege of Montreuil, which the Englijh approached the French; but after a flight
Hail. obliged Henry alfo to recall the Duke of Norfolk. In the skirmifh retired behind theSands, with defign to draw the

Herbert fituation of Henry's affairs, he had nothing to do but re- enemies after them. The French Admiral confulting how
Hollinglh. tire > {or fcar the Dauphin, who was advancing by long they might be attacked, was told, it was an impofliblc
ThtDauptin marches, fhould oblige him to fight with great difadvan- thing, becaufe the Channel which led to the place where
Z17m tage ' or retrcat with precipitation. Belides, that the they lay was fo narrow, that hardly could four Ships fall
Henry, Dauphin was at the head of forty thoufand Men, he would abreaft. That befides, there was no venturing among the
have found the Englijh Army much leflened, as well by Sands without Pilots. Thefe difficulties obliged the°Ad-
their loffes at two Sieges, as by the numerous Garrifon rhiral to content himfclf with provoking the Englijh to
wfortfjrnftthey were forced to leave at Boulogne. So, having well fight, by means of the Gallies, in order todraw them from
Stow?' ftored that place, and left Admiral Dudley Governor, their poll. At firft the Gallic:, favoured by a great calm,
Herbert. Henry departed for England the 30th of September, whilft annoyed the EngliJI) Ships. But a Land-breeze arifing,
Hollinglh. his Troops were returning to Calais. deprived them ot their advantage, and caufed them to row

The Dauphin The Dauphin came a few days after ( 1 ), but did not oft', for fear of being run down by the large Ships. The Ett-

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