M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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think proper to purfue the EngliJI), who were too far before glijh did not purfue them very far, their defign being to
him, and too near Calais for him to expect to overtake them, draw the enemies among the Sands, with which they were
He contented himfclf therefore with trying to furprize
Boulogne, the breaches whereof the Englijh had not time
to repair. He was very like to have fucceeded in his
attempt. The French were now matters of the Lower-
Town, wheie all the Englijh Ordnance lay, when a
fally from the Upper-Town compelled them to retrcat
O mment.of in tliforder. Maifhal Montluc in his Commentaries, fpcaks
Montluc. f- this action, in a different manner from the Englijh
Hiftorians, though he agrees with them that the French
Co*fcremifor y/tie rcpulfed. Some days after (2), a conference was
held at Calais, to try to procure a Peace between the

faili in Lis

jUcrr.pt to
jiit. Pub.
XV. p. 57


At laft, the Frenc,
the advantage of their Poft/ landed in' three places in thc Fr

h feeing the EngliJI) would not lofe '

Fltl] ■

Ifle ■

1 Peace

Act. Pub.
XV. p. 57

Henry f.r-
tifies I is


IJle oflVight. But all this ended only in burning form:
Villages. It was moved in a Council of War, to fortify **»"■
and keep the Ifland. But it was judged impracticable., SfJ"*'
chiefly hy reafon of the time which fuch a proji-et would
neceflarily require. The Admiral therefore was fatisfied ' ■■'
with ordering a defcent on the Coafl of SuJpx(S), ima- Ud
gining the King, who was at Portfmouth, would fend out
his Fleet to affift the Country. Jkit he was miftaken.


two Kings. But the aim of the French being to perfuade The EngliJI) Fleet ftill lay behind the Sand-, and the de-

the Englijh to reftore Boulogne upon the bare hopes of a
Peace, it is not ftrangc, the conference mould be fruit-

Henry at his return to England took great care to put
in a pofture of defence the places on the Thames, and

fcents which the French made in three feveral places, gained
them no confiderable advantage, becaufe the Coafts were
well guarded. In the mean while, the Englijh Fleet daily
encreafing, confined now of a hundred Sail. So, Anne- 7>er r -mh
baut feeing little hopes of making great progrefs, retired F '"' '"'"'•
on the Southern Coaft (3), imagining Francis would not towards France, after having watered at the Ijle vf Wight.
fail to invade him the next year. At the fame time he not without lofing fome Soldiers and Officers,
lent into Scotland the Earl of Lenox who took Dum- Some days after, a South Wind blew the French back'' •d'vn
freys. towards the Coait of England, and put their Fleet in*£p'*f c '"!'*

This year, mod: part of the Colleges, Collegiate conlufion, which the Englijh refulved to improve, if the .7 /sw/«l
Churches, and Hofpitals were furrendered to the King (4) Wind continued favourable. And indeed, the two Fleets !■'_.' •-•••

ingaged for two hours. But as the Wind was very change-
able, each endeavoured to gain it, without engaging how-
ever too far. At laft, they parted without much lofs on
either fide ; and thus ended the greateft effort France had
ever made at Sea.

The attempt to fight the Englijh Fleet, or to ravage **« fylp> <f
the Coaft, was not however the principal motive of thu ' ■■'
powerful armament. The taking of Boulogne was thewGrilha
his Poll, and forced him to put oft" his project till another King of France's chief end, and the Fleet was properly nsijmries by
time. intended only to block up that place by Sea. But as the A ~ Sf*" 1

Mean while Francis was making great preparations LandJ'quenets were not yet arrived, and the Fort Marlhal Herbert.
againft England, in hopes of retaking Boulogne, and even de Biez was building not finiihed, Francis was exceedingly
Guifnes and Calais, in order to expel the EngliJI} entirely vexed to fee the time proper for executing his defi°ns
out of France. To this end he equipped in the feveral infenfibly Aide away. At length, hearing the Landfque-
Ports of France one hundred and fifty great Ships, and nets were on the borders, he fent to view the Fort, which,
fixty fmaller ones (7), with ten hired of the Genoefe. contrary to his expectation, and Marflial de Biez's pro-
Moreover, he had ordered five and twenty Gallies to be mife, was yet very far from being finifhed. Befides, it
brought from the Levant, in imitation of Lewis XII, who, was built in a different place from what was appointed,
on the like occalion, had fent for four from thence. At and did not command the Harbour. The Marlhal al-

ledged, if it had been built at Portet, the Garrifon would
have wanted Water. But he affirmed, the Fort he was
raifing at Outreau would be finiihed in eight days.
Whereupon, the King fent him his whole Army, of
which he gave him the Command, and remained him-
felf at Chateau- Montier about ten Leagues from Bou-

The Marflial de Biez lay encamped near the Fort till
it was finifhed, his defign being to throw in ten thoufand
Men to awe the Garrifon of Boulogne, whilft he be-

Colleges and
Hofpitals rt-
limned to the - fc* » . .

Kim. by Acts and Deeds, feemingly voluntary, but which were

Act. Pub. no more fo than thofe figned by the Abbots and Priors,
5 f- 5' -when they religned their Monafteries (5).

I? .. In the beginning of the year 1545, the Marlhal de

Preparations Biez encamped near Boulogne, in order to raife a Fort at
«f France Portet (5) to command the Harbour of Boulogne. But
i!Zf EnE " the Earl of Hertford who had fucceeded Dudley, fally-
Bellai. ing out with a body of Troops, diflodged the Marlhal from





the fame time, he prepared to raife an Army of forty
thoufand Men, with whom he intended to join twelve
thoufand Landfquenels levied in Germany. His defign
was to attack Boulogne by Land, and fo block it up by
Sea, that it fhould be impoflible for the Englijh to relieve
it. To execute this project, he fent a re-inforcement to
the Marflial de Biez, ordering him to build at Portet the
Fort he had been forced to leave unfinilhed, being un-
willing to approach Boulogne before this Fort was in a
itate of defence. The Marflial putting him in hopes,

the Work would be finiftied by the middle of Augujl, fieged Guifnes. But the engineer had fo ill contrived his


he came about the end of 'June to Havre de Grace, to
give orders for an expedition by Sea. His Gallies and
Ships arriving fhortly after, he commanded the Fleet to
fail towards England. But in feeing it depart, he had
the vexation to behold one of his largeft, called the Grand
Carracon, burnt before his face, lhe having taken fire
whilft the Anchor was weighing.

Admiral Anncbaut who commanded the Fleet, arrived,

Work, that after much time fpent in it, he was lorced
almoft to begin again. This occafioned a delay, which
broke all the meafures that weic taken. Mean while, Herbert,
the King haftened the Work the more, as he knew that P- 2 5°-
ten thoufand LandJ'quenets [and four thoufand Horfe]
raifed for the fervice of England were marching for Pi-
cardy. In fliort, the Marflial perceiving the Seafon
would be too far advanced before his Fort could be put

cftte French t h e | gth of July, at the Ifle of [Fight, in fight of Portf- in a ftate of defence, pretended to have certain advice that



(0 Oelolier 7 . Fymer, Tom. XV. p. 57.

(2) Oelober 12. The Englijh ComnulVroncrs

(3) Gravefatd, Tilbury, Dwer, Portjmoulb, Sec

were the Earl of Hertford, and Sir Wtiltam Paget. Rymer's Fcrd. Tom. XV. p. 57.
p. 2+9.'

(4) There were in the Kingdom feveral Colleges, Chapels, Chantries, Hofpitals, and Fraternities, cenfriting of fecular Prierts, who enjoyed Penlions for
faying Mai's for the Souls of thoie who endowed them. Now the belief of Purgatory being left indifferent by the Doctrine let out by the Bilhops and the
trade of redeeming Souls being condemned, it was thought needlefs to keep up lb many Endowments to no purpofe. Thofe Pried : were generally ili-arTcCtcd to
the King's Proceedings, lince their Trade was fo much leliened by them. Therefore many were dealt with to make reiignation : and twenty four of them cLd
furrender this year. Burnet, Tom. I. p. 33S.

(5) Alfo this year, King Henry reformed the publick Offices, and put out a Form of Proccffion, with a Litany in Eng.'i/h. fi-urr.it, Tern. III. p. 164.
16) A little Creek of the Sea, half a Mile from Boulogne. The Marlhal encamped there January 26, with fourteen thuufand Men. The Earl of Hert-
ford diflodged him, though he had only four thoufand leven hundred Men. Herbert, p. 249.

(7) Our King fet out about a hundred. Thele Ships o r both fides were only Merchantmen hired fcr this War. Barret, Tom. I. p- 332.

(6) Near Brigbte.'wjlon, and New Haven. Stcii; p. 589.

N0.XLIII. Vat, I.

10 D


8 4 :



Vol. I.

the Kin" of England defigned to land a ftrong Army at good undemanding between France and England, that 1545.
Calais, to relieve Boulogne by Land; this is at leaft what both Kings might be able toproted them. They^fent "^f':'<

du Bellas imputes to him in his Memoirs. However, the therefore to France, Cbrijhpher de Ve
Marflial leaving the Fort unfinifhed, encamped on Mount of Nidefont, and John St—

john Bruno


Lambert, to be ready to oppofe the Succours. But the
Englijh appeared not.' As for the Landfquenets fent for by
Hiriry from Germany, they returned home, becaufe they
received not on the borders the Money, they were made
to expect. Mean while, the French Army continued en-
camped, without undertaking the Siege either of Guifnes

and to England, Lewis Enda
Bambach, and John Sleidan, to perform the Office of Me- skidar >-
diators between the two Kings, in the name of the League. Bu™m?"
Thefe Ambaffadors meeting the Plenipotentiaries of France
and England, between Aid res and Guifnes {1), prefently
found it was not eafy to make Peace. Francis infilled,. J5<F"<W«ef
that Henry fhould reftore Boulogne, and Scotland be in- J L '-" ■

or Boulogne though Francis had made lb great an effort for eluded in the Peace. But Henry abfolutely rejected both

Diatl '

Dl < of

( )i leans.

that purpofe.
i • In the mean time, the Duke of Orleans died at Chateau-
Monticr, to the great grief of the King his Father, who,
by his death, faw the "peace with the Emperor very much
fhaken, lince it was properly founded upon that Prince's
Life, as will quickly appear.

The French Army being encamped on Mount Lam-
bat, within Cannon-fliot of Boulogne, there were Skir-
mifhes every day in the fpace between the Mount and the
Town. In one of thefe Conflicts, the Duke d'Aumale,
known afterwards bv the name of the Duke of GuiJe,

1' .■<
h Ambrcfe



thefe Articles. Whereupon a Truce only was negotiated,

but with no better Succefs, becaufe Hem v would never "J <f a

agiee, that the Scots mould be comprifed in the Treaty. r '°" r '

This appears in the primitive Inftruetions fent to Sir If'il-

liam Paget one of the Englijh Ambaffadors (2), and infert-

ed in the Cclleclion of the Publick Acts. We find alfo in Afl. Pub.

his Inftruetions, that Sir IVilliam Paget attempted to bribe ff' P' 8z >

Bruno, one of the German Mediators, with the offer of a

conflderable Penfion, and, in all appearance, the Mediator

hearkened to his propofals. Mean while, to obtain the

better Terms, Henry feigned a defire to be reconciled with

the Emperor, and even fent in Embaffy to him, the Bi-

fhops of Winchefter and IVeJlminJler. But this was only

to give a Jealoufy to Francis.

Cranmer took the advantage o( Gardiner's abfence to Cranmer
advance the Reformation, which he knew that Prelate^™™"!*"
would oppofe with all his power. Some vacant Blfhap-bii Frieiuh.

was wounded with a Lance, which entering at the corner
of his Eye, came out behind his Head. This Wound,
though deemed mortal by all, was however cured by the
greaTskill of Ambrofe Pare, the King's Surgeon, who was
even forced to draw out with Pincers, the head ot the
Lance which remained in the wound. The Scar in the
Duke's Face rained him the firname of Balafre [or ricks were, by his means, given to perfons who favoured Burnet.


Th French

Army ra-

- .\ ; Terre



the Reformation, and he had thereby among the Bifhops Z? x
a much llronger Party than ever (3). Nay, he found
means afterwards to obtain the King's confent to fume
alterations advantagious to Religion. But Gardiner, who Gardiner
was then at Bruges with the Emperor, having notice of*™*' 4 "
it, lent the King word, that the Pope and Emperor being " "
joined in a League againlt the Proteftants of Germany,
the leaft: Innovation in England, with refpect to Religion,
would be apt to induce them to give the King of France
all the Satisfaction he could defire, to ingage him in their
League, in order to act all together againlt him. This
caufed Cranmer to tir.j more difficulty than he ex-
pected .

In Jug.'.'/! this year Cranmer loft a good fupport by the Death ofOt


The Seafon was now fo advanced, that the Siege of
Boulogne was not practicable. So Francis was forced to
be contented, with ordering the Marfhal de Biez to ra-
vage Terre d'Oye, belonging to the King of England.
But the fudden Rains made the Country fo watry, that
the Marfhal was foon obliged to retire with his Army.
Indeed, the Inhabitants were great Sufferers, becaufe the
Garrilon of Calais, which Ihould have protected them,
was unable to lefift fo numerous Forces. On the other
hand, BriJJ'ac, afterwards Marfhal of France, defeated a
Body of two thoufand Englijh. Thefe were all the da-
mages Henry fuftained during the Campain, from an
Aimy of above two hundred thoufand Men, which had put
Ins Enemy to a prodigious expence. In all likelihood, death of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, who had al- Duk J °f

Mr: v> i to

ways continued in the height of favour (4). He was Cran- t
titer's Friend, and would have willingly agreed to a farther Stow.
Reformation. But he was too much a Courtier, to at- Hollingfh.
tempt directly to oppofe the King's Will. However, as
Henry was not always in the fame difpofition, with regard
to Religion, this Lord did the Reformed good Service,
By the Tieaty of Crept, it was when he faw the King in a favourable Situation,
agreed, that the Duke of Orleans Ihould many one of the The war with Scotland was faintly continued on both Cmtlmuukn
Daughters, either of the Emperor, or of the King of the Sides. Henrys defign was only to terrify the Scots, and Iflj'^ "f
Romans, and on account of this Marriage, Ihould have induce them to execute the Treaty concerning their ia„d.

Queen's Marriage. On the other hand, the Scots had no Kuchanan.
thoughts of invading England. Neverthelefs, Francis, S ujndh,
who, as was obferved, had formed vaft Projects againlt
England, fent betimes to the Regent an Ambaffadar, cal-

this expence, and the ill Succefs of the Campain, con
tributed molt to the Peace which was foon after con-

Befides that France was exhaufted, Francis had ftill
another motive to make Peace with England. He was

mate Peace a pp re h e nfive of being foon compelled to renew the war

*,,A Henry. ^.^ the E ror< By the Tie;

the Duchy of Milan, or the Earldom ot Flanders. In
confjderation of fo advantagious a Settlement for the
Duke his Son, Francis had religned above twenty Places,
which he held in Piedmont or Montforat, and relin-


quiihed the Intereft of his Brother-in-law the King of Jed la Brofp, to allure him of his Protection, andapower-

Navarre. So, the hopes of the advantages this Maniage f u l Aid, which was inftantly to depart. Befides that a

was to procure, vanifhing by the death ot his Son, Fran- Diverlion in Scotland could not but be advantagious to

cis was to find fome other way to obtain them, or break him, he was alfo excited by the Lorrain Princes, who

a Treaty now become ufelels. For this reafon, being were defirous to fupport the Queen their Siller. So, cau-

defirous to know the Emperor's Intentions, he fent Ad- fmg the Seigneur de Lorge, Count ol Alongommcri, to im-

miral Annebaut to Antvjerp, to offer him to renew the bark with five thoufand Men, he ordered him to ufe his

Tieaty of Peace upon other Conditions, fince the death utmoft endeavours to perfuade the Scots to make a power-

of the Duke of Orleans had rendered thofe of the Treaty tul Diverfion on the Frontiers of England. Mcngom?nerJ

of Crepi of no effect. But the Emperor plainly intima- arriving in Scot/and the fecond of July, joined his Troops

ted, that by the death of that Prince, he believed himfelf with the Scots, and both making together fifteen thoufand

freed from his Engagement, when he told the Ambaffa- Men, advanced towards the Tweed* For fome days fe-

dor, he would not attack the King of France, if he was veral Parties paffed the River, and did fome damage to the

not firlt attacked. Francis eaiily judged by this anfwer, Englijh. But the French General could never perfuade

He got the
frtneel to
negotiate Jar
bin: j
1. 16.

he Ihould infallibly have a war with the Emperor. This,
added to the little progrefs he had made during the laft
Campain, made him defirous of a Peace with England.
But as he was unwilling to fue for it, he applied to the
Princes of the Smalcaldick League, who offered to become
Mediators. This Mediation feemed the lefs precarious, as
the Proteftants themielves were highly concerned to pro-
cure a Peace between the two Kings. They faw them-
felves upon the brink of being attacked by the Emperor,
fince he had made Peace with France, and knew more-
over, he was negotiating a Truce with the Turks. No-
thing therefore could be more for their advantage, than a

(1) In November. Herbert, p. 251. Hall,

(a) The other Amball'ad' rs were, Cutbbert, Bilhcp of Durham, and Dr-' ftegenel. Hall, f„l. -60. St:«.

(3) Lee, Arthb lb p if Toik dy.ne. Robert HSlgate, Huh. p ot LeMaaff, w is promjted to that See, Kitchen being m :de Bifhop 1 f Lindaff. who turned with
every change. Heatb was transited from Rtcbejfcr to rVemfier, .ind HemyHtNxacb was made Bilhop of Rocbcjler. Day, a m derate Man, upon Samp) e s
Traniljtion to huhjietd and Coventry, wet mad< Bilhop of CBlcbe/ler. Burnet, Tom. I* p-' 3 3 3.

(4) He died Ai.gvft 14, and lies buried in St. George's Chapel at H'icJfr, by the Door ot the Choir near the place where Hi ny VI is interred. He had
four Wives. His third was Mary Daughter of Heart VII, and Widow ot Lewis XII of France. He had a Son by her, who died before him, and two
Daughters. His two other Sor.s by his fall Wile, died without Iilue, 5 Edward \l. Dugdalcs Btrm, Vol. II. p. y.^,

(5) Six Shillings in the Pound. See above, p. 834. N**e (> ; .


the Scots to venture with the whole Army beyond the
Tweed. On the contrary, upon news that the Earl of Hal'.
Hertford was advancing at the head of twelve thoufand Stow.
Men, they haftily retired, and prefently after disbanded Ho " ln ^'"•
as ufual. This is all that paffed in Scotland worth notice,
during the Campain of 1545.

The Parliament of England meeting the twenty third of Tw P.ir-
November, the Convocation continued for two years the / """ ■"'
Subiidy given the King for Six (5). At the fame time, %?"' 5^.
the Parliament fupprelfed by an Act, all the Colleges Jid;, and
and Hofpitals, and gave their Lands to the King. The' ' ! f'"f
motive, or rather pretence of this Suppreflion was, the &Ci "''° r ''



j. \. V >



1545. abufe of thefc Foundations. The Parliament deiigned it
alio towards the expence of the King's wars with Fiance
and Scotland. But this not fuflicing, the Commons
granted him moreover a large Sum (1), and as they were
aflcmbled only for that purpofe, they were difmiffed the
ll, King") 24th of December. Before the Scffion ended, the King
•'•""/'' r/ ' eame to the Houfe of Lords in great Solemnity, and
i; ,]i, made a line Speech, laying, among othei things, that ne-

Stow. ver had Prince a greater affection fur his People, or was

[| ,ll!l - more beloved than himfelf. He added many fuch Ex-
pressions, which, though very far, for the molt part, from
the truth, were however received by the people with loud
Acclamations (2).
.■>/':,) of During this year, the German Proteftants began to feel

>• the effects of the Emperor's late Peace with France, and

of the Truce he was juft going to conclude with the
Turk. Hitherto they had been ufed fomewhat gently. But
the Emperor coming to JVorms, where the Diet of the
Empire was held, plainly declared to them, he could not
any way difpenfe with their fubmitting to the Council,
which was to meet at Trent. This convinced them,
there was in reality a defign to reduce them by force,
and the more, as a certain rumour was fpread of a league
between the Pope and Emperor, which could not but be
againft them. Their Sufpicions were farther confirmed;
by a Sermon preached by a certain Francifcan, before the
Emperor, to whom he reprcfented in very (hong terms,
that he could not difcharge the duty of a good Emperor,
unlefs he laboured to the utmoft of his power to extirpate
the Lutherans. They knew alfo, the Emperor had writ to
the King of Poland to excite him againlt: them. More-
over, he lummoned the Archbifhop of Cologne to appear
before him within thirty days, becaufe he had embiaccd
the Reformation, and tried to introduce it into his Dio-
cefe. All this mewed plainly what they were to expect.
Nevcrthclefs, as the Emperor had not yet concluded the
Truce with the Turk, and as things were not quite rea-
lly, he ordered that a new Diet fnould be held at Ra-
t'nbon the following 'January. But the better to amule
the Proteftants, he decreed, that the Divines of both Par-
ties fhould come to Ratisbon, a month before the Diet,
and hold a free Conference, that fomethinp; might be af-
terwards fettled in matters of Religion. The Roman Ca-
tholicks did not like this Conference, and the Proteftants
were ftill lefs pleafed with it, becaufe they forefaw that
the fiiftnefs of the Divines of both fides, on the Points
which would be the fubject, of their Conference, would
give the Emperor and the Diet a pretence to refer the
decifion to the Council of Tent. The Diet breaking up
the 1 8th of Auguft, the Emperor returned to the Low-
Countries. Some time after, he received advice, that the
Truce with the Turks was concluded. He thereby faw
himfelf at full liberty to make war upon the Proteftants,
and under that pretence to fet about the execution of his
Project to become mafter of the Empire.
Mrmmi m It was properly at the inftance of the Proteftants only,
ibt Council. that (| ie Council was to meet : But it was very far from
Herbert, being fuch a Council as they had required. They expected
it to be held in Germany, in an unfufpected Place, and it
was convened at Trent, a City belonging to the Kingof
the Romans, whom they juftly contidered as their Ene-
my. Their defign was to combat the Papal Authority,
and it was the Pope who was to prefide by his Legates.
They intended to fhew, that the Romijh Clergy had cor-
rupted Religion, both in Doctrine and Difcipline, and it
was the Romijh Clergy who were to aflift as Judges.
Nay, it was uncertain whether they fhould be allowed
to produce their reafons. Mean while, it was pretended,
that out of great condefcenfion, a Council was called for
their fakes, and at their Sollicitation. It is therefore no
wonder, they fhould refufe to fubmit to fuch a Council,
which they as much feared, as they defired one free and
impartial. So the Emperor and the Proteftants acted di-
rectly contrary to their firft Proceedings. The Proteftants
rejected a Council, after defiring it with great earneft-
nefs, and the Emperor, after amufing them many years
on that account, prefTed, with all his power, the meeting
of the Council of Trent, the Authority whereof he intended
to make ufe of to opprefs them. The Pope would have
been glad to have had no Council at all, but finding he
was too far engaged with the Emperor to recede, had
fixed the opening to the 15th of March. After that, he
put it oft", becaufe on that day there were too few Bifhops
at Trent. But he had a much ftronger reafon. He was

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