M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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very glad to wait the ill'ue of the Diet of IVorms, in
hopes that vigorous refolutions would be taken there

ugainfi: the Proteftants, which would ingage both Parties 154J.
in an open War, and furnifh him with a pretence, either
to delay the opening of the Council, or to remove it to
fome Town in Italy. But the Emperor, who had now
formed his Plan, of making ufe of the Council's Autho-
rity to proceed againlt the Proteftants, caufed the Pope
at laft to older it to be opened at Trent the nth of De-
cember. That day the Legates (meeting in the Cathedral,) Ofminf =1
declared, the Council was aflembled for three Caufc, 1
deltroy Hcrefy, to reform Difcipline, and to fettle a lad-
ing Peace between Chiiftian Princes. This firft Seffion Vnpa.
was properly held only for the opening of the Council; HaWit
There were fo few Prelates at Trent, that il would have
been ridiculous lor fo fmall a number of Perfons to pretend
to make Decree, upon the Articles for which the Council
was called.

The Piotcflants feeing a Council opened quite different 154&
from what they had required, eafily perceived no good
was to be expected from it. They had the more rea-
fon to fear it, as the Kings of France and England being
at War with each other, there was no hopes ofaffiitance
from them. Mean while, though the German mediators
ha.! not fucceeded in their Negotiation, the Peace be-
tween Fra'nct and England was not more remote. The h, r, :y <•*;
reafon was, both Kings were equally concerned to end a ' •
War, which only did them damage, without a poflibilil
for either to expect any iconfiderable advantage Thcxv.,
War continued however during the Winter of the vcar Stw -
1546. The Earl of Surrey, Son of the Duke of Norfolk, £, ,
who commanded at Boulogne, having intelligence that the Hal
French were conducting a Convoy to the Eort of Ott-
trettu, fallicd out (3) with part of the Garrifon to inter-
cept it. But he fucceeded fo ill, that inftead of taking
the Convoy, he was himfelf defeated, and forced to re-
treat in great diforder. This news extremely troubled the
King, who was not wont to receive the like. Whether
he thought it owing to the Earl's imprudence, or fufpedt-
cd him of fome hidden defign, he recalled him immedi-
ately, and fern the Lord Gray to command in his room.
A kw days after, he ordered the Earl of Hertford to de- Hall,
part with about ten thoufand Men, for fear the French H;r
fhould feize fome Poft, and cut off the communication
between Boulogne and Calais. And indeed that was their
defign. But the Earl of Hertford, preventing them by
two days only, ported himfelf at Amblcvillc, where he ran
up two Forts which fecured the communication. The
French having miffed their aim, encamped on Mount
Lambert; and as the two Armies were not far from each
other, there were skirmifhes every day, but which decided
nothing. It was equally the intereft of both Kings to
run no hazard, for fear of breaking off the Negotiation
of the Peace, which was treating between ArJ.rcs and

Francis wifhed for a Peace, becaufe his Exchequer was /;-
drained by his great and continual expence from the be-
ginning of his Reign, and particularly by the naval Ar- "
mament of the former Campam. Behdes, as he was
juft entering into a War with the Emperor, he wanted
fuch a friend as the King of .England. In fine, he per-
ceived, that after his fruitlefs efforts to retake Be:,.' g t ,
it would be very difficult to recover that place by force.
Henry was no lefs defirous of Peace for feveral reafons.
He was grown fo fat and corpulent, that it was a trouble Bund
for him to move. Nay, he had occafion for an engine
with pullics to lift him up and down ftairs. This made
him extremely uneafy, and gave him a diffafte for bull-
nefs, (o that he attended to affairs with fome reluctance.
In the next place he had no farther thoughts of making
Conquefts in Picardy. His fole aim was, to procure what
was due to him before Boulogne fhould be reltored, which
was of little ufe to him, fines Calais could ferve all his
purpoles. But he had ftill a more urgent motive to renew
his old fnendihip with Francis. He few the Emperor,
with the Pope's afiitLnce, upon the point of Slaking
War on the Proteftants, and much queftioned their abi-
lity to withftand him. In this belief, he was afraid the
Emperor, after fubduing Germany, would turn his Arm
againft England, with all the Forces of the Empire, Spam,
Italy, and the Low-Countries. He could ufe the pretence
of executing the Pope's Sentence, and even caufe a like
Sentence to be palled by the Council of Trent. It was
therefore not at all advantagious to Henry to be in War
with France. It was rather his intereft to have Francis's
Friendfhip, as it was alfo very advantagious to Francis to
be fecure ot Henr/s aiTiftancc, in cafe the Emperor turned
his Arms againft France.

(1) Four Shillings in the Pound of Lands, and two Shillings and Eight-pence of Good?, >o be paid in two Y^-ai?. Hall, f !■ 260.

(i) The moll remarkable Acts made in this Parliament were thele: 1. That the Cu/Ui R.tul.mm in c-ch Ooonty ftiall 1 v a JVill nVncd

with the Ring's Hand; and that the faid Cuflol {hall appoint the Chrk of the Peace, z. That no high';? Intereft, than Cell 1' " - per Cat. tcr a jtar,
/hall he paid. " y An Aft lor the payment ot Tithes ul Lortdw. See Statui. 37 Hrn. YUi.

(3) January 7. S:r Tbomai Pr\nir.gs, with feveral others, were llain. Stow, p. 59T.


8 4+


Vol. I.

l J46. The obftacles (o the conclufion of this Peace, confided

D:]i,a.!ruscf ln fjetiry's demand of what was due to him, and in Fran-
cis's want of Money to Content him. Befrdes, Francis
infifted upon Boulogne, and upon Scotland's being included
in the Treaty. Thefe difficulties would have been fuf-
ficient to hinder the conclu'icn of the Peace, if more
urgent motives had not induced the two Kings to feek
expedients to furmount them. Henry confented at laft
to the Article concerning Scotland, and as to the reft, a
way was found to fatisfy both. Henry was to keep Bou-
logne till he was paid, and Francis promifed to discharge
the debt in eight years. Every thing being thus fettled,
the Peace was iigned the 7th of Junc(i). The Treaty
ran :

Treaty of



France an
Aft. Pub.

XV. P . 9
June 7.
. Hall.


p. 255.

Henry'* ad-
tin Treaty,

The Pe.t-e
tit Londun.


Henrv colli
in all the

Cbargct of
the late War
Her beit.
f. z 5 6.

That the King of France fhall pay regularly the Pen-
fion, due by the Treaty of More of the 30th of Augujl
i 1525, confirmed by feveral fubfequent Treaties. As alfb
the penfion of Salt contained in a Treaty of the 25th of
April 1527, valued afterwards at ten thoufand Crowns a
year. But as Henry pretends the faid penfion given in
lieu of the Salt, is to be perpetual, and as Francis main-
tains, on the contrary, that it is to ceafe at Henry's death,
it is agreed, that the difpute fhall be amicably decided by
Umpires ; and if the penfion fhall be found to be perpe-
tual, Francis fhall pay it to Henry and his Succeflbrs for

Moreover Francis fhall pay to the King of England, on
the Feaft of St. Michael 1554, or within a fortnight af-
ter, the Sum of two millions of Crowns de Soleil, as
well for the arrears of the penfion of the ten thoufand
Crowns, as for Henry's expence in the Siege of Boulogne,
undertaken folely to procure his Money, and in keeping
and maintaining that place.

As to the Article of the five hundred thoufand Crowns,
which Henry prefented to Francis on condition he punc-
tually obferved the Treaties, as the two Kings differ in
point of fact, it is agreed, the difpute fhall be decided by
Comimfiioners appointed on both fides within fuch a time,
or by four impartial Lawyers, in cafe the Commiffioners
end not the affair.

It is further agreed, that the King of England fhall
keep Boulogne with its Territories, the Limits whereof
are fettled by the Treaty, till he receive whatever is due
to him.

That when all the Sums fhall be paid, Boulogne fhall
be reftored to the King of France, and nothing, that is
faftened to the ground, fhall be impaired or carried

That from the date hereof, to the furrender of Bou-
logne, neither of the two Princes fhall raife any Fort or
new Fortification within the territory of Boulogne, but
thofe already begun may be finifhed.

The Emperor was included by both Parties in the
Peace. As for Scotland, Henry agreed, it fhould be includ-
ed, on condition the Scots gave him no frefh caufe to
make War upon them ; and in cafe they did, they were
to be deemed included, no otherwife than according to
the Treaty of the 5 th of April 1 5 1 5.

Henry could hardly expect greater advantages than thofe
he received from this Peace, which feemed to fecure him
not only the payment of what was due to him, but alfo
the yearly and perpetual penfion of a hundred thoufand
Crowns. But the moft folemn Treaties are not always
fufficient fecurity for the performance of what Sovereigns
promife. It will appear in the following Reigns, that
Francis's Succeflor not only broke this Treaty with ref-
pect to Boulogne, and the Sums for which his Father was
bound, but that even the penfion was never charged in
the Treaties he made with England,

The Peace was very folemnly proclaimed at London the
13 th of June, with a general Proceffion, wherein were
carried all the richeft filver CrofTes, and the fineft Copes
worn, for the greater pomp. But this was the laft time
thefe things appeared in publick. Shortly after, Henry
called them in, together with the Church-Plate, into his
Treafury and Wardrobe, without giving any other reafon
than his will and pleafure.

It is faid, the late War with France coft Henry five

■ hundred eighty fix thoufand feven hundred and eighteen

Pounds Sterling, and the Charges of keeping Boulogne

eight years amounted to feven hundred fifty five thoufand

eight hundred thirty three Pounds. So large a Sum,

which was not to be repaid under eight years, had con- : 546.
fumed whatever had been granted by the Parliament,
and received from the Chapels, Colleges and Hofpitals.
So that he was forced in the beginning of the year to
lay a Tax upon his Subjects, under the name of Bene-
volence (2), as appears in the Collection of the Publick AG. I'uh.
Ails. fZ' P '^

The Peace reftored between the two Kings the good un- ucmj
derfbanding which had been interrupted fome years, rather ""J C .*'-
by the artifices of the Emperor and his Party in England,J' :L ' '/[""
than for any juft caufe. Catherine de Medici, Dauphinefs Daughter.
of France, being, at this time, delivered of a Princefs, Holi:n°fh.
and Henry defiring to ftand Godfather (3), he called her
Elizabeth, Prefently after, the two Kings fent Ambafla- Embafy
dors to each other, to receive the Oaths concerning the^ rr ' ¥uncs -
Peace, and chofe for thefe Embaflles their two High-Ad- s . ow ",
mirals (4). It is faid, that whilft Admiral Annclaut was PrcjeB of
at London, he began a Negotiation about Religion, and "*° / ^"" j;
that the two Kings intended to abolifh the Mats in their Burnet''
Dominions (5). As for Henry, very likely, if he had lived, T.I. p. 340,
he would have advanced the Reformation : Nay, it is Herbcrt -
certain, that on account of this Negotiation, he ordered
Cranmer to fet down in writing how fuch a Change
might be effected, and to ftrengthen all with arguments
and paflages from the Scriptures. But this Project foon Fnnos'j
vanifhed into fmoke. Probably, Francis had entered into dl J'S. r -'
this Negotiation, only becaufe he defired to be in ftrict
union with Henry, and knew by experience, that the bare
Propofal of conforming himfelf to his Sentiments in point
of Religion, was a moft effectual way to fucceed. But it
is not likely he really intended to admit of any Reforma-
tion in his Kingdom. And indeed, at this very time he
was kindling the flames of Perfecution all over France
againft the Reformed, of whom fourteen this year were
burnt at Meatix, and many others at Paris, and in other
places ; not to mention the maffacre of Cabrieres and Me-
rindol, for which none were punifhed. The Cardinals of
Lorrain and Tournon his chief Miniftcrs, were too much
incenfed againft the Proteftants, for any Man to believe,
that fo long as they were in favor, the King ever ferioufly
thought of abolifhing the Mafs in France.

Before the Peace between England and France was The Emperor
figned, the Proteftant Princes of Germany fe€mg them- t"'*l' ar " "
felves going to be attacked by the Emperor, who had PnttSaatu
at laft taken off the mask, fince his Peace with France, Sleidan.
and Truce with the Turks, fent to Henry, Prince Philip,
Brother (6) to the Elector Palatine, to delire afliftance. It Negotiation
appears in the King's Letter to this Prince, extant in the °f ,tc p
Colleclion of the Publick Ac7s, that Henry had fent to de- h™.
fire him to come, and the Lord Herbert affures, that Aft. Pub.
Philip aimed at marrying the Princefs Mary. However ?j V ; P-SS '
this be, the King anfwered his demand of aid by {even
Propofttions, containing the terms on which he was wil-
ling to enter into a defenfive League with the Proteftants.
But as his Propofitions tended only to render him head
and fole director of the League, they did not think pro-
per to put themfelves blindly into his hands. They on-
ly told him, if he would depofite fomewhere in Gcr?nany
a hundred thoufand Crowns to ferve for the defence of
the League, they would prefer his alliance to that of Fran-
cis. But finding they offered no advantage for himfelf,
he had no fuch zeal for the Augsburg Confeflion, (from
which he was yet very remote) as to engage in its pro-
tection without reaping any benefit. The truth is, the
Proteftants were perfuaded, he had no defire to be really
united with them, but intended only to encourage them,
for fear they fhould fubmit to the Emperor, as alfo to
hinder them from putting themfelves under the French
King's protection, with whom he had not yet Peace.
For the fame reafon it was, that under colour of con-
tinuing the Negotiation, he kept the Count Palatine at
his Court, till he faw the Peace with France was near a

It was now fome time fince the Pope and Emperor League h~
had formed the project of a League againft the Proteftants ''""'" '' M
of Germany. They had agreed upon all the Articles ; but £„l r ^" r
the Emperor had thought proper to defer the figning,
that he might fay he did it merely in his own defence.
At laft, about the middle of June, he fent the Cardinal
of Trent to Pome, where the League was figned the
26th of the fame month. The Pope promifed to find
for fix months twelve thoufand Foot, five hundred Horfe,
and two hundred thoufand Crowns, for the War in Ger-
many. Moreover, he gave the Emperor a moiety of one


gamjl the

(1) The Englifh Plenipotentiaries were. John Dudley Vifcount Ljle Baron Malpai and Sommerey, Sir William Paget the King's Secretary, and Dr. IVotun
D-an of Canterbury and York. RymeSs Feed. Tom. XV. p. 93.

(2) This Benevolence amounted to leventv thoufand {even hundred and twenty three Pounds. Strype't Mem. Tom. I. p. 390.

(3) Sir 'tlo:f;js Cheiny, Trealhrer of the Houihold, and Warden of the Cinque-Ports, flood, as King Henry 's Proxy. Hdlmgjh. p. 973.

(4-) The Engiifh Admiral, Join Lord Life, was accompanied by Cutbhtrt Bifnop of Durham, and feveral other Lords. The French Ambafiadcr landed
at Greenwich, /Jllgltfl 19. Hall, rol. 262.

(-0 The Mafs was to be changed into a Communion, and Cranmer was ordered to draw a Form of it. Ftx. Butnet, Tom- I. p. 340.
(o) Lord Herbert fays, Nephew.

year s

Book XV.




i; 4 6.

Tt : Ctrman

h .„.

of the Coun-
cil of 'Trent,
F. Paul.
Her b«t.

in Scotland.


Hit Predic
lion about

The Cardi-
nal it mur-


year's revenue of the benefice i in Spain, with power to
alienate a hundred thoufand Crowns-worth of Church-
Lands. This was a demonftration that it was a religious
War, though the Emperor affected to publifh the con-

The Emperor having notice that the Pope's Troops
were beginning to march ; that the Count de Bute had
forwarded his levies in the Low-Countries ; and Duke
Maurice of Saxony, whom he had ingaged in his I'.uty,
was ready to act when there mould be occafion, aflem-
bied his Army about Ratisbon, His defipn was to meet
the Pope's Troops, who were doffing Tirol, under the
conduct of Oflaviano Farnefr. At the fame time to hin-
der this junction, the elector of Saxony and the Land-
grave of Heffe marched the fame way, with an Army of
forty thoufand Men. Without entring into the particulars
of this firlt Campain , I fliall only lay in general , that
the Proteltants, though fuperior in number, could not hin-
der the junction of the Italian Troops, nor of thofe of
the Low-Countries , with the Emperor. The different
tempers of the elector of Saxony and the Landgrave of
Hcffc did nut a little contribute towards their taking wrong
meafures. In fliort, the Campain lafting till November,
without either of (he two Armies defiring to engage, the
elector of Saxony received the ill news, that the King of
the Romans and Duke Maurice were deftroying his Coun-
try with fire and fword. This obliging him to march
with part of the Army, to the relief of his Subjects ,
the Landgrave, grown too weak by this feparation, chofe
likewife to retire into his Dominions. Thus the Em-
peror meeting with no more oppofition, took Francfott,
Vim, and feveral other Towns belonging to the League,
which furniflied him with the Money he wanted for the
maintenance of his Army.

Whillt the War was carrying on in Germany, the
Council languifhed at Trent, and proceeded very flovvly.
Befides that the Members were very few, they were
wholly dependent on the Legates, who durft not them-
felves undertake any thing without orders from Rome.
But it was the Pope's intereit to prolong matters, becaufe
he hoped, time would procure him at laft fume occafion
to diiforve the Council, or remove it to Italy. Thus the
Council was but an empty name, made ufe of by the
Pope and Emperor for their own private views, and to
cafi a milt before the eyes of the publick.

Religion began alfo to caufe troubles in Scotland, or at
leaft to produce the feeds thereof, by the defpair to which
thofe that embraced the Reformation were driven. Since
Cardinal Beaton and the Earl of Arran had enjoyed the
Peace procured them by the King of France, they thought
only of being revenged on their enemies. Religion fur-
nifhed them with a pretence, becaufe the oppofite Fac-
tion almoft: wholly confided of the Reformed. In the
cowrie of this year 1546, they put to death feveral Per-
fons for Religion at Perth, St. Andrews, and other
places (1). The Regent fuffered himfelfto be fo led by
the Cardinal, that he gloried in delivering to the Flames
thofe whom he had formerly conhdered as his Brethren.
Among thofe who were facrificed to the furious paflion
of the Cardinal, a Minilter called Sephocard (2), who
fuffered Martyrdom at St. Andrews, was particularly re-
markable. This Man being condemned to the Fire,
the Regent at the inftance of one of his Friends would
have fared his Life, and to that end fent a note to the
Cardinal, defiling him to fufpend the execution. But
the barbarous Prelate, without regarding the Regent's re-
qtieft, not onlv caufed the Sentence to be executed, but
would alfo feed his eyes with the fad Spectacle, fitting
in ftate in a great Window of his Cattle. It is faid,
that, before he was delivered to the Flames, the Mini-
lter told the Executioner, " That within few days the
" Prelate who beheld him with fuch pride from yonder
" high place, fhould lie in the fame as ignominioufly as
" now he was feen proudly to relt himfclt. " This
prediction proved but too true for the Cardinal. Prefent-
ly after he was murdered in his own Palace, and hi> Bo-
dy thrown into the Street, out of the very Window
from whence he looked on, while Sephocard was burn-

As for England, Religion was ftili upon the fame foot, 1 5-46.
as the King had been pleafed to cftabliih it. The Re- 7t
formation had made fomc prozrefs ; but was far from £'*
being brought to perfection, and yet the Reformed could
not forbear hoping, the King himfclf would carrv ir
much farther. In this belief, they thought k prudent 'n-t
to provoke him, and that they effetftuilly confuted the
welfare of their Religion, bv remaining in fitence, and
waiting for better times. This is the true reafoii why
there were fewer Perfons that fuffered for Religion i:i
England than in France. Iti, not tn be queftione , I 1
"if there had not been hopes of a farther Reformat:
many People would have openly declared the opil
which thefe hopes induced them to conceal. Foi mi :,
the fame reafon, thofe who retained all the Tenets of the
old Religion, durft not directly oppofe the Kins;, for fear
their oppofition fhould carry him beyond the bounds he
feemed to have prefenbed to himfclf. From hence fprun?
a blind and univerfal compliance with the Kins'. Will,
and the exceflive Power he had acquired over all his Sub-
jects, of which he made a very ill ufe. He had been Henry <
troubled for foine time with an old fore in his Leg, whir;
was grown very painful. This, added to his monftrou C01
pulency, which rendered him almoft unable to ftir, mad
him fo (toward and untraceable, that none approached**^
him without trembling. He had been always ftera and //- • .
fevere, but was incomparably more fo towards the end of'""'-
his days, than in the beginning. Flattery had fo cor- H
rupted his Judgment and Senfe, that he deemed it an P
unpardonable Crime, to contradict his Opinions, though
he changed them himfeJF very frequently. I have ob-
ferved, that he treated with Admiral Anncbaut of abo-
lifhing the Maf.<, and changing it info a Communion,
after the manner of the Proteftants. And yet, (north/ Sh
after, Shaxton, who had religncd the Bifhoprick of Salt's- "'"^ d 'L
bury, and been long a Prifoner for refufing to conform ml'^Jemi
to the i\x Articles, being accufed afrefli of denying the ■"■•
real Prefence in the Sacrament (3), the King was pleafed '!'
to have him tried according to the rigour of the Law, bur-,.
and he was condemned to be burnt. But this Man, who
had endured the hardfhips of a long Imprifonmcnt, could
not belnld w,th the fame firmnefs the Punifhnv.-nt pre-
pared for him. The King hating fent the Bithups of Htatjmt
London and IVorceJler, to perf wade" him to recant, he was^?***"
prevailed upon, and abjuring his pretended Hcrefy, the Burnet.
King granted him his pardon. He became afterwards a Ti P-34 -
cruel Perfecutor of the Reformed.

This example was not capable of moving Ann Askew, ^™, Asktw
who was accufed of the fame Crime, and rigoroufly pro- »,','.'
fecuted, though fhe had good Friends at Court, where R.wt.
fhe was well known (4). She firmly perfifted, notwith- St '>P e-
ftanding all the Promifes to fave her Life, in cafe fhe
would recant (cj. Some Court Ladies, touched with
compaflion for her, having fent her fome Money, when
in prifon, for her fubliftence, were the occafion of her
being more cruelly tormented (6). Chancellor IVriothefley,
a great Enemy to the Earl of Hertford, hoping to draw
fomething out of the Prifoner againft that Lord or hi<
Counters, caufed her to be racked. Nay, 'tis faid, he Fox.
would be prefent himfelf, and obferving the Exccuiioner
was moved with pity to the Prifoner, threw eft' his
Gown, and taking upon him the honorable Office, drew
the Rack fo fevcrely, that he almoft tore her afunder.
Bit this is a fact that fcarce feems credible. However,
the Woman's Bones being put out of joint, fhe was car-
ried in a Chair to the place of Execution, and burnt,
with four Men condemned for the fame Crime (7*. But Hj]f.
to add to their Sufferings, they were made to hear a Stow "
Sermon preached by Shaxton their falfe Brother, who
upbraided them with obftmacy in very bitter and abulive
Terms. All this was not capable of fhaking their Con-
ftancy, which indured to their laft breath.

The Enemies of the Reformation feeing the King in- D .r , a .
ceivfed ag.nnft the Sacramentarians, thought it a favorable
opportunity to ruin the Queen and the Archbifhop of"" - t,t '

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