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" according to tne A:t of Parliament, was of no force". See this Letter in Burntt, Vol. I, p. 349 j and ColleT. p. 267.

II. The


i54 6 -

the H I S TO R Y of ENGLAND.

Vol. I.





Remark on
of the Sue-

II. The Children he might have by his prefent Queen,
or any other whom he fhould marry after her.

III. The Princefs Mary and her Iffue, provided file
married with the affent and confent of the Executors of
his laft Will and Teftament, or of the major part of thofe
who fhould then be alive, given under their Hands and
Seals. This confent of the Executors, was a condition
fo annexed to the Right he granted Mary to fucceed in
her turn, that without it, his intent was, fhe mould en-
tirely forfeit her Title to the Crown.

IV. The Princefs Elizabeth upon the fame condition
with Mary. - .

V. Frances Brandon eldeft Daughter of his Sifter Mary
and the Duke of Suffolk.

VI. Eleanor Brandon, Frances's younger Sifter.

If all thefe Perfons fhould happen to die without Heirs,
or their IfTue come to fail, it was the King's Will, that
the Crown fhould go to the next rightful Heirs. By that
he could mean only Mary the young Queen of Scotland,
Grand-daughter ot hi s eldeft Sifter Margaret, who ought
naturally to have preceded the Children of the King's
younger Sifter Mary.

Laftly, he added, that in cafe Mary performed not the
condition required of her, the Crown mould devolve to
Elizabeth, as if Mary had died without Heirs.

In like manner, if Elizabeth neglected to perform the
fame condition, his intent was, that the Crown fhould
go to Frances Brandon, as if Elizabeth had died without

He appointed for Executors of his laft Will thirteen
Lords, moft of whom were Privy Counfellors, as the
' Archbifhop of Canterbury, Chancellor IVriothefley, the Earl
of Hertford young Edward's Uncle, (Jc. Thefe thir-
teen ( 1 ) Executors were alio nominated for the Prince
his Succefior's Privy-Council, till he was eighteen years
of age. Moreover, he named certain Perfons who were
to be called to the Council upon extraordinary occa-

He on'ered his Executors to pay firff. all his debts,
and then to make good all his grants to feveral particu-
lar Pci ions.

He made the Prince his Son Heir to all his Goods,
Plate, Jewels, Money, Gannons, Ammunition, Ship.,
with all things belonging thereto, and charged him to be
guided by the advice of thofe who were appointed for
his Privy- Counfellors, till he had attained to eighteen
years of age.

He gave, till their Marriage, to his Daughters Alary
and Elizabeth a yearly penlion of three thoufand pounds
Sterling, and to each a portion of ten thoufand pounds
or more, if the Executors thought proper.

He left his Queen a Legacy of three thoufand Pounds,
either in jewels or Plate, as fhe pleafed, and a thoufand
pounds in ready Money befides her Dower.

Laftly, he gave five hundred Marks to each of his
Executors who were Lords, and to the others three hun-
dred each.

The moft extraordinary thing in this Will was, the
King's paffing over in lilence the pofterity of his eldeft
Sifter Margaret, or at leaft his placing them after the
Line of his youngeft Sifter Mary. Befides, the claufe

at 'Guild- Hall {2), before the Lord Chancellor, the Lord 154.7.
Mayor, and other Commiffioners, and put upon an Inqueft
of Commoners, becaufe he was not a Peer of the Realm,
the Duke his Father being alive. Several Witnefl'es were Herbert,
examined, whofe Depoiitions the Lord Herbert has in- ?• l6 3» ::6 4«
ferted in his Hiftory. But there appears nothing fuffici-
ent to convict him of High-Treafon, of which he was
accufed. What was chiefly urged againft him was his
giving St. Edward's Arms, from whence it was inferred,
he afpired to the Throne. However, the King being re-
folved he fhould die, he received fentence of death, and
was beheaded [on Tower-Hill] the 19th of Janua-
ry (l)

Mean while the Duke of Norfolk ufed all forts of means Tin Duke J
to obtain the King's pardon. He knew him well enough ^"'/°^ va , n
to be fenfible, that nothing but an entire fubmiffion wasurfumij
capable of appeafing him. To this end, he wrote him a P*r4<*.
very humble and fubmiffive Letter, declaring he could not D ",".[
call to mind he had ever offended him, and entreated him Burnet,
for God's fake to let him know the caufe of his d:f-
grace. He prayed likewife, that his accufers might be
brought face to face before his Majefty, or at leaft his
Council, that his caufe might be maturely examined. He
knew not, he faid, that he had offended any Man, other-
wife than in appearing very zealous againft the Sacramcnta-
rians. But therein he had only complied with his Majefty's
fentiments and orders. He concluded with conjuring him,
to be fatisfied with taking all or part of his Lands and
Goods as he pleafed, leaving him only a fubfiftance.

This Letter produced a quite contrary effect to what
the Duke expected. By clearing himfelf, he accufed the
King of injuftice, an offence which would not have been
eafily pardoned, though his deftrudtion had not been re-
folved. The Duke feeing the King unmoved, figned, Hubert,
the 1 2th of 'January, before the Lord Chancellor and fe- P- a6 v
veral other Privy- Counfellors, a Writing wherein he con- urnet '
feffed, " That on feveral occ.afions he had been guilty of
" High-Treafon, in concealing from the King that his
" Son the Earl of Surrey bore the Arms of St. Edward
" the ConfeJJbr, which did only belong to the King :
" That himfelf had born in the m ft quarter of his Arms,
" ever fince his Father's death, tl.e Arms of England,
" with a difference of the Labels of Silver, which were
" the proper Arms of the King's ela'eft Son, and of no
" other. That he owned this to be His, h-Treafon by the
" Laws of the Realm ; and that he figged this fubmif-
" fion without compulfion [ or advice, J a^d threw him-
" felt entirely upon the King's mercy. "

Very probably the Duke was induced of hiinfelf, or by He is at-
the advice of his friends, to make this confeffvn, in the""","'"'

..... i-i- 1 Parliaments

belief, he lhould never obtain his pardon, unlefs he con- Burnet,
feffed himfelf guilty, that the King might have room to
fhovv mercy. But it was all to no purpofe. H ; s ruin
was refolved, and the King was not wont to defift from
fuch refolutions when once they were taken. l\ lean
while, as it was eafy to fee that the Peers, who were', the
Duke's proper judges, could not condemn him upon' 1 lie
evidences which were to be produced againft him, the
King thought he fhould more eafily compafs his ends bv
an Aft of Attainder. So the Parliament meeting at this
time, a Bill of Attainder was brought into the Houfe of
Lords, and read three times, on the 18th, 19th, and 20th

n his Will, which faid that after the pofterity of Eleanor of January, and palled. In all likelihood the Duke's

Brandon, the Crown fhould go to the next Heir, muft
have been favorably explained for this firft branch, fince
thefe general words were liable to fundry interpretations.
This was the effect: of the power, the Parliament hs.d
given the King, to fettle the Succeflion, or rather to un-
fettle and put it in a horrible confufion, if Divine Pro-
vidence had not taken more care of it than he. It is not
poffible to devife any other reafon of his proceedings, than
his hatred of the Scots, and his fear that the Kingdom of
England would nne day fall under the Dominion of a
Prince or Prirfcel's of that Nation, which however all
his precautions could not hinder.

Whilft the King was ordering his Will to be tran-
Tte'Ea'r'l of fcribed, the Duke of Norfolk's and the Earl of Surrey's
Surrey is procefs was forming with great warmth. The King be-
ing refolved to difpatch thefe two Lords, nothing was
able to lave them. The Son was firft brought to his Trial







confeflion under his own hand, contributed very much to
the paffing of the Bill. At leaft it ferved for an excufe
to thofe who durft not oppofe it. The Bill being lent
down to the Commons, was read thrice, and fent up alfo
paffed on the 24th of January. According to the me-
thod, too frequently practifed in this Reign, it contained
only general accufations, without fpecifving any thine,
except the Duke's bearing the Arms of England, with
three Labels of Silver. It was very ftrange, that his Arms
lhould not have been taken notice of before, which he had
born fo long in the fight of the King himfelf, and the
whole Court, which he had received horn his Anceftors,
and for which he had the opinion of the Heralds. The Aft p ull _
Bill having paffed in both Houfes, the Lord Chancellor, XV. p. 118.
the Earl of Hertford, and fome other Lords were com-
miffioned under the Great-Seal to give the Royal af-
ent (4). After that, a Warrant was fent to the Lieute- a Warrant

for bis Exe~

(1) There are fixteen named in all, of «hrai there were only feven that were Lords or Bilhops ; ■viz. the ArchbihVp of Canterbury, Lord Chan-
cellor Wriotbejley, Earl of Hertford young Edward's Uncle, Lord St. 'John, Lord Rufjel, Vifcount Lijle, Eifhop Twftal. The reft were, Sir jlntbmy
Brown, Ml tdwerd Montague, Julticc Bromley, Sir Edward North, Sir William Paget, Sir Anitnny Denny, Sir William Harlard, Sir Edward
Wootlon, and Dr. ffootton his Lrvther.

(z\ January 13. Herbert, p. 264.

,3) thn.y Howard , eldeft Son ot 'Stomas third Duke of Norfolk, by Xlixabeib Daughter of Edward Stafford Duke of Buckingham) died much pitied,
being a Man of great Paits and high courage, with mmy other ncble Qualities. His Sentence was peneraliy condemned as an A& of h : eh Injufixe and
Severity, whica loaded the Seymours with a p< pular Odium that they coffld never overci me. ^ir Richard Scuthwel drpoling, that he knew certain thit.gs
ot the Ear!, which tcuched his Fidelity to the King; the Earl vchera=ntly affirmed himielr a ttue Man. ar.d (Hired to fight in his Shirt v,i,h his
Accul'er. As to his giving the Aims of the Conlefl'ur, he faid he did it according to the opinion of the Kirg's Huald-. His Sifter Mary, Duchels et
Richmond being e;aminea, confefled that the Earl her Brother fhould l»y, Iheje new Men (meaning the Seymours) lo-ocd r.o Nobility, and 1/ Cod
tailed away .' .-.;, they Jhould flr.art for it, with feme other pslhntate words and circumstantial Speeches, little lor bis advantage. He lies tuned
at Framlingham in 1 he County ot Svjjbii. Heibert, p. 163, &c. Boxr.ct, T. m. I. p. 345, &c, Di'Jalt's Baron. Voi. 11. p. i 7 j.

(4; Which ;hry did "jai.uary 27. journals Earl,

2 nant

Book XV.

20. HEN R Y. VI1L


i '547-

fie ef capes

retires to
Croydon du
ring tbi
Duke's pro-


Ibt King,
death up.


nant of the Toiuer, to cut off the Duke's head the 29th
of 'January. But happily for him the King died the
ni^ht before, and the Council did not think it ad\ ifeable to
begin the new Reign with the execution of one of the
greateft Lords of the Kingdom. It is to be obferved,
that during all the proceedings both of the Court and the
Parliament againft the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of
Surrey, the Archbifhop of Canterbury withdrew to Croy-
don, without ever appearing at Court. As thefe two Lords
were juftly deemed his moft mortal enemies, he would not
be accufed of being concerned in what was tranfalting a-
gainft them.

Whilft thefe Proceffes were forming, the King was feiz-
ed in his bed with an illnefs which brought him infenfi-
bly to his end. However, the confideration of the ac-
count he was going to render to God, was not capable of
moving him to ufe companion towards two Lords, of one
of the moft antient Families in England, who had done
him great Services, and hitherto were guilty of no crime
which deferved fo fevere a punifhment. On this occafion,
prevailed, as on many others, palTion and policy in the
King's mind, over juftice and mercy. He was bent, at
any rate, to facrificc thefe two Lords to his Son's fafety,
and to eftablifh, by their death, all the alterations he had
made in Religion, being perfwaded they would ufe their
utmoft endeavours to deftroy them. The fequel plainly
mowed, he was not miftaken with regard to the Duke of
Norfolk who furvived him. This Lord's Life, preferved

by a fort of Miracle, wa; a deinonllration, how vain are 1
humane precautions, when contrary to the decrees of

The King's illnefs continually increafed, and no Mm a b war*

dared to warn him of his appioaching end. Every one
was afraid that a Prince who was always approached "f
with trembling, would look upon this charitable warning*
as a crime, and punifh il according to an Act of Parlia°
merit, by which thofe who fliould dare to foretell the
King's death, were adjudged Traitors. But at laft Sir An-
thony Denny, one of his Privy- Counfellors, had the courage
and charity to warn him that he had but a few hours to
live. The Kim; thanked him, and exprefled his great "
grief and horror for all the Sins of his pair Life. Where- *'.'."
upon, Denny asked him if any Clergyman fhould be fent "»<■.
for, and he faid, if any, it fhould be the Archbifhop of
Canterbury. But Cranmer, being then at Croydon, could "'/"'•
not come till the King was fpeechlefs. He had but juft f ^.~" a 1]
time to defire him to give fome fign of his dying' in TaZ'-.'Jf.ai.
the Faith of Chrijl. The King fqueezed his hand, "' J '"-
and pretently after expired in the night between the 28th r^'*'""
and 20th of January 1546-7, in the fifty-fixth year of
his age, having reigned thii ty-feven years and nine months.
His death was kept private three days. Probably the ///. D,a:b
Council took time to confult whether the Duke of Nor- " '
folk fhould be executed. At laft, after three davs, the Burnet
Lord Chancellor fignified to both Houfes, that the King
was dead and the Parliament thereby diffolved (1).

(1) The Reader may fee Henry's Ch.ira&er drawn at length by the Lord Herbert. But as his Life and A&ions diffidently make him known I mall
only add what Bifhop Burnet fays of him at the End of his firii Volume of the Hiftory of the Reformation. King Henry Vlllth is la'her to be reckoned
among the Great than the Good Princes. He excrcifed fo much Severity on Men of both Pcrfwafions, that the Writers of both Sides have laid nn-n
his Faults, and taxed his Cruelty, But as neither of them were much obliged to him, fo none have taken fo much care to fit forth his go .d Qualities
as his Enemies have done to enlarge on his Vices. I do not deny that he is to be numbered among the ill Princes, yet I cannot rank him w*!h the

Worft. King Henry's Body lies buried at IVindfor, under a moll (lately Tomb, begun in Copper and gilt, but not tinilhed. The Reader may lec the

Model of what it was intended to be, in Speed, p. 784.

By Indentures of the lit. and 23d. of Henry VIII. a Pound weight of Gold of the Old Standard, was to be coined into twenty feven Pounds by Tale •
•viz. into twenty four Sovereigns, at 22 s. 6 d. a piece, or forty eight Rials at 1 1 1. 3 d. a piece, or feventy two Angels at 71. 6 d. a piece, or eight?
one George-Nobles at 6 1. S d. => pioeoj or one hundred and forty four half Angels at 3 r. 9 d. a piece, or one hundred and fixty two Forty penny-
pieces at 3 r. 4 d. a piece ; and a pound weight of Gold of the finenefs of twenty two Carats only, was to be coined into one hundred Crowns and a
half of the double Rofe, or two hundred and one half Crowns, making by Talc twenty five Pounds two Shillings and Six-pence ; and a pound weight of
Silver or the Old Sterling, was coined into one hundred and thirty five Groats, or two hundred and feventy half Groats, or five hundred and fortv
Sterlings, (or Pence,) or one thoul'and and eighty Halfpence, or two thoufand one hundred and fixty Farthing-,; I") that every pound weight of Sierline

Silver was coined into forty five Shillings by Tale. In the 34th. of this Reign, a pound weight of Gold of twenty three Carats fine and o

Carat Allay, was coined into twenty eight Pounds fixteen Shillings by Tale ; by which Indenture there were coined Sovereigns at 20 r. & piece H ](•
Sovereigns at 191. Angels at 81. and Quarter- Angelets at 2 1. a piece; and a pound weight of Silver of ten Ounces fine, and two Ounces Allay was
coined into fony eight Shillings by Tale, namely, into Teftoons (which were lid. a piece) Groats, Half-groats, Pence, Half-pence, and Farthings.

In the 36th. of Henry VIII. a pound weight of Gold of twenty two Carats fine, and two carats Allay, was coined into thirty Pounds bv Tale 1

■viz. into thirty Sovereigns at 201. a piece, or fixty Half-Sovereigns at 101. a piece, or one hundred and twenty Crowns at ; 1. a piece, or two hundred
and forty Half-Crowns : And the King had two Carats of fine Gold for Coinage, which yielded him fifty shilling'. Silver wis coined by the fame
Indenture, of fix Ounces fine and fix Ounces Allay, into forty eight Shillings by Tale. It was coined into Teftoons, Groats, Half-Groats Pence Half-
pence, and Farthings In the 37th. of this Reign, a pound weight of Gold of twenty Carats fine, and four Carats Allay, was coined into' th : rty

Pounds by Tale, as in the laft; and the King had four Carats which yielded him five Pounds two Shillings : And a pound weight of Silver of four
Ounces fine, and eight Ounces Allay was coined into forty eight Shillings by Tale, which raifed the pound weight of fine Gold to thirty fix Pounds •
and the pound weight of fine Silver to feven Pounds four Shillings*

The Gold Coins of Henry VIII. are Sovereigns, R,als, Half-Sovereign?, Angels, George-Nobles, half and quarter Antrels, forty-penny Pieces. Crowns,
and half-frowns : And the Silver-Coins, Teftoons, Groats, half Groats, Sterlings, H.lf-pcnce, Farthings ; to which may be added Crown-Pieces of
Silver, which were firft coined by this King- Henry's Sovereign has on one fide HENRIC. 8. D. G. AGL FRANCIE Z HIB. REX th- K'ng in
his Robis crowned upon his Throne, with the Scepter and Ball. Reverfe, the Arms of France and England Quarterly, fupaorted bv a Lion and a
Dragon, IHS. AVTE. TRANSIENS PER MED. ILLOR^ 1BAT. (Fig. 5. ) The Angel of this King is like hi, Father's ; .half Asgel ha,
this Inlcr.pt.on on the Reverie, CRVX. AVE. SPES. VNICA. The Crown and Half-Crown of Gold, have on one lid- a large Rofe and Crown be-
twixt H. I. crowned, HENRIC. VIII. RVTILANS. ROoA SIN. SPINA. Reverfe, the Arms of France and England quartered under a Crown ;
an* H. I. DEI. G. R. AGLIE Z. FRA. DNS. HIBERNIE. (Fig. 6.) As for the Silver-Coins, theie were two forts of Teftoons or Shil-
lings. That of fine Silver exhibits the Ktng halt faced, whereof one has CIVITAS EBORACI. The other Shilling, called the broad-faced Shilling,
of a baler Allay, has on one fide HENRIC. VIII. DI. GRA. AGL. FRA. Z. HIB. REX. Reverfe, POSVI, St. a Rofe crowned, with H. R.
likewife crowned. (Fig. 1.) The Groat has his Head with the fide Face, HENRIC. Vlll. DI. GR AGL. 7. FRANC. Reverfe, the Arms
POSVI, &C. (Fig. 3.) Another has HENRIC. VIII. DI. GRA. REX. ANGLIE. Reverfe FRANCIE. ET. HIBERNIE REX. a crowned Harp
between the Letters H. and R. crowned ( Fig. 7. ) Same coined by Cardinal mifif at York, have a Cardinal's Hat under the A-ms. His Pjnce and
Halfpence give him feated on a Throne, with (and fjmetimes without) the Globe and Scepter. H. D. G. ROo'A SINE SPIA. (Fig. 2.) The
Farthing has on one fide a Portcullicc (whereby it is diiUojuiihtd from Half-pence, which it vvas not before,) and a Crol'j anl Pallets on the
other. ( Fig. 4. )

No. 43- Vol. I.

10 F


The End e/ Vol. I.


DIRECTIONS concerning the Genealogical Tables.

HISTORY reprefents to us four things, which are eflential to it: i. The Events: 2. The Place where:
3. The Time when they happened : 4. The Perfons who were the Actors. If therefore, in order to under-
ftand a Hiftory perfectly, it is neceflary to have a Knowledge of the Country where the Scene of the Actions
lies, by means of Geography, and of the Times wherein they were tranfadted by Chronology ; it is no lefs requifite
to know the Perfons concerned, by the help of Genealogies, which very often difcover the motives and reafons of Things.
Nay, Genealogy has this great advantage above Geography and Chronology, that whereas thefe laft prefent to the
Mind fome particular Actions only ; the bare Names in a Genealogical Table, form, if I may fo fay, an Abftradt of
all the remarkable events in thofe Perfons lives.

Nothing is more eafy than to make Genealogies ; but it is very hard to draw them up in a clear and difiinclt man-
ner, and to obferve a fix'd and content method, which reprefents to the Eye and Mind what one looks after, without the
leaft trouble. This I have endeavoured to do, by means of the following Rules, which it will be proper to lay before
the Reader.

1. The Genealogical Tables are divided by horizontal Lines, marked, 1, 2, 3, 4, tgc. On the firft Line is
placed the Name of the common Stock, whofe Pofterity is fet down on the other Lines. Thus all that are placed on
the fame horizontal Line, ( or between the fame Figures ) are at an equal diftance, or in the fame Degree from the com-
mon Original. Hence may be feen by the caft of an Eye, the number of Generations from the common Root, and
the Degrees of Confanguinity between the Defcendants. For inftance, in the Table of Woden's Pofterity, Woden being
the common Stock of the Anglo-Saxon Kings, Hengiji, firft King of Kent, is placed on Line (6), by which is meant
that Hengiji is the fifth Defcendant from Woden. Afterwards, in the Genealogical Table of the Kings of Kent, Hengiji
is placed on a Line marked (6), by which means one may immediately fee how many degrees any one of Hengji's De-
fcendants were removed from Woden.

England ceafing to be under the Dominion of the Saxons by the Conqueft of the Normans, inftead of Woden, TVilliam
the Conqueror is made the common Root of the Englijh Kings down to the prefent Time. Accordingly, in the Ge-
nealogy of William the Conqueror, his name ftands upon the Line marked (1.) to denote his being the Stock from
whence all the others fpring. For inftance, Edward III, in this Table, being on Line (9.) in the Table of his own
Pofterity, he is placed at the fame Number, to fhew it is only a Continuation of the Genealogy of William the Con-

2. The Sons are always placed according to the Order of their Birth, from the left hand towards the right, by which
means the eldeft Branches are diftinguifhed from the younger, at one view. The fame Order is not obferved With re-
gard to the Daughters, who are placed in the void Spaces, fo as to prevent the Lines from running out to too great a
length. But however, the elder ftands always on the left hand of the younger Sifter.

3. The Children of the fame Prince are placed fo, that their Father ftands in the Line over them, juft in the mid-
dle, which faves a great deal of trouble and confufion.

4. As the only end of thefe Genealogical Tables is to facilitate the reading of this Hiftory, feveral Perfons who
died young, or unmarried, or without Iftue, and the like, are omitted.

5. One of the chief things which render Genealogies plain and ufeful, is to load them with as few words as poflible.
By which means the blank Spaces will remain the larger between the names, than which nothing contributes more
to make the Tables clear and diftindL This is the reafon the following Abbreviations are made ufe of, as, E. for Earl,
D. for Duke, K. for King, C4 for Queen, W. for Wife, d. for died. The Names written in Italian Character,

under thofe that are part of the Genealogy, denote the Husband or Wives. For inftance, 5 »■-„/,„/• y * C This

fignifies that Sledda married Ricula Princefs of Kent. When two or more Names are under another, with Numbers
before them, this means, 1ft. Wife, 2d. Wife, 3d. Wife, or Husband, &c.

6. Laftly, Each King has a Number annext, to denote the order of SucceiTkm, and in what rank each fucceeded
to the Crown. This is abfolutely neceflary in the Succeflion to the Throne of England, where the order of the
Branches was not always obferved.




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