M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Work of that nature.

The famous Dunjlan, fo often mentioned hereafter, was Birth of
born in the firft Year of this Reign. Dunftan.

Atheljlan having no Iffue, Edmund, the eldeft of the Edmund
legitimate Sons of Edward the Elder, was unanimoufly ■** Ki»£t
placed on the Throne.

Edmund I.

An!.-. ft" :n-
-.- ...\: Ni r-
S;,>-. Ann-

I :. . ■

I Walling-

gr at Pre-




A Jo, Itfil

8 ■>' fi -


THE L STAN left England in profound Tran-
quillity. The JVcljh paid their Tribute regu-
larly. Anlaff, after his Defeat, was retired into
Ireland, where he feemed to lay afide all
Thoughts of any further Projects ; and the Danes remained
in fubjection. But as foon as this Prince was laid in his
grave, thefe laft prepared for a Revolt. Edmund's Youth
made them hope, they fhould at length be able to accom-
plifh their long projected Defign of having a King of their
own Nation, and throwing oft* the Englijh Yoke. Anlaff
having perfect Intelligence how they ftood inclined, re-
folved to make ufe of this Juncture to recover the Crown
of Northumberland. But as he was fenfible this grand Un-
dertaking could not be executed without a foreign Aid,
lie found means to perfuade Glaus, King of Norway, to
efpoufe his Caufe, who prcmifed to affift him to the ut-
mofl of his power. With the Troops lent him by this
Prince, he once more entered Northumberland, and ap-
pearing before Ycrk, the Gates were opened to him, by
means of the good underftanding between him and the
principal Inhabitants. T lie Example of the Metropolis was
followed by moft of the other Towns, whofe Garrifons
were either expelled, or cut in pieces by the Citizens, who
were generally of Danifl) race. Anlaff, not content with
being matter of Northupiberjandj marched into Mcrcia (3),
where his Countrymen received him with open Arms, and
affifted him in recovering feveral places which Edward the
Elder had formerly taken from them.

Tho' Edmund was not above feventeen or eighteen Years
of age, the Piogrefs of the Enemy was fo far from daunt-
ing him, that it rather made him more eager to decide by
.1 battle, to whom a Country, fo often and fo long con-
tended for, ihould belong. As foon as he had drawn all
his Forces together, he refolutely marched towards the
North, though he well knew the Superiority of his Enemy.
On the other hand, Anlaff hearing Edmund was advan-
cing w ith long Marches to give him Battle, went to meet
him with the fame Refolution. The two Armies meet-
ing near Chcjter\^), came to an Engagement, wherein
\ i tory held the Balance fo even, that when Night came,
neither could boaft of the leaft Advantage. Both Sides
red to renew the Fight as foon as Day fhould appear.
But the Archbifhops of Canterbury and York (5), who were
in the two Armies, laboured fo earneftly to make Peace,
that a Treaty was begun thac very Evening, and con-

cluded by break of Day. This Peace was the niore eafily
made, as neither of the Parties could iniift upon any Ad-
vantage gained in that Day's Action, fince neither of them
could know either their own or the Enemy's Lofs. By this
Treaty, Edmund was obliged to deliver up to the Danes
all the Country lying North of the Roman High-way,
called Hatlingjfreet, which divided England into almoft
two equal parts, running from North Wales to the moft
fouthern parts of Kent, quite to the Sea. Edmund was not
at all pleafed with thefe Terms, but was in a manner
forced to accept them by the Nobles that were in his Army.
Thefe Lords, weighing the hopes of recovering what was
loft, with the Apprehenfion of being ftill greater Lofers,
judged it better to end the War on thefe Conditions, than
continue it with the Hazard of what might happen.
Doubtlefs the Remembrance of the Calamities England was
formerly expofed to, made them the more willing to come
to this Refolution. Accordingly, Anlaff was put in pof-
feftion of the Kingdom of Northumberland, whofe Bounds
by this Treaty were enlarged with feveral Counties which
his Father Sithric had never enjoyed.

The Northumbrian Danes had not reafon long to rejoice
at the Reftoration of Anlaff, which they had fo ardently
defired. This Prince having contracted a large Debt with
the King of Norway for the Troops he had lent him, was
willing to pay it. To this end, he laid heavy Taxes on
the People, by which he forfeited their Affection. The
Inhabitants of the ancient Kingdom of De'ira were the
firft that revolted, and having fent for Reginald, his Bro-
ther Godfriel's Son, crowned him King at York. Reginald
was no fooner on the Throne, but he made Preparations
for the War againft his Uncle, who was alfo preparing to
difpoffefs him. The Quarrel between thefe two Kings,
put Edmund upon marching towards the North, at the
head of an Army, as well V> improve the prefent Op-
portunity, if there was any Appearance of Succefs, astoap-
peafe the Troubles there, being apprehenfive they might
give occafion to the foreign Danes to return into England.
He arrived upon the Borders of Northumberland when the
Uncle and Nephew, wholly intent upon their private Quar-
rel, thought of nothing lefs than repulfing the Englijh.
Probably, he might with eafe have made himfelf mafter
of that Kingdom ; however, he was fatisfied with pro-
curing Peace between the two Kings, in fuch a manner that
Reginald was to keep the Crown he hjid lately received.

Edmund and
Anlaff di-
vide Eng-
land bctvswl


Diiijitmt in
N on hum?

marches tbi*
tbtr %

and fufyiSs
tbe tiva
Kings «■£*
are bapuzttt*

1 ' ) Hi 'hucefier t nnd was buried with a great many Trophies at Malmjlury,

(2) Mai 1 ... , .. . 1 King Atbelfttmh Chancer with this Sentence: His Life teas little in Time, hut great in ASitn, lib. 2.

(3) Where he beficged Northampton} from thence he went to lanrntortb, and ravag'd all the Country round abouk S. Duntlm, p, 134. Hewed. Chrcn. de
Mai '■■:■

4] Ancient C/ \er } caHed bj the Romans, Urbs Legioni:- Raf>in. It was fo nam'd from the twentieth Legion, who were encamp 'd here to keep the Ordz-victt
*n .we ; for thf frmc Reafon it was calTd by the Britwt or fVeljh 9 Cacr-}eQn } and by the faxont, Lcge«-eejier f fuppo§'4 ;o, be. §)>& about (ha; ijltnc R"J> ir *
Odi ..- : l ' /'/'a/I, *

7 But

Book IV.

10. EDRED.


The Wan

breaks cut

5>.,\. Ann

Jly out of

But at tlie Tame time, Edmund obliged them both to
fwear Allegiance to him, and be baptized, himfelf find-
ing Godfather.

This forced Peace lafted not long, Edmund was hardly
rcturn'd into Jl'eflix, when the two Danijh Princes took
up arms with one confent to free themfelvcs from his
Himiin. 1. 5-Yoke, having engaged the Mercian Danes and the King
of Cumberland to efpoufe their Quarrel. Whereupon,
Edmund immediately marched into Mercia, and before the
Danes there could be joined by the Northumbrians, took
from them Leicefter, Stafford, Derby, Nottingham, and
fome other places of lefs note. Then advancing with the
fame expedition towards Northumberland, he furprifed the
two Kings before they had drawn their Forces together.
1U tnao Tliis fudden Attack threw the Northumbrians into fuch
TXini/nA'iw.'diforder, that the two Kings fearing to fall into the hands
of Edmund, believed it their only Refuge to abandon the
Ifland, where they could not poffibly remain in fafety, fo
clofely were they purfued. Their Flight depriving the
Danes of all Hopes of withftanding Edmund they threw
down their Arms, and (wore Allegiance.
945. Before he returned to IVeffex, Edmund refolved to pu-

Idmmul riifh the King of Cumberland, who, without caufe, had
Sutherland flded with the Danes. He eaf'dy fubdued that little King-
an d gives //dom, whofe Forces bore no proportion to his. However,
ro tht Kmg j, e kept- i t not f or himfelf, but thought it more for his
^Ann? Advantage to prefent it to the King of Scotland, in order
i'ordun. 1. 4 to attach him to his Intereft, and prevent him from
► *4- aflifting the Northumbrians ( r ). However, he referved the

Sovereignty of it, and obliged that Prince to do him Ho-
mage, and appear at the King of England's Court, at the
time of the folemn Feftivals, if fummoned. This per-
haps is what gave occafion to fay, that from thencefor-
ward the Kings of Scotland were VafTals to the Kings of
England. They were certainly fo with regard to Cum-
berland ; but it does not follow from hence they did Ho-
mage for the Kingdom of Scotland.

Edmund's SuccefTes, his Valour and Abilities, rendered
him famous both at Home and Abroad. The King of
Denmark, tho' frequently follicited by the Danes in Eng-
land, did not think proper to affift them againft a Prince
of fo great Reputation, and from whom there was fo lit-
tle to be eot.

Edmund was not wholly empl ivcJ in military Affairs; T><Uwtej
there are fome of his Laws ftill in being, which demon- Edmund,
finite how delirous he was of his People's Welfare and Br< - m ! ,u "'-
Happihels. Having obferved, Pecuniary Punifhments
were not fuflicient to put a flop to Robberies, which
were generally committed by People who had nothing to
bfe, he ordered, that in Gangs of Robber,, the oldelt of
them fliould be condemned to the Gallows. This was
the firft Law in England that nude it Death to rob or

Probably this Prince would have render'd hi, People 94 «.
happy, had his Reign been longer ; but a fatal Accident T>- '
robbed him of his Life, when he began to enjoy the Fruits „„„/ E<i "
of In, Victories. One day, as he was (blemnizing a Fef- g. Malm.
tival (2) at Pdcklekirk in (Jlaucejlerfhireii), lie fpied Ledf, s - Dondini
a notorious Robber, who, though banifVd the KingJom ^'
for his Clinic, had the Impudence to come and fit at one
of the Table, in the Hall where the King was at Dinner.
Enraged at his Ihfdlence, he commanded him to be appre-
hended (4). But perceiving he was drawing his Dagger
to defend himfelf, the King leapt up in great fury, and
catching hold of him by the Hair, dragged him out of the
Hall. This imprudent Action coft him his Life. Whilft
he was wholly intent upon venting his furious PaiTion,
LAlf (tabbed him in the Bread with his Dagger, fo that
he immediately expired upon the Body of his Murderer.
This was the tragical End of King Edmund in 948, in
the twenty fifth Year of his Age, and the eighth of his
Reign (5). By Elgiva his Wife he had two Sons, Edivy Hr.mfitnl
and Edgar, who did not fucceed him by reafon of their Children.
Minority. Edred his Brother was placed on the Throne
by the unanimous Confent of the Clergy and Nobility (6).

During this Reign Dunjlan began to appear in the World. Dunrtan.
He was in great Favour with Edmund, who made him
Abbot of Glaffenbury.

About this time IVilliam Long-Sword, fecond Duke of Ttc Affaire
Normandy, was aflaflinated by Arnold Earl of Flanders,* /" N '*" r -"»*
in a little Ifland of the Somme over againft Pequigni. Ri- d>
chard I. his Son, a Minor, fucceeded him. As the Af-
fairs of Normandy will hereafter be often mixed with thole
of England, it is necellary to give an Account before-
hand of the Succeflion of the Dukes in that Dukidom.

10. EDRED.

War of

Sax. Ann.
Huntin 1.

Edred chaji
Km the
S. Dunelm

He fnnific
the Danes.
&ax. Ann.

TH E Northumbrian Danes bore the Englifl) Yoke
with extreme Impatience. Nothing but Force
Was fufEcient to keep them in Subjection. When-
ever they thought they had a favourable Op-
portunity to revolt, they feldom failed to embrace it.
Tho' during Edmund's Reign they had not been very fuc-
cefsful, yet upon news of his Death, they began to think
of means to recover their Liberty. They hoped his Suc-
ceflbr, whom as yet they knew not, would not have his
Bravery, or at leaft wanting his Experience, would not
have the fame advantage over them. The better to ex-
ecute their Defigns, they gained to their Side Malcolm
Kins; of Scotland, who looked upon all Obligations to be
cancelled by the Death of Edmund. This Prince, as well
qs the Danes, was perfuaded, Edred, by reafon of his
Youth, would be fo embaraffed at this unexpected Attack,
that it would not be poffible for him to make any Re-
fiilance. But theSu'ccefs was not anfwerable to their Ex-
pectations, Edred, not being inferior to his PredecelTbr,
either in Conduct: or Courage, was fo very expeditious,
that he was in the Heart of Northumberland^ before the
. Danes were ready to oppofe him. They were extremely
furprifed to find themfelves thus attacked, when as yet
they had hardly difcovered their Intention to revolt.
However, as Edred was in the midft of their Country,
they were forced to fubmit and fue for Peace upon what
Terms he pleafed (7).

After having challized the Danes, by fining fome, and
punifhing others of the principal Authors of the Revolt,
Edred advanced towards Scotland, to be revenged of the

ungrateful Malcolm. But Malcolm feeing the Northum-
brians fubdued, and himfelf deftitute of AiTiftance from
that Quarter, concluded a Peace with Edred, paying him
the Homage due to him.

This Expedition being ended, Edred returned into 949.
Weffex, imagining he had nothing more to fear from the Anlafl .' r*
North. But he was unacquainted with the Danes. He" / ' w, ""'
had fcarce begun to enjoy fome Repofe, when they revolt- N^rthom-
ed again and recalled Anlaff. Their Meafures were (bberludj
juff, and Anlaff' % Expedition fo ereat that he made him- Sax- Am |'
felf matter of the moft confiderable Places before Edred "^
could draw his Army together. Whilft he was preparing
to favc Northumberland, Anlaff continued his Conquelts and
put his Affairs in fuch condition, that his Enemy faw no
Poffibility of recovering that Kingdom out of his hands.
But the turbulent and tyrannical Temper of the new King/, j r: :„ c *
would not fufrer him to treat his Subjects more gently than*)' £u in-
former ly. In a little time fo ftrong a Party was formed ''■ f7i
againft him, that he was forced once more to retire to 952.
Ireland, and one Eric was placed on the Throne.

Mean while, part of the Northumbrians ftill adhering Edred /«4-
to Anlaff, Northumberland was divided into two Factions, <*■■>" Nm-
who endeavouring to deftroy one another, gave Edred an [ hu f lbCT v
Opportunity, he very well knew how to improve. He 43J« it »
marched his Army without lofs of time into the North, « Prmm.
whilft all was in confufion there, and before the Northum- Ann - S,x *
brians had taken any Meafures to refill him (S). At his
Approach, Eric fled into Scotland, leaving his People to the
Mercy of Edred, who threatned utterly to deftroy their 950.
Country. Though they had no room to expect a fecond S Dunelm.

(1) He had it, upon condition ofaiTifting F.dm-jnd in his Wars both by Sea and Land- Sax Ann. Ma'irsb. p. 53. Hur.tir.gd. p. 355.

(2) In Memory of St. Augujhn, who fir II preached the Golpel to the Argh-Saxcm. Malrrfb.

(3) Now Puchlc-Charcb, a fmall Village only, the Seat of the Detir.is's, whole Family have been eighteen times Sheriffs of that County. CamJ.

(4J Malmjb. and B'cmpton lay, that the reft of the Guells being drunk, he was the only one that fpied him, and flying upon him in a violent PaiTion,
wa, fhibb'd, p. 54. 8 58. But hlrvcd. Cbton. de Mailroz, &c. fay. that he received the Wound as he was endeavouring to refcue L&fi his Stiver out of Lej/f'i
Hands. Biompton relates, that, according to fome, Leolf efcaped during the Confufion and Hurry occaficn'd by this tragical 'Action, p. 838.

(5) He was buried at Glaffenbury, where Durftan was Abbot j and the Town where he was kill'd was bcituw'd upon the fame Monaltery to Gng MaOcs
for his Soul.

(6) And crown'd at Kingfttm, by Odo Archbifliop of Canterbury. S. Dunelm. p. 156. Hoted.

(7) Accordingly, Anno 947. IVu'.fian, Arciibimop of York, and all the Nortbumbrian Lords fwore fealty to h'm in a Town called Tedtndif. S. Dur.elm.
p. 156. This Submiffion of theirs was brought about by means of 'Tvrhtule, Chancellor to Ednd, who was lent to reduce the tWrtbumlrians to their Duty.
See Ingulpb. p. 30.

(S) And deftroyed all the Rebcis in a mercilefs manner. He warred the Country fo that it remained uncultivated for many Miles a long while after. la
riiis general Dcvaltation, Rippw Mwufttry was burnt, Mtlvfi. p. 155, Ineulpb, p. 41, S. Dundm. p. ij6.


I Of


Vol. 1.

TTe makes
Eric I'tvear


fie returns
into Nor-

The Danes

Patdon, after Co notorious an Abufe of the firft, yet as
they had no Refuge left, they caft themfelves upon
Edred's Mercy, and amufed him with the ftrongeft Pro-
teftations and moft fokmn Oaths. As this Prince was
naturally of a generous Difpofition, he was moved with
their fubmiffive Behaviour, and replaced Eric on the
Throne, fatisfied with impofing a Tribute, and making
him fwear Allegiance, when he had, as he thought, al-
layed thefe Commotions, and he returned towards Weffac,
marching in a carelefs manner, not miftrufting any Trea-
chery from a People that had juft received fuch fenfible
Marks of his Clemency. But the Danes, who had been
rather compelled by his Arms than gained by his Mild-
nefs, laid hold of the prefent Opportunity to attack him
/i 11 fui- with Advantage. They privately came together, and lay-
dah attack- ing an am bufh in his way, fuddenly fell upon his Rear,
VuL', and and put them in extreme Diforder. Had it not been for
«"•'"* ■ the Valour, Conduct, and Refolution of the King, his
Army had infallibly been cut in pieces ; and it was not
without great difficulty, that he efcaped the prefent Dan-
ger. Enraged at their Perfidioufnefs, he returned to Nor-
thumberland, with a refolution to punifh them without
mercy. His Return caufed an univerfal Conftemation.
They beheld him ready to take Vengeance on them for
their breach of Faith, without being able to make the leaft
Refiftance. Their Ruin was unavoidable, if they offered
to defend themfelves. In this extremity, Submiffion was
ihi uanes tne ; r only Refuge ( i ). But being very fenfible Edred
fuMt to Lis would nQt be impo |- ec j upon any more by general Protefta-

HunUn £ d. tions and Oaths, they humbly implored his Pardon upon
what Terms he fhould pleaie to enjoin them. And to
convince him further of their Sincerity, they folemnly
renounced their Allegiance to Eric, and put Amac, Son of
Anlaff to death ; charging them with being the principal
Authors of their Treachery (2). Edred was appeafed by
thefe Submiffions. However, to prevent the like Revolts,
he fecured all their Towns, and garrifoned them with Eng-
lijh. After that, having entirely diverted it of its Royal-
ty, he reduced Northumberland to a Province, and made
Earl Ofulf, an EngHJhman, the firft Governor. From
thenceforward the Northumbrians, kept in awe by ftrong
Garrifons and the Englijh Earls or Governors, gave Eng-
land no further Difturbance, till fuch time as the foreign
Danes once more became matters of Northumberland, as
we fhall fee hereafter.

After the Northumbrians were thus quelled, Edred lived
Thoughts i n profound Peace. Abfolute Lord of all England, and
n Btligiws dreaded by the Kings of Scotland and Wales his Neighbours,
h guided by he governed his Dominions in perfeft Tranquillity. This
ibeMuia of g rea t Calm was the Occafion of his turning his Thoughts
Dunftan. ent i re ly to religious Affairs, being guided by the Advice of
Dunjlan Abbot of Glajpnbury, who had great Influence over
him. The Abbot knew fo well how to improve his Credit
with the King, that he became mafter of his Confcience,
and confequently of all State- Matters. When once a Prince
fuffers his Confcience to be governed by his Ghojlly Father,
he will find it very difficult to with -hold from him the Ma-
nagement of his temporal Concerns, there being hardly any
one thing but what may be made to relate to Religion in
fome refpect or other. The Truft Edred placed in Dunjlan
jr,« Credit. was f great, that not content with being advis'd by him
in all things, and making him Treafurer, he fubmitted
fometimes even to received Dijcipline from his Hands. He
was perfuaded, this blind Submiffion to Dunjlan was the

berland is
made a Pn
S. Dunelm.
Ch. MaiI-

Idred turns


Malm lb.


Duncan 1 :

it) idvcei

readieft way to Heaven. To gratify this Favourite it was
that he undertook the rebuilding of Glajpnbury Church
and Monaftery, in a very fumptuous and magnificent
manner. He laid out immenfe Sums upon this Work,
without having the Satisfaction however to fee it fi-
nifhed (3).

The Monks made ufe alfo of Dunjlan their Protector's fi
Intereft, to get into the Ecclefwjlical Benefices, which they ;;
could never have done without him. Though Dttn/lan's nefca.
Proceedings in this affair raifed the Clamours of the Jecular
Clergy, he gave himfelf no trouble about them fo long as
he could obtain his Ends. However, his haughty manner
of acting procured him many Enemies, who in the follow-
ing Reign made him feel the Effcctsof their Hatred, which
they had taken care to conceal during Edred's Life. If
Dunjlan favoured the Monks, they were no left zealous
upon all Occafions to promote his Glory. They every They jw.
where proclaimed that Dunjlan was a great Saint, that <•/««"
Heaven daily wrought Miracles in his favour, and that he °",".y- "'
was frequently honoured with divine Revelations. In their
account, neither the Saints of the firft rank, nor the
Apojlles themfelves, were Partakers of fo many Graces as he.
Though all they (aid of this Prelate was aggravated to the
laft degree, it failed not however to make impreffion
on the Minds of the generality of the People, who were
more eafily confirmed in their Belief of what they were
told ; as they who knew better things, durft not contra-
dict the Monks, for fear of incurring the Difpleafure of
the King and his Favourite.

Had Edred lived any time, Dunjlan and the Monks gr^
would doubtlefs have carried all before them. But this Edred's
Prince died when the Monks were but juft beginning to D '" h -
creep into the Benefices. Thofe Hiftorians who have made
it their bufinefs to extol the Merits and Sanclity of Dun-
jlan, tell us, that Edred's Death was revealed to him by a
Voice from Heaven, as he was coming to fee him. They
add, his Horfe fell down dead under him, at the prodigious
Noife, the Voice made (4). But judicious Authors have
taken care not to fluff their Writings with Tales of this

Edred reigned but ten Years (5). Elf rid and Bed/rid, Eiwy tit
his two Sons, whom he left very young, did not fucceed NefbnvfMf.
him. His Nephew Edwy, Son of Edmund his elder Bro- cud> iim '
ther, was placed on the Throne after him. This Electi-
on, by the way, feems equally to favour thofe who are of
Opinion, that in the Saxon times the Succeffion to the
Crown depended entirely on the Suffrages of the Clergy and
Nobility, and thofe who maintain it belonged of right to
the next Heir. On one hand, we find Edred's Sons de-
prived by the great Men of the King their Father's Inhe-
ritance, and at the fame time, the Crown given to the
Son of the elder Brother, in prejudice of thofe of the

We find in one of Edred's Charters, that he took the rnguipb.
Title of Monarch of Albion ; and in another, that he Durdale's
ftiled himfelf King of Great-Britain (6), in which he was yX'l'
followed by Edgar his Nephew. If thefe Charters were
not forged, it may be inferred from thence, that Edred
fubdued Scotland. But this is no proper place to examine
this matter, which has caufed fuch warm Difputes be-
tween the Englijh and Scots. However this be, the Title
Edred and Edgar affected to ufe, was neglected by their
Succeffors, till the time of James I, about the end of the
fixteenth Century.

11. EDWY.


IliW v.




D IVY (7) came to the Crown at fourteen Years
of age, with very different Notions of Dunjlan
from thofe of his Predeceffor. Whether he was
prepoffeiTed by the Enemies of that Minifter, or
had fome particular caufe of Complaint againft him, he
was no fooner on the Throne, but he ordered him to give
an account of the Sums the late King had entrufted him
with. Dunjlan replied, the Money that had palled thro'
his Hands, having been laid out in pious Ufes, he was not
accountable for an adminiftration folely relating to Reli-

gion. As he urged the building of Glajfenbury, which the

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