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Chief of the Druids was a fort of Pontiff or High-Priejl, Principles and Religion of the Druids, which flourifh'd a

who had Authority over all the reft. This Dignity was long while in Great-Britain as well as in Gaul. It fpread

Elective : and fometimes when the Candidates were of as far as Italy, as appears by Augiijlus's Injunction to the

equal Merit, fuch Heats and Broils have ragedamong

5Je Bards.
Casfi Com.
1. ix.

Religion of
ike Gauls

them, that they have fallen to Blows before the Election
was over.

The Bards, among both Britons and Gauh, were Priefts
of an inferior Order to the Druids. Their Bufinefs was to
celebrate the Praifes of their Heroes in Verfes and Songs,
which they compos'd and fung to their Harps ( i ). They
continued in being a long time. There were fome even
after the Romans had entirely abandon 'd the Bland.

A third fort of Priefts, as well in Britain as Gaul, were
TfcEuiatcs. tne Eubatcs (z), who applied themfelves chiefly to the Study
' of Philofophy, and the Contemplation of the wonderful
Works of Nature, as Marcellinus informs us.

In fhort, as the Britons and Gauls had properly but one
and the fame Religion, 'tis very probable one of thefe Na-
tions received it from the other. Cecfar was of Opinion,
that the Gauls had it from Britain, becaufe, as he obferves,
thofe that were defirous to have a thorough Knowledge of
this Religion, went thither to ftudy it. But this Argu-
ment at moft ferves only to prove, that their religious
Myfteries were celebrated with greater Exactnefs in Bri-
tain, it may be by reafon of the Revolutions that happened
in Gaul, by the Wars railed there by the Romans. Bucha-
nan, not fo pofitive as Cecfar, fays, it can't certainly be
known which of the two Nations received it from the
other. 'Tis very likely however, the Gauls when they
peopled Britain, brought their Religion with them. Be
that as it will, iince the Britijh and Gaulifli Druids had the
fame Notions, and there is nothing certain concerning the
Firft, we can form no Idea of their Religion, but by that
of the Gauls, which is a little better known to us. This
Knowledge however is of no great Extent , the Druids
having left nothing in Writing, it being their Cuftom to
teach their Difciplcs every thing by heart. A Burgnndian
Author has been at the Pains to collect fome of the Drui-
dical Maxims or Rules, of which the moft remarkable are
thefe :

None muft be hiftrueled but in the Sacred Groves.

Mijletoe muji be gather'd with reverence, and if poffible in
the Sixth Moon. It rnujl be cut with a Golden Bill.

Every thing derives its Origin from Heaven.

The Arcana of the Sciences muft not be committed to Wri-
ting, but to the Memory.

Great Care is to be taken of the Education of Children.

The Powder of Mijletoe makes Women fruitful.

The Dijobedient are to bejhut out from the Sacrifices. .

Souls are immortal.

The Soul after Death goes into other Bodies.

If the World is deftroy'd, it will be by Fire, or Water.

Upon extraordinary Emergencies, a Man muft be Jacrificed.

According as the Body falls, or moves after it is fallen ;
according as the Blood flows, or the Wound opens, future
Events arej'oretold.

Prifoners of War are to be flain upon the Altars, or burnt
alive inclos'd in Wicker, in honour of the Gods.

All Commerce with Strangers muji be prohibited.

Mem. tic


Maxim* of
lit Druids.

Romans not to celebrate its Myfteries. There were Wo-
men, as well as Men, Druids. It was a female Druid of
Tungria ( ?), that according to / epi/ens foretold to Dioclfian
(when a private Soldier in Gallia) that he would be Empe-
ror of Rome (4).

If the Religion of the Britons may be learnt by That afTbeGoma*

the Gauls, an Idea of their Government may likewife be Z"

,- 11/- a 1 i x- • <- ,. , . ronton..

formed the lame way. As both ivations were of Celtic
Extraction, they had, very probably, the fame Form of
Government. In order therefore to know the Nature of
the Britijh Government, recourfe may be had to what was
in ufe among the Gauls. From the Time of the founding
of Rome, the Gauls were divided into feveral petty States,
with a Head or King over each. Some of thefe being
more powerful than die reft, kept their Neighbours in a
fort of Dependance, and one of them, upon great and im-
minent Dangers, was by common Content chofen chief
Commander, whofe Power was limited, as well as the
Time of his Adminiftration. During his Office, he was
confidev'd as a Sovereign Magiftrate, having Power to put
the Laws in Execution, and a£t as Captain-General of
all their Forces. Livy (according to the Cuftom of the
Romans) calls this Magiftrate, Ling. But a modern Au- S. Julian
thor, who believed he underftood better the Nature of that ° n E- "f '**
Dignity, affirms the Title of King not to be at all pro- urEun '
per for the Perfon invefted with it, and therefore calls him
only Paramount, or one fuperior to the reft. However this Pomp. Mei.
be, the Britons may be fuppofed to have had much the lL '
fame Form of Government, fince we find the whole
Country between the Tine and the Channel was divided
into feventeen petty States, with each its Head, dignified
by Authors with the Name of Ling. When 'Julius Cafar
invaded Britain, the Command of their Army was confer-
red by the Britons on Cajfibelanus King or Chief of the
Trinobantes ; and in the Time ol Claudius, Caraflacus King
of the Silures was chofen General. In the Map a:ii;cx'<J,
the Names and Situation of thefe States are laid down.
Thefe Nations without doubt, depending on each other no
farther than Neceffity compeli'd them, had frequent Quar-
rels and Contefts. But we have no certain Knowledge of
their Affairs; and therefore the Beginning of their Hi-
ftory can be dated no farther back than Cafar's Invafion.
From thence to the Time of their being freed from the
Dominion of the conquering Remans, the Thread may in
fome meafure be carried on, though feveral large Gaps oc-
cur, which 'tis not poffible to fill up, by reafon of the
Fewnefs of the Authors that have treated of this Subject.
But before I begin, it will be neceffary to premile a brief
Account of the Pitls and Scots, Inhabitants of North-

If the Britons afpire to a very antient Original, by call-
ing themfelves Defcendants of Brutus, Grcat-Grandfon of
/Eneas, the Scots ever jealous of the Glory of their Neigh-
bours, refolve not to yield to them even in this imaginary
Honour: Nay, they go beyond them, and lay Cairn to a.
much greater, but withal a no lels fabulous Antiquity.
Their Hiftorics are full of their Nation being founded by

He that comes lajl to the Ajfembly of the States, ought to be Gathelus Son of Cecrops, King pf Aliens ; or, as fome

punijhed with Death.

Children are to be brought up apart from their Parents, 'till
they are fourteen Years of Age.

Money lent in this World will be repaid in the next.

There is another World, and They who kill themfelves to ac-
company their Friends thither, will live with them there.

Letters given to

jointly with
This Fable

fay, Son of Argus, fourth King of A)
Scota Daughter of Pharaoh King ot tg\pt.
is dreffed up in the following Manner :

Gathelus being forced to quit his native Country, to a- T, t <
void the Perfecution of his Enemies, puts to Sea in cem- '
pany with fome Friends who would not forfake him.
dying Pnfons, or thrown on the funeral feveral Adventures too long to relate, he comes into Egypt thins. B
Piles of the Dead, will faithfully be deliver d in the other and ferves under Mofes in Pharaoh's War with the Ethio- l! ""- : "
World. plans. At length, upon Mofes leaving Egypt, Gathelus


H • .Boc-

(1) Vos quoque qui fortes nnirm6 belloque peremptas
Laudibus in longum, rate?, dirTunditis ivum,
Plurima fecuri fudiftis carmina, Bardi. Luean.

(i) 'OiMwai, Strata. In rVcIJb or Britijh, Offityr or Ojfyddion.

(3) The prefent Bithoprick of Liege.

(4.) Rowlands in h:s Mona Antiaua imagines the Second Sight

Men. A-liq. p. 65

You too, you Bardi / ivtom fttcrrd Rct/turct fi<-c y
To daunt your Hems on your Country's Lyre,
JVho aujecrate, in your inasortat Strain,
Brave Patriot-Souls in Righteous Baltic fain.

(which he kerns to believe) call'd taijh in Scotland, to be a Relick of Druidifm, i

builds hi; Conjecture upon this noted Story related by Vtfijcus, who lays, Dieclcjian, when a private Soldier in GW/iu, on his removing thence, reckoning
with his Hoftcfs, a Druid Woman, flic told him he was too penurious, but that he needed not to be (paring of his Money, lor ah, 1 he llnu'd kill a fl, ar,
(he affur'd him (looking ttedfaftly in his Face) he wou'd be Emperor of Rome. Thefe Words made great ImprelTion upon him, and he was iftel « irdS much
delighted in hunting and killing Boars, often faying when he faw many made Emperors, and his own Fortune not much minding, IkilitbeB ■ ■

that cat the Flejh. However, many years after, one Arrius Afer, Father-in-law of the Emperor Nvsntlianus, gralp'ng tor the Empire, tr u.h rouflj
flew him, for which Fail being brought by the Soldiers before Dioelcfian (then become a prime Commander in the Army) he ask J his nam , and
boing told he was call'd Afer.[i. e. Euar) without further Paufc flieath'd his Sword in hit Bowels, fayinf, E: bu/it .(/,.-..,. turn egtcris, which d^ne
I.,.. Soldiers falutcd him Emperor.




A probable
Account of
tbe Origin
tbe Scots.

Arrival of
tbe Pitts
in Britain.
Bedc, 1. i.
c I.


Pitts and

Scots unite.


having fignahVd himfclf by many brave Actions, fucceeds
him in tbe Command oi Pharaoh'* Army, who gives him
his Daughter Scota in marriage. Thirty-nine Years after,
Gathelus, terrified by an Oracle foretelling the Deflrudtion
of sEgyfcty fails from thence with a great Number of Greeks
and /Egyptians who adhere to his Fortune. He makes feve-
ral Attempts to fettle in Africa, but not fucceeding, roves
about uncertain of his Fate, and at laft lands at a Port on
the weftern Coaft of Spain, calling die Place Partus Ga-
theli, from whence came the Name of Portugal. [Here
the Author of this Fails forgot that Gadielus^o/f Greek and
not Latin.] After fome flay, Gathelus leaving a Colony
here, fteers his Courfe farther Northward, and fettles in a
Country, from his own Name call'd Gathelicia, or Galicia.
Some time after, his Son Hiberus embarking widi fome of
his Father's Followers, fails towards the North, and leads
a Colony to an Ifland by him nam'd Hibemia, and after-
wards Ireland. As this Ifland was not then very populous,
the Natives gladly receive the New-comers, and mixing
with them, foon became one Nation under the general
Name of Scots, from Scota Mother of Hibcrus.

It would be loft time to refute a Fable that brings its own
Confutation along with it. Neither fhould I have mention'd
it, had not Buchanan inferted it in his Hiitory of Scotland,
and fhewn the Abfurdities of it to remove the Prejudices of
Thofe of his Countrymen who flood up in its defence.
This may be call'd the fabulous Origin of the Scots. The
Account given for Truth by the Writers that are lefs pre-
poilcfs'd in favour of the Antiquity of their Nation, is as
follows :

The Ifland of hen, called by the Romans Hibernia, and
by the Englijh and Scots, Iren-landt or Ireland, had been
«/long poflefs'd by the Scots from Scythia in Europe, when a
Colony of Spaniards came with a defign to fettle there,
much about the time that the Carthaginians became Mi-
lters of Spain. The Number of thefe Foreigners not being
very confiderable, the Natives, far from being alarmed,
willingly admitted them, and affigned them Lands to culti-
vate. Buchanan fuppofes thefe Spaniards to be defcended
from a Colony of the Celtiberians that were fettled in
Spain. The good Reception thefe met with in Ireland,
drew others thither: infomuch that in the end the Ifland
grew very populous, and the two Nations mixing together
became one People under the Name of Scots. In procefs
of time, the Land being over-ftockt, abundance of Fami-
lies threw themfelves into the Ebudes or Hebrides, Ifland?
fituated North of Ireland, which being fmall, were like-
wife in time as well peopled as Ireland itfelf. The Scyths
or Scots are laid to land in Ireland not long after the Flood,
and the Spaniards to arrive there in the Year of the
World 3 3 So.

The Hebrides being thus peopled by the Scots, certain
ftrange Ships came and ofter'd to land. Thefe Ships were
fill'd with Pitts, a German Nation inhabiting the Coun-
tries now called Mecklenburg and Pomcrania. They were
roving about according to the Cultom of the northern
Nations, in quell of new Habitations, their Country being
too populous to find them a Subfiftence (i). They de-
manded of the Scots fome part of their Ifles to fettle in.
The Scots replied, the Soil was fo barren, that it was inca-
pable of fupplying them all with Neceffaries. But withal in-
i'orm'd them, that a large Ifland call'd Albion lay not far
diilant, where the northern Parts being thinly inhabited,
they would infallibly find room enough, offering them
alliitance in cafe of Oppofition. The Pitts fatisfied with
this Difcovery, fteer'd directly to Albion, and finding but
kw Inhabitants where they landed, fettled without much
trouble in the northern Parts.

The Scots, having been long defirous to extend their Ha-
bitations into Albion, where they hoped to find greater
Plenty than in their Iflands, laid hold -of this Opportunity
to fhare in the new Settlement (7). The Pitts were not
difpleafed to fee fuch Numbers flock over, for befides the
Need they flood in of their Afliftance againft the Attacks
of the Natives of Albion, they could not poffibly have fub-
filted long in that Country, if the Scots had not fupplied
them with Wives to perpetuate their Colony. But this
was done upon condition the Heirs of the Women fhould
have the Preference before thofe of the Men in the Succef-
fion to the Kingdom they were going to eftablifh. This
Law, Berle fays, was in force in his time. The two Na-
tions, being thus united together in one common Intereft,
compell'd by degrees the anticnt Inhabitants of Albion to
retire to the Southward, and leave them in poffeflion of all
the Country lying North of the Tine. At length, their
Numbers being mightily increas'd, they agreed to feparate ;
whether the Difference of their Laws and Cuftoms occa-

fioned frequent Quarrels, or for fome other unknown
Reafons. The Scots chofe the JVcJlcrn Part, as neareft
Ireland, with the Hebrides, and the Pitts took the Eaflern
as oppofite to Germany (3). After the Separation, the two
Nations began to be diftinguifhed from one another, and
govern'd each by their own Laws. The Scots that inhabi- Difthtlim
ted Albion began to be diftinguifhed from Thofe that re- i " ma '''
mained in Ireland and the adjacent Ifles. The Former Great W
were called Albins, and the Latter, Irijh. Hence comes '-'"'= Scot-
likewife the Diftinclion between Great Scotland or Ireland, 1 ( V }i \ D ,
and Little Scotland or North Britain. The Albin Scots if Scot,
llrcngthned by continual Supplies from their Brethren the
Irijh, increas'd to fuch a degree, that in the end growing
much more powerful than the Picls, they utterly deftroy'd
them. But this happened not 'till many Ages after their

It is difficult for Amity and a good Underftanding toConteftbc
remain long between two bordering Nations. Jealoufy and ,,il " r - < kt
oppofite Interefts furnifh them with too frequent Occafions p C0 !'
of Quarrel. The Pitts and Scots were no fooner parted,
but they began to fall at variance about fome trifling Af-
fair. The Cornell being inflam'd, they were upon the
point of coming to an open rupture by the Inftigations of
the antient Inhabitants, who fomented the Divifion to the
utmoft of their Power. Thefe laft,. whom I fhall for the
future call Britons, though I know not when that Name
was firll given them, began to repent of fuffering theie
Foreigners to fettle in the Ifland. Wherefore, at this fo
feemingly favourable an Opportunity, they thought it their
Intereft to kindle a War which could not fail to be fatal to
both Pa: ties, and might even prove equally destructive of
Both. As the Britons were in moll danger from the Scots "&" Pifls
by reafon of their Neighbourhood to Ireland, they offer'd "**'_, "f^'f
their Afliftance to the Pills to drive the Scots out of the tic Britons.
Country, in expectation afterwards to find an opportunity
to do the fame by thofe they were now fo defirous to fide
with. The Scots being inform'd of this Alliance, turn'd^"'/'"^
their Thoughts to Ireland, and applied for Aid to King to aid tin
Ferchard, who fent over his Son Fergus. This young Scuts,
Prince finding the Albin-Scots in a fort of Anarchy, with-
out a Chief or Head but what they chofe upon extraordi-
nary Occafions, and reprefenting to them the Inconvenicn-
cies attending fuch a State, they refolved to invert him
with Sovereign Authority. Fergus therefore was the firll .
King of Scotland properly {o call'd, for Great Scotland or Gotland
Ire/and not only had been govern'd by Kings many Ages Buchan.
before; but if the Irijli are to be credited, was the mofl
antient Monarchy in the World. Fergus is faid to arrive Buchan
in Scotland in tbe Year of the World 3627, about the
Time Alexander the Great made his Entrance into Babylon.
But this Pretenfion is fo ftrongly contefted, it mull not be
too eafily admitted.

Fergus, as foon as he was feated in his Throne, made Fergus jm'ta
great Preparations for the War againft the Pitts, with- with ti. e
out neglecting however the Means to avoid it. He reprc- l '" Lt , ?£""&
fented to them by his Amballadors that the Contefl be-
tween the two Nations being of little moment, might
eafily be decided without coming to Blows, would both
fides but agree to hearken to reafon : That it was to be
feated their weakening one another, would afford their
Neighbours and common Enemies the Britons an oppor-
tunity to deflroy both Nations, which it was eafy to per-
ceive was their Intention. This Remonftrance made fuch
Impreffion on the Pitts, that fuddenly altering tiieir firft
Defign, they entered into a ftridt Alliance with the Scots
againft the Britons. Fergus thus ftrengthen'd by the Af-
fdtance of the Pitts, march'd againft the Britons, and gave
them Battle, in which their King Coilus was (lain. After
this Defeat, the Britons finding themfelves too weak to
refill the two northern Nations, fue for Peace. Fergus
fhortly after, returning to Ireland, was call away and
drowned near the Place where Carick-Feigus now Hands


This is the Account of the Scotijh Hiftonans concen.ing
the Settlement of the two Nations that inhabited North-
Britain. From the Arrival of Fergus to the Roman Inva-
fion, they pretend things remained in much the fame State
without any confiderable Alteration in the Ifland, or of the
Inhabitants. From the Channel to the Tine, the Country
was poffeffed by the Britons, and divided into feventeen
petty States or Kingdoms. From the Tine to the utmoft
Bounds of the North, the Pitts (5) inhabited the Eajlcrn,
over againft Germany, and the Scots the Weftern Parts, op-
pofite to Ireland, from which they were parted by a very
narrow Channel. The Scots count fifteen Kings from
Fergus to Ederus, who reigned in Scotland when Cccfar
invaded Britain.

(1) In St. Kilda the molt weftern Me of the Hebrides, the Inhabitants now live upon Eggs, which the wild Geefe come and lay conftantly at a certain Sea-
fin. Martin's Voyage to St. Kilda, printed at London 169^. Rapin.

•r) This is ftrongly conuftcd, for it is pretended by many that the Scots did not fettle in the northern Parts of Britain 'till the beginning of the Sixth Cen-
tury. Buchanan's Account is followed her;. Rapin.

(3) They were parted by Crantsba'm Hills, called by Tacitus in the Life of Agricola, c. 25. M.ns Grampiu:.

(4) This was thj firft Place befleged by Duke Scbombcrg at his Arrival in Ireland in 16S9. Rapin.

U) The name of f/tfj is firft mcution'd by Eumemus in hi* Panegygrkk to Mtfimian. about the Year 2S6. Tyrrel, p. 92,





Diffun Though one ftiou!d think the Scots heft knew the Origin

" . ,roi their own Monarchy, yet this Antiquity of Theirs is
ts iii greatly contefted by feveral famous and learned Englijh Wri-
" ters. Inftcad of admitting what the Scots advance, they
pretend to demonftrate that the Nation was not fettled in
Great-Britain 'till the beginning of the Sixth Century. This
Difpute appear, at firft fight to be of little Confequence, the
Scots being able to plead too long a Prefcription to appre-
hend their Right of Poflefhon may be called in quettion.
On the other hand, it does not feem to be of much Bene-
fit to the Englijl) to conteft with them the Honour of this
Antiquity, fuppofing it to be imaginary. Notwithftand-
i n'_ r , as Religion was concerned in the Cafe, the Difpute
A\3i carried on with great Warmth. The Presbyterians
among their Objections againft Epifcopaey advance, that
the Church of Scotland was governed by Presbyters only,
call'd Culdces (i), before there were any Bifhops in the
Country ; whence they would infer that Epifcopaey is not
of divine Injlitution. The Englijl) Bifhops anfwered this
Objection by denying the Fact, affirming, the Church of
Scotland was fo far from being govern'd by Presbyters, that
it was not yet in being, the Scots not fettling in the Ifland
before the Year of our Lord 503. According to the Eng-
lijh then, eight hundred Years of the Time the Scots af-
cribe to their Settlement in Great-Britain muft be taken
away. This Difference is fo confiderable, that one can
hardly think the Scots mould be fo much miftaken. Is it
poffible, the forty Kings that are pretended to fit on the
Throne of Scotland, from Fergus I. to Coran, who reigned
in the Year of Chrijl 501, were imaginary Kings only?
On the other fide, it is no lefs difficult to believe that their
learned Adverfaries would lay fo great an Error to their
Charge, were they not perfwaded they had good Proofs to
fupport their Opinion. As the Generality of my Readers
are but little concerned in this Difpute, it is not, I fuppoie,
expected that I fhould fully relate the Arguments urged on
both Sides, they being the Subject of many Volumes. I
fhall content my felf therefore with briefly fhowing how
this Difpute was managed.

Had the Scots been obliged to prove directly their Settle-
ment in Great-Britain from the Time of Alexander the
Great, I am afraid their Arguments would not have been
altogether fatisfaclory to unprejudie'd Judges. But they
wifely gave the Difpute another Turn. When a Nation,
fay they, afcribes any thing to itfelf in an hiftorical Way,
it ought not to be denied without fufficient Evidence to the
contrary. By this means they put their Adverfaries upon
proving a Negative, which every one knows to be a very
difficult Task. However, this is what they have under-
taken to do. Their main Argument is drawn from no
Writers mentioning the Scots as Inhabitants of Great-Bri-
tain 'till the Sixth Century. They alledge on the contrary
feveral Pafiages from Latin Authors, wherein you have a
Lift of the Nations that inhabited the northern Parts of the
Ifland, without the leaft mention of the Scots. But the
Scots maintain that this negative Proof deftroys not their
Pretenfions, for their Nation not being fubdued by the Ro-
mans 'till the Reign of Severus, and remaining but a very
fhort Space under their Dominion, it is no wonder they
knew fo little of it, and confequently gave fo imperfect an
Account. They add moreover, tho' the Deucaledonians,
Mcatec, Attacotii, are mention'd by Tacitus and other Hi-
ftorians, as inhabiting the northern Parts of Great-Britain,
it does not follow that thefe Nations were not Pitts or Scots,
juft as the Iceni, Trinobantes, Silures, were truly Britons,
though diftinguifti'd by particular Names. Among the

Adverfaries of the Scots in this Difpute, the moff confidera-
ble are Ujher, Lloyd, Stillingfleet, Authors of great Note.
In their Defence the principal Writers are Hettor Boetbius,
Buchanan, Mackenzie, all Three very eminent in Scotland.

If the Picls were ftill in being, they would have the Like I
like Charge to maintain. For the fame Englijh Authors'," '"£"■'
affirm, the Pitts were no other than Britons, who to avoid ' :
the Tyranny of the Remans, retir'd into the northern Part-,
of the Ifland ; where continuing to paint their Bodies With

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