M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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that is, South of the Thames, the Englijh were theVmolf
numerous, having admitted among them fuch of their
countrymen, who, to avoid living under the dominion of
the Danes, had quitted the northern parts. By this means
IPeJfex was exceeding populous, and become more power-
ful than ever, being capable of bringing into the field as
great armies as the reft of England. After this manner
the kingdom of Judah in old time grew ltrong at the ex-
pence of that of Ifrael. The forces therefore of the 11 'ejl-
Saxons and Mercians being equal, it is no wonder they
were jealous of one another, and every one defired to
have for Sovereign, him of the two Princes that was like
to be moft favourable. It was very probable, this divifion
would caufe a war between the two Nations. But Ha- nsa !
rold, who was not poflefs'd of his Father's qualities, ima-
gined he was not ftrong enough to undertake the conqucft
of JVeJJex. It was owing therefore to the equality of
their forces, that the two kingdoms remained in Peace.

Hardicanute, who was in Denmark (6), made no hide £ ar i Cooi .
to come and take pofll-flion of the crown of IVeJJ'ex ; win Regan
whether he was detained by other affairs, or on this, as'/^" 1 -'*'
well as on all other occafions, gave way to his natural
(luggiflinefs. During his abfence, Earl Goodwin held die
reins of the Government in an abfolute manner, inde-
pendent of Emma, the Qiieen-Mother, who was not belo-
ved by the JVejl-Saxons. Mean while Harold was contri-
ving to gain by fecret practice?, a kingdom which he found
himfelf unable to fubdue by arms. As he had been de-
prived of it by the fole credit of Earl Gccdwin, he believed
there was no readier way to afcend the throne of that
kingdom, than by gaining the Earl to his intereft. He
took advantage therefore of his Brother's abfence, to make
Goodwin his friend, by means, which, though not declared
in hiftory, may be eafily guefTed at (7). Be this as it Delivers nf
will, he fucceeded to his wilh. Gosdwin, who was not tie kingdom
very fcrupulous, finding his account in what was propofed " Haruld -
to him by Harold, promifed to place him on the throne
ot JJeJJex. This affair was fo dexteroufly managed, that
fuddenly, on pretence that Hardicanute neglected to come
into England, Goodwin procured Harold to be acknowledg-
ed King of JJ'ejJex. This change howe\er was not made

( t) She is called by the Hiftorians Algiva, Ailiva, or Aliuina, (M. Wtjlm, H:tr.t:r.?.) and by Flor. Wore. p. 622. and Brompl. laid to be the daughter
ot Aifbelm Eirlot Nortbampion: being barren, ihe teigned a Lying-in, and got a Pruji 's, or a Nun's, Son newlv born, to be put upon her credulous Hul-
band. R. de Diecto, who calls her £e)uee>i, fay^ ihe did the lame by a Shoemaker's Son alio, which was Harold, p. 470.

(a) She is called Elgiia by the Saxon Annals and other:, which is the Saxon Name for Emma. S. D:.r.eirr. p. 164. Tyrrcl, 1.6. p. 64.

(3) And which he lud left to his Queen Emma. S. Dunclm. p. 179. Brompt. p. 93;.

(4.) At Oxford, Ann. Sax. MXXXVI. This Contcft about the Election of a King, very much weakens the authority of Simeon of Durham and
others, in relation to Canute's Will, Specially conlidcring the Marriage Articles with Emma, and the Silence of the Saxon Anna.:. Eefides, the States
of the Kingdom very fcldom or never failed to cleft wlum the laft King appointed in his Will.

(5) It was agreed amoneft them, that Emma fhculd live in Winebefier, and keep poffcffion of all Jf'eJ'ex j and that Goodwin fhculd be General of the
Forces. Sax. Ann. Malmpj. p. 76. Ihmtmgd. p. 364. Brompt.

(6) Ingmlpb fays, that be was in Englandix the timeoi the Lkciion, and went back to Denmark, p. 61.

(7) He is faid to have pronuicu the Earl to marri/ his Daughter.




Vol I.

a dtfign to
plaa on the
throne one of
her Sons by
S. Dunelm.
Ch. Mail-
M. Weft.

Alfred and

come into

acquaints the
King ivitb
the Queen's

He ad'vifei
tat murder
cftbe two

With the unanimous confent of the Weft-Saxons, but by the
fole contrivance of Goodwin and Come other Lords who
enoaoed fo heartily in the affair, that it was done before
any meafures could be taken to obftrucl it. Thus the
Wefl-Saxom few a new King on the throne, without ha-
ina the liberty to deliberate whether they fhould approve
or rejecl him. This is not the only inftance of the like
intrigues producing the like events.

Emma, Mother of Hardicanute, was extremely furpri-
fed at this revolution, which riot only depriv'd her Son of
the crown of Wtffex, but herfelf alfo of the hopes ot ever
having any fhare in the government. She perceived, as
matters flood, there was no poffibility of recovering the
crown for her Son Hardicanute ; and therefore turning her
thoughts another way, fhe formed a project, the execution
whereof feemed to her very practicable, which was, to
caufe one of her Sons by Ethelred, to mount the throne
She was in hopes, the Englijh would countenance with ail
their power an enterprise, tending to let the crown on the
head of a Prince of the race of their antient Kings. ^ Per-
haps the defire of pulling down Goodwin influenced her
projedt as much as her Son's advancement. To fucceed in
this defign, there was need of great prudence and diffimu-
lation. Above all it was necellary to find fome pretence,
without railing the King's jealoufy, to fend for the two
Princes her Sons, who were in Normandy, that they might
form a party for themfelves. With this view, fhe feigned
to be unconcerned at the expulfion of Hardicanute, con-
fining herfelf to Wincbefier, where fhe daily frequented the
Churches, and feemed to be wholly taken up with the
care of her Salvation. When fhe imagined the King was
fufficiently convinced of her difrcgard of State-affairs, fhe
begged leave to fend for the two Princes her Sons at
IVincheJler, whom fire had not l'een fince her fecond mar-
riage. Her requeft being granted, Alfred and Edward
arrived foon after in England, without difcovering any
other intention but to vifit their Mother. They were
careifed by great numbers of people, who, having Englijh
hearts, always firmly adhered to the antient Royal Fa-

Goodwin, who was a perfon of great fagacity, quickly
perceived the Queen's defign. It was difficult to impofe
in this manner upon fo refin'd a Politician. As foon as he
began to fufpecl her, he employed fo many Spies, that he
found at length his fufpicions were not groundlei's. He
acquainted Harold with the matter, who feemed ftartled
at it. But the Earl, who was not fo eafily alarmed, gave
him to underftand, the confpiracy was yet but in embryo,
and might with eafe be prevented ; that the difficulty did
not lie fo much in avoiding the prefent, as in guarding
againft future danger : That to fcreen himfelf, once for all,
from the like practices, he faw no better expedient than to
make away with the two Saxon Princes, fince fo fair an
opportunity offered. Harold approving of this project,
Goodwin advifed him to put on a feeming fecurity, to draw
them the more readily into the fnare. This refolution be-
ing taken, Harold made as if he were ignorant of the
Queen's defigns, and the two Princes continued fome time
at Winchejler, without his fhewing the leaft uneafinefs up-

on their account. At laft, making uft of an occafion,
which naturally offered itfelf, he invited them to come
and pafs a few days at Court, before they returned into
Normandy, where he feigned to believe, they intended to
eo very fhortly. Emma was in great fufpence on this oe-
cafion. She was very fenfible it would be difficult for her
Sons to o-ain a powerful party among the Nobility, with-
out appearing at Court ; where the Lords of the greateft
credit were ufually prefent. But on the other hand, fhe
could not refolve to deliver them into the hands of a Prince
whofe intercft it was to deltioy them. In this perplexk) ,
fhe took a courfe, which fhe judged proper to prev ent the
apprehended danger. This was, to fend Alfred her eldeft
Son to the King, and detain Edward under fome pre-
tence : She imagined in cafe Harold had any ill defign, he
would defer the execution till he had both the Brothers in
his power, feeing it would be to no purpofe to make-
away one, whilft the other was alive. Goodwin, pleated
that his advice had thus far f'ueceeded, managed fo that he-
was fent to meet Alfred, feemingly to do him honour,
but in reality, becaule he was unwilling to trull another
with the execution of his defigns. Alfred's little train,
compofed of Normans, were at firft charmed with the re-
fpecl Goodwin paid to the Prince. But their latisfaction
was quickly turned into a great conftcrnation, when the
Prince and all his attendants were flopped at Guilford
caitle, where they had been carried under colour of' re-
frefhing themfelves. Alfred was immediately conducted
to Ely, and, after his eyes were put out, fhut up in the
Monaflery ( 1 ). The unhappy Prince had fcarce time to
be fenfible of his misfortune, fince he died a few days af-
ter, either out of grief, or by fome more violent means.
At leaft, Goodwin was afterwards charged with his mur-
der (2). As foon as Edward was informed of his Bro-
ther's tragical death he fpeedily returned into Normandy,
for fear of the like treatment. Shortly after, Eimna', re-
ceiving orders to depart the kingdom, retired to Baldwin
Earl of Flanders, who affigned her the city of Bruges to
refide in. It feems fomewhat flrange, fhe fhould not go
to Normandy to Duke William her Nephew ; but proba-
bly, they who had the adminifiration of affairs during the
Duke's minority, did not think proper to receive her.
And indeed, it was to be feared this intriguing Priqcefs
would increa'fe the troubles of the Dukedom, where Wil-
liam was not yet firmly eftablifhed.

Whilft thefe things were tranfacling, Hardicanute wa-
king at length from his lethargy, formed a defign of reco-
vering by arms the kingdom of IVeffex, ufurped by his
Brother. For that purpofe he came to Bruges, to confult
with the Queen his Mother. In all appearance, he would
have found it very troublefome to execute this defign, had
not the death of Harold, which happened at that very
time, removed all difficulties. This Prince died (3) in
1039 without iffue, and without bavins; done any thino-
memorable (4). He was firnamed Harcfoot, becaufe his
Foot was all over hairy, or, as others affirm, becaufe he
was light and fwift of Foot (5). His death happened in
one of the hardell Winters that had ever been known in
England {b).



return to

Ni rmandy.
Sax. Ann.

W, Weft.


Harold dies.
S. Dunelm.
Sax. Ann.


(1) His attendants were tortured in the molt cruel manner, by Goodwin's order, and decimated, that is, nine were killed, and the tenth only faved ; fix
hundred are laid to have been put to death in that manner. 5. Dunelm. p. 179. M. Vfcft. p. 410. Knighton and Brompton mention one heliim kind of
Torture, which, it may be fuppofed, was only pracWed then, and in the Irijk Maffacre in 1641. They ript up lime or' the People's Bellies, and tying
one end of their Bowels to a Poll, made them turn round that Port till they were all wound up upon it. Br.mpton, p. 935. Knighton, p. aji6. Rujh-
■wortb, Hift. Col. Vol. IV. p. 411.

(2) This account of Alfred's death, Malm/bury fays, was built en common Report, and not being recorded, rcfufes to Touch the Fafl. But Mattbettt
Weflminfter, and others, relate it without diffidence. Molt of the ancient Mamfript Annals in the Cottmian Library, as alio a Treatife called Encomium
Emma, (which, 'tis plain, Malm/bury never faw) being a Panegynci wrote on that Ciueen, by a Monk of her own time, relate the matter thus. Harold
feeking by treachery to get thefe two young Princes into his power, torg'd a Letter in the Name ot Emma their Mother, eamefrly inviting them into
England, wherein, (perfonating her) " She gently chides them for their delay, in not coming over to infpicl their own affairs, fince they could not but
" know that it daily confirmed the Ufurper in his power, who omitted, no artifice to gain the chief Nobility over to his party: Vet allured them the
" Englijh had much rather have one of them to reign over them ; and therefore urged them to come as fpeedily and as privately as they could,' to confult
" what Meafures were molt proper to be taken." This Letter was fent to Normandy by an exprefs Meflcngcr, and received by the Princes with joy, who
lent word by the fame Hand, That one of them would be with her fhortly, naming both the time and place. Accordingly /i^fi-ci/theyoungeif, (by others
faid to be the eldert) at the appointed time, with a few /hips, and a I'mall number of Normans, failed-for England^ wherethcj wei-c no fooncr landed, but
they fell into the hands of Goodivin, who fcrved them as Rapin has above related. What makes this account the more probable, is, that had both the
Princes come over in the manner above-mentioned, Harold would certainly have put them both to death, fince it would have been in his power. The
Saxon Annals fay nothing of Alfred's death, and fome place it after Harold's deceafe. Such is the uncertainty of this Matter ; which makes it appear, how-
little traditional accounts are to be depended upon, though of no long Handing, fince this Story, tranfafled but a few years before the ConoueJI, is rcid fo
many ways. Malmjb. Knighton, Brompt.

(3) He died at Oxford, in the fourth year of his reign, and was buried at WimbiJItr j or, according to Brmptan, at Wifminfltr.

(4) He laid a Tax of eight Marks on every Port, towards fitting out fixtcen Ships. He made but one Law , mentioned by Selden, which was, that if
any IVclfhman coming into England, without leave, was taken on this fide Offa's Ditch, he fhould have his Right Hand cut oft by the King's Officer.

(5) Brompton Cays, he had his Sirname for refufing to ride on Horfe-back, and chufmg always to walk on loot, which, fays he, was very unbecoming
his R0y.1l State.

(6) The Saxon Annals MXXXIX, fay, that this year a Sefler, or Hork- load of Wheat, was. fold for fifty-five Pence, andnn. - .


Book V.

20. EDWARD III. the Confetti.


the fourth Danijh King of England,


han'.it nute

/../ .,/ KVffj


Sax. Ai;n.
S> Dunelm.

F T E R the death of Harold, the great Men
of both Nations unanimoufly made an offer of
the crown to Canute, firnamed the Hardy, not
to denote his courage, but his ftrong conftitu-
tion (1). He was then at Bruges, concerting meafures with
the Queen his Mother, for the recovery of the kingdom
of IVejfex, by means of a powerful aid promifed him by
the Earl of Flandefs. The news of Harold's death put-
ting an end to their confutations, he came to England
with forty Ships, he had brought from Denmark (2). He
■was received with great demonftrations of joy, both by the
Englijh and Danes. Earl Goodwin himfclf, though lie had
no reafon to rejoice at his arrival, after what he had acted
againft him, was the forcmoft to do him homage.

The new king began his reign v/ith an uncommon
'tis Broticr'i a& of cruelty. The ceremony of his coronation was
Corf!. hardly- over, when out of impatience to be revenged on

M.ilmlb. 1 ■ r> 1 1 1 1 1 1 iii-ii

Ins Brother, though dead, he commanded his body to
be dug up and thrown* into the Thames (3). But all his
care to prevent the Body from being buried again, proved
ineffectual. Some Fifhermen finding the corps floating
on the water (4), delivered it to the Danes, who inter-
red it in the burying-place of their Nation in London (5).
It is further added, the King being informed of it, ordered
the Body to be thrown once more into the River ; but,
being found again, it was privately buried at JVejlmin-

Shortly after, Hardieamde impos'd an exorbitant tax
on the kingdom (6), for the payment of the fleet fent back
to Denmark. Though the Englijh had often paid the like
tax, term'd Danegchl, they were diffatisfied to have it re-
newed on this occafion, when there appeared no neceffity
for it. The inhabitants of IVorerJler oppos'd the levying
this tax with the greatcft heat. They even proceeded fo
far as to kill two of the Collectors (7). Whereupon the
King immediately ordered Goodwin Duke of IVeJjex, Leo-
fnc Duke of Mereia, and Shvard Earl of hi orthumbcrland,
to draw their forces together, march to JVorcejhr, and
deftroy the City with fire and fword. Thefe Lords exe-


1.2. c. 12

S Dunelm


He impijc: a

heavy tax.
Sax. Ann*
Sedition at
en that ac-
Camden in

cured in part the King's orders, though with great reluct- ''"" '-*j
ance. The City was burnt, after hi n plunder'd' 1 " '

four days together. But the inhabitants had leave to retire
into a fmall Ifland in the Severn, namvl Beverly, till the
King was appeas'd (8).

Not long after Prince /.award, Son of Eihelred II, A»«w Ei-
and Brother of the King by the fame Mother, appealed at V3ri """"

U '.L -1 j ,- i r * Couit.

court. He met with .1 very civil reception, and prefently t>amlm
demanded juftice againft Goodwin, charging him wrth the
murder of his Brother Alfred (9). The King was well •'""-•"
enough pleas'd with having an opportunity to piinifh the
Earl, not fo much perhaps for the death of Prince Alfred, C<x [win.
as for what he had done in favour of the late King. He
was cited therefore to appear and anfwer to what was al- fffogrhoff
ledged againft him. But Goodiuin, who knew the cove- -J 1 "f t a
tous temper of the King, wifely diverted the ftorm by a
magnificent prcfcnt before his tryal. This prefent was a
Galley, with a gilt Stern, mann'd with fourfcore choice i "
foldiers, every one of whom had upon his arm a gold
Bracelet weighing fixteen ounces, with Helmets and
Swords all gilded, and a Demijli BartIe j HX adorn'd with
Gold and Silver, hanging on his left fhoulder, and a
Lance of the fame in his Right-hand. Every thing in
the Galley was anfwcrable to this magnificence. By
means of this noble prefent, the Earl was acquitted, upon
taking his oath, he had no hand in the death ot Prince
Alfred (10).

Hardicanute did not long enjoy a crown he was un- 1041,.
worthy to wear. He died luddenly in the third year of D ' jr '/
his reign (n), at the nuptial feaft of a Danijh Lord a; ' ' .
Lambeth (12). Perhaps his death was haflcn'd by poifon
(13) : but his exceffive cruelty and gluttony rendered him
(0 odious, that he died unlamented, neither was any in-
quiry made into the manner of his death. All Hiftorians
unanimoufly agree, he fpent whole days and nights in
feafting and carouiing (14). There is one however that Huntined,
praifes him for keeping open table four times a day, and
exclaims againft the niggardlinefs of the Kings his luccefibrs
who aboliih'd fo laudable a cuftom.

2 o. E D WA R D III. the Confeffor.


concerning the

years (15), with the confent of the Engli/lj^ bred another
difficulty, feeing Sweyn, Son ot Canute the Great, was
ftill alive. It is true, lie was reckon'd by fome as a
Baftard. But befides that the King his Father had not
treated him as fuch in the partition of his dominions, it
might be faid in his favour, he ought to have tire lame
privilege with his Brother Harold, to whom his being
born of the fame Mother was no obftacle to his mounting
the throne. It was therefore no afy thing to fettle
the fucceflion to the fatisfaction cf all parties. On the
contrary, it was to be feared that, on this occafion, the
old animofities between the two nations would be re-

ARD1 CANUTE leaving no iffue, Ed-
xvard, Son cf Ethclred II. and Emma of Nor-
mandy, was the only Prince then in England
that had any pretenfions to the crown. It

was but reafonable the race of the Saxon Kings fliould be

reftor'd to the throne of which they were unjuftly dif-

poffefs'd. But then it was no lefs right to recall out of

Hungary Prince Edward, Son of Edmond Ironjide, and

place him on the throne preferably to his uncle, who

was one decree farther remov'd. On the other hand,

the uninterrupted fucceflion of four Danijh Kings, who

had poffeiTed the throne for the fpace of twenty-eight

(1) The Woifl Hardy, is rendered by thofc that wrote in Latin, by Dtirus, zninotbyAudax. See Pontanu:. Hift. Din. Rafin.

(2) And landed at Sandwich, (even days before Midfummer. Sax. Ann. Huntingd. p. 365. 5. Dttr.ehi. p. 1 10.

(3) The Perfons employed in this Affair, were Alfric Archbiihop of Tort, Earl Goodwin, Slyr the Steward, Edric lhz Sever, and Trcudh the Execu-
tioner : They cut the Head oft', and flung the Body at firrr into a Sink, and afterwards into the 'Thame:. Malmjb. p. 76. S. Dunelm. p. 1S0. M. IVeJi. Brompl.

14) They pulled it up in their Nets. S. Dunelm. Malmjb. p. 76.

(5) Which cenftant Tradition affirms to be the Church and Church-yarJ of St. Clement Dane:. Brcmpt. p. 933.

(6) Of twenty-one thoufand and ninety-nine Pounds, tor the Army ; and eleven thoufand forty-eight Pcur.d:, fcr his thirty-two Ships. Sax. Ann.
Huntingd. p. 365. Malmjhury lays, he gave twenty Marks to every Sailor j but others affirm, it was eight Marks to every Sailer, and ten cr twelve
Marks'to each of the Captains. S. Dunelm. p. 1S0. M.lVefi. p. 412.

(7) Who were too buly and exacting. Malmjb. p. 76.

(8) This City, the Brancnium of Antoninus, and Branogenium of Ptolemy, whence called by the ll'eljh r.t this day, Cair Vrangon, was named by the
Saxons, IVogar-Ccjlcr, IVcgorna-CcJlcr , and rVirt-Cc/ter, perhaps from the Foreft Wire hard by. It v.as built by the Romans, as a Frontier Town againlf
the Bnton: or IVelp. It was fene'd formerly with high Roman Walls, and has now a ffrongWall. It was made an Ep-.w.pal Set by Sexvfut/ui Bimcp of
the Mercian:, in 9S0. It was loon rebuilt alter being burnt here by the Dane:. Camden.

(9) Simeon of Durham {ays, it was Alfric Archbiihop of York that accufed Goodwin and Linjir.gu: Biihop of IVcrcefler el this murder. S. Dunelm. p. lSc-

(10) This Year alfo, as Branpton tells us, Hardicanute fent over his Sifter Gunilda to the Emperor Henry, to whom the had been betrotii'd in her Fa-
ther's timcj before ihe went, the King kept her nuptial Feaft with that magnificence, in Cloaths, Equipage, and Feafting, that Matthew tt'e/trirrficr
lays, it was remembrcd in Iris davs, and fung by Muficians at all great Entertainments. After the Princefs had been fome time in Germany, the was ac-
cufed of Adultery, and could find, it leems, no better Champion than Municon, a little Page (he had brought with her from England, to vindicate her
Honour. She took it fo hcinoufly to be accufed, that ftie forfook her Hulband, and retired to a Monaftery, where Ihe ended her da>f- M. II ri«i. and

(11) Or rather in the Second; for he reigned but two years wanting ten days. Sax. Ann.

(12) (i.e.) A dirty Station. Baldwin Archbiihop of Canterbury, exchanging a Manor with the Biihop of Rxitfter, began here a Palace in 1 183.

(13) Moft probably he died in a drunken Fit. S. Dunelm. p. 179. He was buried in the old Monaftery in W inchifler by his Father Canute.

(14) He allowed his Court Jour Meals a day. Huntingd. p. 365. Knighton, p. 2329. John Roufe relates, that the day of King Hardicmutcs desdh
was kept by the Engltf/j as a Holy-Day in his time, tour hundred y.ars afterwards, and was called Hc?':-Tidt, or Hcck-lfidnejday. De Regih. Anglia. ,4

(15) Rapin fays rorty-four, which is a miftake, for from Sweju'i beigg proclaimed in 1014, to Haid:car.ut;z death in 1041, was but twenty-feven or
twenty-eight years at moft.


Vol. L.





E Iwar d

C. 1 dwin.

1.2. C. 13.



Vol, I.

( . 1 1!:. ill's


viv'J, and the kingdom plunged into its former calamities.
Edward, -Son of Ethelred JI, having (pent moft part of
his days in Normandy, was little known in England. Be-
lides, his merit, which was not very conspicuous, was
incapable of adding any thing to his light. However, a
fortunate advice, which neceility conftrain'd him to fol-
low, procur'd him a lupport, by which alone he was ena-
bled to maintain his pretenfions : I mean, Karl Goodwin.
Though it was but a few months fince, that Edward had
profecuted this Lord as the murderer of his Brother, i e wa 1
advis'd to court Lis protection, which he obtained with
greater cafe than lie durft have expected. Goodwin was fo

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