M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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p i\\ erful, and of fo fuperior a Genius to the reft of the
Nobility, that it would have been almoft impoffible for
Edward to fucceed in his defigns, if he had not gained him
to his intereft. He was already diftinguifhed as well by
his merit, as birth, when Canute the Great intruded him
with the command of the Englijh troops, in the war
a2.ainft the Vandals. After that expedition, wherein he
glc.rioufly fignalized himfelf, Canute made him Earl of
font, Suffix, and Surrey, and gave him in marriage
Tbyra, Siller of Earl Ulpbon, to whom Canute had given
his own Sifter Ejlrith, widow of the Duke of Norman-
dy (1 ). Goodwin had by his wife a Son, drown'd in the
Thames by an unruly horfe. His fecond wife was Gith, In fine, he omitted nothing that could inflame the rage



ble to the Englijh, they not only place on the throne a 1041.
Prince ot their own Nation, but alio deliver themfelves
from the fear of falling again under the dominion of the
foreigners.

In the general-affembly above-mention 'd, to which, in Goodwin's
all likelihood, the Danes being then without a Leader, Speech a-
were not called, Goodwin ftrenuoufly haiansu'd, to de-^f"^

n 1 r' r 7 1, 1 r , , e ■ Danes.

monitrate to the Englijh, " that a favourable opportunity
" now offered, to free themfelves from the oppreflions
" under which they had groaned for fo many years. He
" defciib'd with his natural eloquence, the calamities
" their country was overwhelm'd with, whilft in fub-
" jerftion to foreigners. He difplayed the extreme pride
" of the Danes, who, not content with fharing the king-
" dom with the Englijl), treated them like fo many flaves.
" He called to their remembrance the fad times, when
" an Englijhman and a Dane meeting on a Bridge, the
" former durft not ftir a ftcp till the latter was paffed
" over. That if an Englijhman did not make a low re-
" verence to a Dane, he was fure to be foundly cudgel'd.
" To all thele miferies he added that of the exceffive
" taxes they had been oblig'd to pay, particularly Dane-
" Gelt (6), which was impos'd for no other end but to
" fatisfy the infatiable avarice of their greedy Mafters."



Sifter of Sweyn, who was King of Denmark after the
death of Hardicanute. By this wife he had feven Sons,
Harold, Tojion, Swane, Ulnoth, Gurth, Elfgar, Lewin,
and a daughter, nam'd Editha. His credit with Canute
the Great; the fuperiority of his genius ; his ncble allian-
ces; his dignities of Earl of Kent, Duke oiWeffex, and
High-Trealurer, conferred on him by King Harold; and
lailly the government of the counties of Oxford and
Hereford, in the hands of his eldeft Son, had railed his



of the Englijh. This harangue wrought fo upon the Bmmpton.

Hearers, that it was refolved, no Dane for the future && refoh*

fhould ever fit on the throne of England. Some add, the'r, r ' r/w "'.

r , , .. iii,-i ,1 Danes, and

enumeration of the calamine.; they had fo long groan d do fi.
under, made fuch an impreflion on their minds, that with
one confent, they came to a refolution to drive all the
Danes out of the kingdom, and accordingly put it in exe-
cution forthwith.

This is one of the moft difficult paflages in the whole Tie diff.nl.



"uch a degree, that it would hardly admit of Englijh Hiftory ; which way foever it is view'd, infur- , '"'" tt "
. His intereft was fomewhat eclips'd in the mountable difficulties occur. In the firft place it is hard ,£$*$,,



fortune to II;
any addition,
reign of Hardicanute ; but he had the addrefs to divert to conceive, how in a general-affembly of the kingdom, Hijhry.



the danger he was threatned with. How great a grudge
foever the late King bore Goodwin, he was fuch an enemy
to bufinels, that lie could not refolve to undergo the ne-
ceilary fatigue of governing a large kingdom, but left all
to his management, as knowing him to be the moft able
of his fubjects. Goodwin knew fo well how to improve



it was poffible to come to a refolution to deftroy all the
Danes, and much more, how it came to be in the power
of the Englijl) to put it in practice. The Danes alone
were in a manner poiTeffed of all the eaftern and northern
Counties, and in Mercia, that is, in the heart of the
kingdom, were as numerous as the Englijl). Four Kings



£dward

premises to
marry

Goodwin'*
daughter.



He is pro-
claimed
Kin ■

Malmib.



Say.. Ann.
Aiirid Ric-
valltnns.
S. Dunelm.
lngulph.



thele favourable junctures to ingratiate himfelf with the of their nation had fucceflively reign'd, who far from

Nobles and People, that his power far exceeded that of humbling them, had no doubt mown them great favour,

all the other Englijh Lords. From what has been faid, and given them the fuperiority. And yet, without any

it plainly appears how neceffary Goodwins affiftance was, extraordinary event, except the death of Hardicanute, a

in order to Edward's mounting the throne, though his Prince of little merit and reputation, the Englijl} are faid

pretenfions had been ftill better grounded. However, to become on a fudden fuperior. But this is not all, 'tis

Goodwin was not one that neglected "his own, in promoting affirm'd, this fuperiority was fo great as to enable them

the intereft of others. Before he engaged in Edzvard's to expel all the Danes out of the kingdom. How is it

caufe, he required certain conditions, and made him fwear poffible to believe, the Danes fhould fuffer themfelves to be

to marry his daughter Editha. The Prince complied with thus mafter'd, without making the leaf! reffiftance? For



i plied
thele term?, notwithftanding his inward reluctance to ef-
poufe the daughter of a Man, whom he looked upon as
the murderer of his Brother Alfred.

As foon as Goodwin had received from Edward the
affurances lie demanded, he conven'd a general-affem-
bly (2), where, by his management, that Prince was ac-



1 Pontanus.



it does not appear, there was any war or commotion in
the kingdom on this occafion. The Danijlj Hiftorians i
make tire matter ftill more improbable. They fay, all the Meurfius.
Danes in England were mafiacred in one night by the
treachery of Harold Son of Goodxuin, who ordered all the
Danijh foldiers to march out of the garifons, under pre-



knowledged (3) and proclaimed King (4), with unanimous tence of folemnizing the funeral of the late King (7).

confent (5). It was happy for the Englijl), there was But this account has not the leaft appearance of truth :

then in the kingdom never a Prince of the family of for, in the firft place, Harold, who was then very young,

Canute the Great, whom the Danes might have fet up in had no fhare in the government, and confequently could

oppofition to Edward. If Sweyn King of Norway had give no fuch orders to the Danijh officers. In the next



been on the fpot to head the Danes, it may reafonably
be prefum'd, either that his pretenfions would have
caufed a civil war, or England been once more divided
into two kingdoms. Without doubt, the Danes would
never have fuffer'd the rights of the royal family of



place, how was it poffible that all the Englijl) Hiftorians,
Brampton only excepted, who however fays much leli of
the matter, fhould agree to pals over in filence fo remarka-
ble an event? Nay, how could they write their Hiftorics
without ever making the leaft allufion to it. If 'tis ob-



p- 93+-



Denmark, four Princes whereof had fucceflively fat on jected, they were filent, as afham'd of their Nation for fo

the throne, to be thus deftroy 'd. On the other hand, barbarous an action, what is the reafon they had not the

the Englijl) were fo averfe to a Danijh government, that fame fcruple with regard to the Maflacre in the reign of

probably they would have ventured all to free themfelves Ethelred ? Thcfe are difficulties that are not eafily to be

from that yoke. But the prelent juncture proving favoura- clear'd. There feems, at firft fight, to be a plaufible way

(1) Mr. Tyrrel, and other! fay, that Goodwin's firft Wife was Canute's Sifter ; but according to Pcntanus, (lie was only Sifter to Vlplm, Brother-in-law
to Canute, which is moft probable. Safin. See Malmjb.

(2) At Gilingeham, or London. Malmjb. p. So. . .

(3) And chol'en by the Clergy and People, lngulph. p. 62. Sax. Ann. M. Wejlm. p. 41:, &c. He was advanced to the Thrcne, chiefly through the
Intereft of Leofrie Earl of Chejtcr, of Goodwin Earl of Weffcx, and Living Bifhop of Worctjler. Ingulf h. ibid. Knighton.

(4) He was crowned at //'/ncir/rer, in 1042. on Eafter-day. Malmjb. p. So. Sax. Ann. S. Dunelm. .„.-,, ■ ,. -

(5) Bromfton and feme others relate this Matter otherwife : Upon Harduanute's death, Alfred, (whom feme afllrm to be (lain in II.:- a . lorrs m Har-
(foafiure's reign) being invited into England, Goodwin reprefented to the Lords that he was coming with great Number, of I at, r. whom he had
premifed to give Eftates. Upon which Goodwin was lent to meet him at Southampton, where, in order to make way to the Ci it. : h): 1 wn Son by
Canute's dauehter, he ferved him in the barbarous manner before related in the reign of Harold. The Englijh Nobles, wh< h id not appu Vcd ot this
Treachery of Goodwin's, vowed revenge, which Goodwin being informed of, fled into Denma, k, and his Eitate in England was conf.U ted. Aircr this,

-the Fnvhlh fent over to Edward, to defire him to come and take poflemon of the Crown. Shortly alter his cor. natl a, <- d%, ir. ■ mg of K.ng Ed-
wani's gracious temper, return'd into England, to petition tor his Pardon and Eftate again, and was acculrd by the Ktil bef r< an .1! n blj held at Lon-
d,,:, ot his Brother Alfred's murder. But with much ado, by the Intercellion ot Uofnc and other Peers, the matter wa s made up, and t was reftorcd to
all his Lands. Enmfton Cbron. p. 934, fife. Huntingdon agrees in the main with this relation, but fays, that Goodwin mui d, becjuic lie

thought him of too high a Spirit to marry his daughter, whom he aimed to make Queen of England, by marrying her to Edward, an eafy and fimple
Prince. But this, Milton oblervcs, is contrary to all records. -..■., .

(6) This Tax amounted to forty thoufand Pounds a year. King Edward relcafcd the Nation of this heavy burden in the year 1051. The cccafion of
his fo doing, though related by Jngulphnt, will l'carcc be credited. As the King wascne day brought to fee the huge h.. p of W collected by this

Tax, he ftarted back as in a treat Fright, and being alked the Reafon, protefted he faw the Demi capering and dancing o»er the [oney. Upon which
hecidered it to be all paid back to the People, and Dane-Gelt to be aboliflied forever, after it had been paid thirty-eight year-, lngulph. p. 05. Edit.

(-') Eaque nox, exiguo temporis momento, vetuftam Danorum doroinationem, ac Icngo multcque Majorum fudore & fingvpe partum lrrpe iurn ita
mdedit, ut vix unau am poflea Daqos fartuu* relpexeiit. f int. in iKfi Mag. Bt/ii. 1. v. An, 1045. Kaptn.

2 to



Book V.



20. EDWARD II r. the Confeffot:



*3*



King Ed-
u'ard'j Cha
rafter.



Ailrcd.
p. So.



The State of
tbc Court.



to refolve them, namely, to accufe the Hiflon'ans, as well
EngUJh as Danijh, of not telling the whole truth, or ag-
gravating the facts they relate. But by this courfc, we
run into (till greater difficulties. Jt is moil certain, finca
the beginning of the reign of Edward the Confeffbr, the
Danes have heen lb far from making any figure in Eng-
land, that they are not mentioned in hiftory any more
than if they had never heen known, though juft before
they were matters o\ the whole kingdom. But whence
could proceed fo fudden a fall, or rather, how could they
all vanifh in a moment, if neither expelled nor maHacied?
Hittorians do not fay, war was made againft them, their
ftrong-holds taken, and they brought under new laws.
But, all on a fudden, thele fo powerful and formidable
Danes arc redue'd to nothing, in the reign of a Prince the
nioft unwarlike that had ever fat on the throne. Theft
are hiftorical difficulties, the dilution whereof I am fore'd
to leave to others. But to return to Edward.

He was a Prince of a weak conflitution, and a narrow
genius, not at all qualified to rule a large kingdom. His
unfleadinefs on important occafions, his inability in pub-
lick affairs, and his continual attachment to trifles, gave
the Nobles opportunity of afliiming an alrnofl: fovercign
power. As foon as they perceived the weaknefs of this
Prince, they became fo arbitrary in their governments,
that they obeyed the King's orders no farther than was
confident with their own interelt. Earl Goodwin efpeci-
ally ufurp'd by degrees fo great an authority, that he had
alrnofl the fame deference paid him as the King himfclf.
Perhaps the meannefs of Edward's genius was the princi-
pal motive of his procuring him the crown, to the end
lie might govern in his name. Neverthelefs, how fair
foever the King carried it towards him, in his heart he
utterly hated him and his whole family. This was the
true reafon of his deferring his marriage with Editba as
long as he could. But as he flood in fear of the Earl, he
durfl not break his word with him ; and therefore after
flaying two years on feveral pretences, he efpoufed his
daughter, according to his promife. However, he did
not confummate the marriage, fo great was his averfion
to all that belong'd to Goodwin. The Queen, who was
a perfon of ftricT: virtue, and endow'd with a greatnefs of
Soul, bore this ufage with a wonderful patience. Inftead
of complaining of her hard treatment, fhe never open'd
her mouth about it; but finding it was not in her power
to gain the affef5tion of the King her Husband, diverted
her thoughts with fludy and afls of devotion ( i ). The
author of the life of Edward pretends, this Prince made
a vow of chaftity, long before his marriage, and perfuaded
the Queen to do the like. But Malmsbury does not know
what to think of this ftrange proceeding, and fhews a
ftrona; inclination to believe, Edward's hatred to Goodwin
was the real caufe of his abftaining from his daughter.
He durfl not venture however to divorce her, for fear the
Earl, by whofe Intereft he had mounted the throne,
might ftill have it in his power to depofe him, or at leaft
create him a great deal of trouble. For this reafon he
continued to conceal, in all other refpefts, his averfion
to him, and even to heap favours on him, in expectation
of a favourable opportunity to fhew his refentment. But
he did not confider his diffimulation increafed the Earl's
credit with the people, who imagining he was in great
favour with the King, more firmly adher'd to him. Good-
win wifely improved thefe advantages, and became every
day more formidable to the King, by the great number of
friends he acquir'd. In all probability, he would have
grown in time, as powerful as the Mayors of the Palace
were formerly in France, if he had not met with a coun-
ter-weight, which prevented his rifing to that degree of
power, fo fatal to the royal authority ; I mean, Siward
Earl of Northumberland, and Leofric Duke of Mcrcia.
Siward had the reputation of the braveft and moft worthy
Peer in the kingdom. His excellent qualities gave him
great authority at court, and among the Northumbrians.,
who were under his government. Leofric was univerlally
efteemed and refpecled for his merit. His power was lb
great in Mcrcia, that he was more a King there than Ed-



ward himfclf. Thefe two Lords uniting together, to pre
vent Goodwin from foaring too high, firmly adher'd to the
pci ion of the King, and endeavoured to the utmofl of their
power, to fupport his authority. Without their affif-
tance, Edward, who was naturally weak, would have
found it very difficult to fccuie himlelf againft the artifices
of fo able and powerful a fuhiect a, Goodwin. Thus mat-
ters flood at the court of England, during the firft years
of this reign. It was neceflary to premife this, for the
better undei Handing the fcqucl.

Edward, to whom is given the glorious titles of Saint Eivmi
and Confeflbr, mounted the throne with difpofitions re- './"' / *
pugnant to fan&ity. Beftdes his hatred to Goodwin and bit M#btr
his own wife, he cherifhed in his breaft againft his Mo- «HberEJIaU t
thcr a defire of revenge, which agreed no better with the§^JT
maxims of the gofpel. It is true, his Mother who had
never any great affection for him, had done enough to ex-
af'peratc her Son in marrying Canute the Great, mortal
enemy of her firft Husband. She had moreover given her
confent, that the children of her fecojid marriage fliould
fucceed to the crown of England, which (hewed but little
friendfhip for thofe of the firft. This thing made lb deep
an impreffion on Edward's mind, that all her endeavours
afterwards to procure him the throne, were not able to
efface it. As foon as he found it in his power to make
her feel the effecls of his refentment, he delay 'd not to
fatisfy his paffion. On a fudden, when fhe leaft expected
it, he came to ll'inchejhr, where her trcafures lay, and
without fhewing the leaft regard for her, ftript her of All,
leaving her only a moderate penfion for her fubfiftence (2).
Thus this Princels, widow of two Kings, Mother of Sjx A
two more, and daughter of a Duke of Normandy little 1042/
inferior to a King, law herfelf in the latter end of her
days, reduced to extreme poverty by the rigour of her own
Son (t).

But Edward was not content with fhewing, by this aft AnJntaim
of violence, the little regard and aft'e&ion he had for his^^',",'
Mother. Several Hiftorians allure us, he moreover caufed Trial,
her to be accufed of Incontinence with Alwin Bifbop of n ' "T^



W



Knighton.



inchejler. They even fay, that, regardleis of her qua- ,,
r. 1 riii I ? 1 . t , Camden,

lity, lie was fo hard-hearted as to make her undergo the

Ordeal trial. This trial confifted in obliging the party
accus'd to walk bare-foot and hood-wink'd over nine red-
hot Plough-fha res. It is pretended, Emma came off un-
hurt, and gave in memory of this deliverance nine Manors
to the next monaftery (4). But, we have juft obferved,
fhe had none left to give. However this be, fhe palled
ten years in the fad condition fhe was reduced to by
the King her Son, living in IVinchrJler as a fort of
prifon, from whence fhe was delivered by her death in
1052 (5).

Whilft Edward was thus venting his refentment upon s fc
his Mother, he received certain advice, that a great ftorm of Norway
was gathering in the North. Sweyn King of Norway, P r 't 1 """
Son of Canute the Great, defining to profecute his claim '^ l "f c \

1 c n 1 1 ■ England.

to the crown ot England, was preparing for an invafion s. Dundm.
with all expedition, which put the Englijh in dread of the Hovei «
like miferies, they had fo long experienced, and from which
for fome time they had been happily freed. Edward, who
was no lefs terrified than his fubjeds, made fome prepara-
tions to repulfe an attack which he was extremely alarmed
at (6). Gunilda, niece of Canute the Great, fell a facri- qmUi
fice to his fears. She was conftrained to abandon the iani/btJ,
kingdom and her family, to prevent her contriving fome
plot in favour of the Danes. But by an unexpected happi- 1 0+ ,
nefs, a war, which fuddenly arofe between the Kings of Norway arj
Denmark and Norway, broke the meafures of the latter, "*>»>«*
and brought peace to the Englijh contrary to their expedta- "'
tion. Some time after, Sweyn was depofed by Magnus Son
of Ola'us the Alartyr, whom Canute the Great had di^oC-
fefled of Nonvay. Magnus was no fooner niafter of that
kingdom, but he carried the war into Denmark ; with
intent to dethrone the King, whofe name was alio Sweyn.
This laft demanding atliftance of England, Goodwin was 3. DuSdro,
of opinion, that to keep up the war between thefe two
Princes, an aid of fifty fail fhould be fent him. But
Siward and Leofric, for reafons unknown, prevented the



(1) Ingulpbus fays, the was not only the moft beautiful, chafte, humble and modeft Lady of her time, but alfo very learned, infomuch that he tells u%
when he was but a Bey, and lived at court with his father, fhe was ufed to meet him coming from fchool, and took delight in pofing him n"t Daly ia.
Grammar, but in Logick alio. And when fhe had done, would order her fervant to give him fome pieces of Money. He farther fays, ihe had nothing <'t"
her Father in her. Whence it was become a faying, Stent Spina Re/am, genuit Goodwinus Editham. Ingul. p. 6z. Edit. CaU. See Ailred RicvalU

P- 377-

(2) Prscepit fufheienter ei neceffaria miniilrari. M.Wejlm. p. 415.

(3) This, Edward did by the advice of the Earls Leofric, Good-aim, and Siward. S. Dunelm. p. 1S2. Homed.

(4) In Wincbefter.

(5) This trial of Emma is related by Bromptm and Knighton, and embelliihed with fome trivial circumftances by Harpsfeld. They tell a&, Robert Arch-
bifhop of Canterbury, a Norman, (whom Edward had brought over with him) acculed the Queen of confenting to the death of her Son Alfred, ofendea - -
vouring to poilon her Son Edward, and of maintaining an infamous commerce with Eiihop Attain. For which (he was condemned by a Council held obi
purpofe to purge herfelf by the trial of Fire Ordeal, as fhe had offered to do, and as it is related above. But this whole matter admits of great Difputes,
far Malmjbury, Florence of ' ll'orcefter, Huntingdon, Hweden, and IVeftminjler, who lived neareft the time, fay not a word of this miraeuluas purgation.
Then again Brampton fays, Robert immediately fled the kingdom ; whereas he went net of}", as Malmjburv allures us, till leveral years after upon another
occafion, as we Dial! fee : Moreover he could not be Archbjlhop then, fince Edjius lived till 1050, which was three years after Alwin's death, I'acordmg
to Flor. JVejl. Homed. Cbron. Mailr.) whom Brompton fuppofes to be alive at the trial, for he lays, he alio gave nine Manors to the Church of tVmebcJler.
The Saxon Annals fay, Edjius died in 1047, and Ahoin in 1045 i an -' 3 therefore Robert could not be Archbiihop till two years after his death, according to
the Annals. Thus this whole itory feems to be a mere fiction.

(6) He west ta Sandwich with thirty-rive Ship, Sax, Aim,

Council



132



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. t



council from coming to this refolution. For want of this
afliftance, Siueyn was dethroned, but reftored to his king-
dom, after the death of his enemy.
»^n -n. The troubles in Denmark hindered not the Danijh Py-
Pyrin, malt rates from putting to Sea, and carrying terror to the tng-
aDejcmton fcjfr CO afls. In the year 1046, twenty-five Sail of Danes
Sax' a"*' arrived unexpectedly at Sandwich, from whence they car-
Huntingi ried off a great booty. Then failing for EJJix, they car-
ried away great numbers of Slaves of both Sexes, and all
conditions. The Engiijh were extremely terrified ; but
Goodwin, Siward, and Leofric took fo juft meafures that
die Danes, alarm'd in their turn, haitily retired, and car-
ried their ravages elfewhere.
Swan iti The rctreat of tne Danijh Py rates did not entirely reftore
Sm >f£ar! peace to the kingdom, the coafts being that fame year in-
Goodwin fefted by a new enemy. Swane, Son of Goodwin, having
Sax^Ann. deflowered an Abbefs (1), with whom he was in love,
Huntingd. and not daring to flay in England after fuch an a£t, reti-
S. Dunelm. rer \ j nto £) enma r&, where he in vain expected his pardon,
by the mediation of the Earl his Father. But whether
Goodwin was willing lie fhould be chaftifed, or found the
King inexorable, Swane was not able to procure a pardon
fo foon as lie imagined. When he law, contrary to his
expectation, he was made to wait for it a long while, he
mann'd eight Ships, and made open war upon the Engiijh,
plundering the Merchants, and committing fuch barbarities
„ t ., . on the inhabitants of the Sea-coafts, as exceeded thofe of
the Engiift the moft cruel enemies. His infolence gave Goodwin's
Caajls. enemies a great advantage, who took occafion from thence

to exafperate the King more and more againft the Earl
and his Family. He himfelf was in great perplexity a-
bout this affair. He was not willing to appear openly for
his Son, left: he fhould be charged with abetting his rebel-
lion. On the other hand, he could not but be extremely
concerned at Swane's being confidered as an enemy to the
Publick. To free himfelf from this fituation, he defired
Earl Beorn, Son of Ulphon and FJirith, Sifter of Canute
the Great, to ufe his intereft with the King in behalf of
his rebellious Son. Though Beorn had openly declared
againft Swane, he was prevailed with by Goodwin to fpeak
to the King, who complied with his requeft upon certain



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