M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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him to be Elfric Archbifhop of Canterbury. Others fay p " ,i5 '
it was Elfri- 'he Gramm.ir.'an, firnam'd Ptitta, who was
Archbifhop of York. But which ever of the two it was.
they both liv'd in the reign of Ethelred II, and neither of
them was ever aci'us-'d of Heterodoxy. But as ft rnitrht be
objected, that Elfric was not of the fame opinion with the-
Author, whom he tranflated, tho' that is not yery likely, the..
contrary is evident from the following words of the fame
Elfric, in one of his Letters to the Clergv. ' The Sacrifice
of the Eucharift is not the Body in which our Saviour fuffered
for us, nor the Blood he Jhtd for et!r fakes ; but 't!s t»e fame
Body and the fame Blood fpiritually, . jujl as the Manna was
which fell from Heaven, and the Water watch flow'd from
the Rock. 'Tis therefore moft certain, from the Teftimony
of a Prelate, who was at the head of the Church of Eng-

{*) Theft Homilies are in Lar
that y| ti ■•■; t >-' m Cambrhe.

; ItileJ Snr-.inet Cdtiih.i i The .Tranfiition of thejii iata CU Er.g'tjh it prefcrvci in :V< Bidlr.jn Library , zrA in
1 ; Nan Gtrftraliter kA 0/ - :i.* 'tier*


v 4 4

rie H I S T R T of ENGLAND.

;•• /'■-'•

Maty, and
• '.he Saints.
V., I. I.

f- 5r-

tlfric'j C:

r. ■ "'.
Tom I.

F- ^? ! -

Tic X,tr-d
Tom. I-

Synod of

land, that the Doftrine of Tranfubftantiation was nor in-
troduced into that Church in the time of Etbelred II, who
afcended the Throne in 979. There is no way to evade
the force of thi". proof, but by aflerting the Homily beiore-
mentioned to be fpurious. But this is much eafier faid
than prov'd.

It is not the fame with regard to the Invocation of the
B'.efled Virgin, and of the Saints in Glory, fince, on the
contrary, we find it was pracTfed in England in this very
Century. This is manifeft from Canute the Great's Char-
ter to the Abbey of Glaff'cnbury, where there is mention of
the Bleffed Virgin, and all the other Saints. But as the
Authority of the Charters of thofe days are not equally ad-
mitted by all, the fame thing may be proved from a pub-
lick Litany then read in the Church. Here we fee that
after the Invocation of the Holy Trinity, thefe words are
thrice repeated, O Holy Mary, pray far us : After which
the Angels and Saints were addrefl'ed to [by name]. It is
to be obferved, when this Practice was firft introduced,
the Application to the Bleffed Virgin and Saints was not fo
direct ; May the Holy Virgin the Mother of God, and all
the Saints intercede for us. Thefe are the words in the
publick Office of canonical hours ufed by the Anglo-Sax-
ons (1). This Office, which is in Latin, affords this re-
mark, that although the Leffons, Prayers, Pfalms, Lord's
Prayer and Creed, are in the fame Tongue, yet at the
end of each Article of Verfe, there follows a Saxon Tranf-
l.ition in a paraphraftical way, that the people might un-
derftand what was faid.

Among the Canons, which go under the name of El-
fric, of whom I have already fpoken, and who lived in
"the reign of Ethelrcd II, the XXXIIId obliges Priefts to
have by them two forts of confecrated Oil, one for Chil-
dren, and another for the fick ; and enjoins that the fick
fhould be always anointed upon their beds, and fhould can?
fefs themfelves' before the Ceremony of anointing palled
upon them, which no Prieft was to prefume to perform till
defired by the fick pcrfon. Whence it may be inferred,
they did not ftay till the fick were in their hit Agonies, be-
fore they adminiftred the extreme Undlion (z).

In the XXXIIId Canon, the four firft General Coun-
cils (3) are put upon the fame foot with the four Gofpcls ;
but thofe of later Ages are not of fo great Authority.
Hence 'tis evident that the Author of thefe Canons did
not think all the general Councils were infallible. Had
he been of this opinion, he would not have given a
greater Authority to the four firft than to the other Coun-
tils (4).

From the beginning of tha Reign of Etbelred II, to the
Norman Conqueft, we find in the Ecclefiaftical Hiftory of
England but two Councils. In all appearance, the wars
with the Danes prevented the Bifhops from affembling
more frequently, or rather were the reafon that the adts
of thefe Conventions are loft. Both thefe Councils ( 5 ),
one at Engjham, and the other at Haba, were held, whilit
Elpbegus was Archbifhop. The moft remarkable Canons
are as foilow.

of In the Council of Engfnam, the lid Canon enjoins the
Celibacy of the Clergy.

The IXth forbids all Perfons to do any wrong to the
Church, or eject, a Clergyman out of his Benefice without
the Confent of the Bifhop.

By the XVIIth, every Friday was to be a Faft, unlefs
it fell upon a Holiday (6).

The XXth enjoins frequent Confeffions, and the People
are ordered to receive the Sacrament three times, at leaft,
in a year ( 7 ).

The Council of Haba has but one Canon worth notice.
By the fecond, every Chriftian was obliged to faft three
days with Bread and Water, before the Feaft of St. Mi-
chael, and to dilfribute among the poor what he fhould
have eaten in thefe three days.

This is all worth remarking in thefe two Synods. But
to fupply the want of Councils, we have the Ecclefiaftical
Laws of Canute the Great, and Edward the Confeffor ;
lome of which I (hall infert, to fhew the great regard

Vol. I.

thefe two Princes had for the Clergy. The following ones
are Canute's (S).

The IVth enjoins all Chriftians to pay great refpecr. to canute'i
the Clergy, becaufe their Sacerdotal Functions are extreme- EcclejiajEf.
ly beneficial to the People.

By the Vth, if a Prieft was accufed of any crime, he
had the liberty of purging himfelf by faying Mafs, and
receiving the Eucharift.

The X'llth recommends Celibacy to the Clergy, and
ranks them among the Thanes of the fecond Ciafs, that is,
among the Gentry (9).

The XXth ordains, that at Funerals the Dues fhall be
paid upon the breaking up ot the ground ; and that the
Dues lhall be paid to the parifh the deceafed belonged to,
tho' he was buried el fe where.

The XXIId enjoins the obfervance of Sunday from Sa-
turday three a-Clock in the afternoon, till Monday break of

The XXIIId determines the times of Faffing, and pla-
ces the Vigils of the Feftivals of the Bleffed Virgin, and of
the Apoftles among the Fafts.

There are feveral others, relating to the payment of
Tythes and Peter-Pence, the Violators of the Priyfleges
of the Clergy, and the like, in favour of the Church.

It is likewife decreed by thefe Laws, that every Chrfc
ftian fhould learn the Lord' s-Prayer, and the Apoflles
Creed; ptherwife, they were allowed neither to ftand God-
father, nor receive the Communion, nor have Chriftian

The Ecclefiaftical Laws of Edward the Confeffor run Etchfiafi^
protection of the Church and Clergy. bj„~~i. '

chiefly upon the pi-



The Ift forbids the molefting a Gergyman, contrary to P- 62 S"
the tenour of the Privileges of the Church.

The lid appoints certain Days, whereon all proceedings
in the Courts of Juftice were to ceafe.

By the Hid, the Church's Caufes are to be tried firft.

The IVth firmly eftablifhes the immunities of thofe who
in any wife depend on the Church, and ordains that they
fhall not be obliged to anfwer any Plea, CjiY. except in the
Ecclefiaftical Court.

The Vth confirms the Privilege of Sanctuary to Chur-
ches, and extends it even to Priefts Houfes.

By the Vlth, if any Perlon broke in upon the Privileges
of the Church, he had no way to get off", but by fub-
mitting to the fentence of the Bifhop.

The Vlth orders the punctual payment of Tythes, and
fets forth what is to be paid.

The IXth determines the circumftances relating to the
Ordeal Tryal.

The Xllth fettles the fine of Manbote, or the fum to
be paid to the Lord for killing any of his Vaflals or
Slaves : The King's and the Archbifhop's Manbote is fixed
at the fame Sum.

By the Xlllth all found treafure belongs to the King,
unlefs it be found in a Church or Church-yard ; then the
Gold is the King's, and the Silver the Church's ( 1 o).

It is vifible throughout thefe Laws, that the Clergy took
care of themfelves, when they met with devout and eafy
Princes, or fuch as flood in need of their Intereft.

But notwithftanding the great condefcenfion of the EktSotatf
Saxon Kings for the Clergy, they could not retain the '^jf/
privilege of chufing their Bifhops and Abbots. Whilft the
Prelates confined themfelves within the bounds of their pa-
ftoral Functions, and meddled not with civil Matters, the
potter of electing was freely left to the Chapters. But
when the Bifhops were become rich and popular, and
began to interpofe in State- Affairs, by reafon of the Fiefs
they were poffefled of, it was of great confequence to the
Kings, to have fuch Bifhops and Abbots as were in their
Intereft, or at leaft, were obliged to them for their Pre-
ferments. Accordingly, the Kings began to imerpofe in
Elections, by way of canvaffing, or recommendation, and
very often bv rcfufing to put in poffeffion of the Fiefs be-
longing to the Church or Abbey, fuch Prelates and Abbots

(1) SanEta Dei Gtnetrix Pfrgo Maria &f omncs Sancri Dei interccdant pro nobis peecatoribus ad Dominwn, ut mercamur ah eoa&juvari &fa/vari, qui
-~: . is Sf rcgnas Deus. Now this amounts to no more than a With for their IntercelTion, and is far from a direct Invocation. Thi^ Office is tranflated by-
Mr. ■ Imfned ite Addrefs, as far as we can discover, did not pievail in England till the tenth Century : At which time, in the Homily of the
Affumptioh of the Bleffed Virgin, there i- a direct Prayer to the Biffed virgin to intercede for them. Cell. Feci. H.Jl. p- 214.

j2) Tte XXIIId orders the Prieft to read, on Sundays and Holydays, the G.fpet, the Lord's Prayer, and Creed, in Englifi.

(3) tVtae, Confiantinople, Fphcfui, and C hale eden.

(4) Thi^ is directly oppdite to the Doctrine of the Modern Church of Rone, which pays the fame fubnvflion to the Decrees of the Council of 'Trail *'
f A-, - , and reckons the Church in all Aees alike infallible.

{•) Thes were made up v{ Seculars as well as Ecclfiafticks y and the Confutations paired there related both to Chutch and State. Co/1. Feci. Hil.
p. 20S.

(6) The XlXth enjoins Widows to fray twelve Months after the Death of their Husbands, before they marry again.

( ; 1 The XXIIId 01 dors, that the vcarly naval Expedition be performed fooner after Eiijler.

,s) In the Preamble, it is laid thefe Laws were drawn up at rVincheflcr by the Advice of the Wife Men of the Nation, that i c , the Prelates
Nob! .

■<<' I In in 1) . h" [Ami is the Vlth. The Law fays, if a Priefl abstains from a Woroui, may God have mercy upon him, and let him have
•yorld'j Hnneurofa Thane. Wilkins, p. 129. c. 6.

Ji. ; The original Law in Dr. WiUdtis, p. 199. c 14. fa; », the Gold is all the King's, and halt' the Silver, and the other half goes to the Church.


Book V.

The State of the Churc h.


,.. 63.

ot Sees,

S. Dnnelm.

•'■;,• Bijbopl
</ Landaff
jirj! conjh-
crr.eeii by
the Arch-
bijhoy of

as they did not like. In fine, the authority of the Court
l>y Degrees prevailed fo, that in the time of Ethelred II,
the Monks had entirely loft the privilege of chuiing their
Abbots, as appears from lngulphus. In thofe days, fays he,
the A'hnks and Abbots fcldom reforted to Court. But ever fince
tl>e Kings have difpojed of the Abbies, the Monks have made
intent/} with the Courtiers, which fometimes cofl them very
dear. This Hillorian loudly complains of this abule,
though he himfelf was inft ailed in the Abbey of Croyland
bv the fame method, that is, by the fole will and pleafure
of TVilliam the Conqueror.

There were but two removals of Bifhops Sees within
the Period I Jim going over. The See of Kirton in Wef-
fex ( 1 ) was removed to Exeter (2), and the Sec of Lindf-
farn in Northumberland to Durham. Aldhun Bifhop of
Lindisfarn, being difturbed in that little Ifland by the
Incurfions of the Danes, refided at Durham, carrying
with him the Relicts of St. Cuthbcrt. He built a Cathe-
dral, and fixed his See there, where it has remained to
this day (3).

In 981, the Archiepifcopal See of Canterbury acquired a
new Jurifdiction hj JVales. Gucan, a Weljh Prieit, being
chofen Bifhop of Landaff, and confecrated by Archbiihop
Dun/Ian, this Precedent was followed by his Succeilors,


time of Archbifhop Lanfranc, who changed it info
Prior. But to return to Egelnoth: This Prelate rais'd the
See of Canterbury to its former Luftre, b< ing Supported
by Canute the Great, with whom he was tnui ll inl
He was fucceeded by Edfius, who had been K tig Harold's
Chaplain(6). He governed the Church till the'yeai iu;n,
either by himfelf, whilll his Health permitted, or by a
Chorcpijcopus, when difabled b) ficknel This Chweptj
copus, who exercifed all the Archiepifcopal Functions, re
lided at St. Martm., in the I Rob, t, a Norman

Monk, made Bifhop of Londenby Edward the Canfeffir.
was by the fame Prince promoted to the Sec of Canterbury

zha Edfius. He was driven from tl :, in the man- Ultima.

ner before related, and banifh'd the Kingdom by an Al '-'••'
fembly General, and Stigand BMhoy of ll in, ' ■ placed^ .. K
in his room. Robert appealed to the Pope againfl thefe
Proceedings; but Stigand, notwitliftandii the Appeal,
and without ftaying for the Pope's determination, who for
that reafon fufpended him, got himfelf confecrated. But, •
notwithstanding his Sufpenfion, and tho' he had never '*>' fufieM
applied to Rome for the Pall, he exercifed all the Metro-
political Functions, till he was depos'd in William the "
Conqueror's time (8). Very probably, in thofe days, the
Englijb were not of opinion, that the Archbifhops elect /:

who like him owned the Archbiihop of Canterbury for could not exercife their Functions till the Pope was plealld

A:c)iLi:1, p,

Sutrrftion of
He Arch-
bijb,ps of
de Pontilic.
Aft. Punt.


£. id: ' .

A great
Change in
St. Auguf-
tin'i Mo-

their Metropolitan. Some infer from hence, that all the
Britijh Bifhops at the fame time owned the Superiority
of the Church of Rome. But this coniequence cannot be
admitted. It is certain, the Bifhops of St. Davids all
along exercifed the Archiepifcopal Functions in Wales, till
the time of Henry I, and that without the ornament of
the Pall, the mark of fubmiffion to the Pope (4).

As the Archbifhops of Canterbury and York made the
created Figure among the Englijh Prelates, during the laft
Period of the Saxon Monarchy, it will not be amifs briefly
to carry down the Succeffion of each of thefe Sees. This
will be of fervice towards clearing what has been already,
or fhall be hereafter, related of the Affairs of the Church.

Ethelgar, Dun/ion's SuccefTor, was Archbifhop but one
year and three months, and was fucceeded by Siricius.
This Prelate is blamed by all the Hiftorians, for advifing
Ethelred to give Money to the Danes, which ferved only
to allure them hither, inftead ot keeping them away. But
perhaps they who exclaim againft hiiri moll, would have
given the fame advice, had they been in his place. El-
fric, Tranflator of the Saxon Homilies, whom I menti-
oned elfewhere, fucceeded him in 995, and was followed
in 1 006, by Elphegus, who was murdered by the hands of
the Danes. Lanfranc, Archbifhop of Canterbury in the
Conqueror's time, very much queltioned whether Elphe-
gus might properly be called a Martyr, fince he was not
malfacred on account of Religion, but only becaufe he
would not confent the People of his Diocefe fhould be
taxed to pay his Ranfom. Anfelm, Abbot of Bee, whom
he confulted on this occafion, told him, he who chofe to
die rather than to do an unjuft thing, received by his death
the Crown of Martyrdom. Livingits fucceeded Elphegus
in 1 o 1 3. He was kept Prifoner fome time by the Danes,
and after the recovery of his Liberty, retired into France,
till the Storm was over. Afterwards, he returned to his
See, and died in 1020. Egelnoth, called the Good, was his
SuccefTor. In the time of thefe two Archbifhops, St.
Augu/lin's Monaftery was much degenerated, by the licen-
tious Lives of the Monks, who indeed wore the religious
Habit, but with little obfervance of the rule. The caufe
of this alteration was, the maflacring of all the Monks, ex-
cept four, when Canterbury was taken by the Danes. The
fecular Clergy, who afterwards fupplied the place of the
dead Monks, were willing to enjoy the Revenues and Pri-
vileges of the Monaftery, but not to be ty'd to the rule
obferv'd there before. They took greater liberties than
the old Monks, and gave the Title of Dean to their fupe-
rior, inftead of that of Abbot, which remained till the

toimpower them, or that the Pope's bare fufpenfion was
fufficient to put a flop to their acting as Primates.

Tfie Succeffion ot the Archbifhops of York was- as fol- Sticteffi
lows. After the death of Ofwald (9), mentioned in the' .-'
foregoing Book, Adulph fucceeded him in 993, and go-y^k'^
verned his Church till 1002, when by his death he madeStubto.
room for Wuljlun II, who, after twenty one years, was
fucceeded by Elfrk Putta, firnamed the Grammarian,
thought by fome to be the Author of the Trahflation of
the Saxon Homilies. To him fucceeded Kinfus(ia), in
1050, after whom came Aldred, who was alive at the

Among the Bifliops of note in thofe days, Wulfflan WulflUo
Bifhop of Worcefter was a Perfon of an extraordinary B 'ft r P f
Character in fome Mens opinion, tho' Lanfranc thought ^rwini-
him unqualified for the Office of a Bifhop, 'for his ftupi- Knighton-
dity and want of Learning. But this is not the firft time Bl -""!""''•'
that weak Men have been made to pafs for Saints. This
Prelate being confecrated by Aldred Archbifhop of York,
made his profeflion of canonical obedience to Stigand Arch-
bifhop of Canterbury, though fufpended by the Pope. To crefly, P ,
account for this difregard of the Pope's fufpenfion, 'tis pre- 9^4-'
tended, the fubmiffion was made to the See of Canterbury,
and not to the Perfon of Stigand: But when fuch like
Ailertions are advane'd, they fhould be fupported with fome
Authorities, whereas this here is deftitute of all.

Edmund Bifhop of Durham was remarkable for the man- Edmund
ner of his Election. The Chapter cf Durham being met ?jf'f 'f
to elect a Bifhop-, and not being able to agree upon their s. Dunelnrt
Man, Edmund, a Prieft of that Church, faid jeftingly, p- 3<?.
thatlince they were at a lofs whom to choofe, they had as
good take him and make him a Bifhop. As Miracles were
then much in vogue, the Chapter looked upon this moti-
on as a divine impulfe, and fo unanimouflv agreed to elect
him. Edmund became famous for his courage and bold-
nefs in reprimanding Vice, even in Perfonsof the higheft
birth and ftations.

We muft alfo reckon in the number of illuftrious Per-
fonsof that Age, certain Englijb }lcde{ia.Bicks, who flou-
rifh'd in Sweden and Norway. Olaus Scot-Kunung, King En ? 1 '"'
of Sweden, defining to turn Chriftiani defired Ethelred ^f"!^ H
to lend him fome Miffionaries to inft ruct him in the Goi- Jo. Magn.
pel. Sigefrid, Archdeacon of York, (and not Archbifhop, as '' ''■ c - l 9-
a Swedijh writer will have it,) Eskil, Gunichild, Rudolf, ^oeajiia
and Bernard, or David, undertook this Miffion. Sigefrid Hid. Suec.
was made Bifhop of Wcxia, a City in the Province of
Smaland in Sweden, and baptiz'd Olaus. Some fay how-
ever, he received Baptifm at the Hands of Bernard; but f a * Gra:n

(1) Crediton or Kirton (lands on the Credcn in Devon/hire ; there are now no Footftcps of it; having been a Bifhop's See, but a great Meadow, called My
Lord's Meadoiv.

(2) This City ftands on the River called Ifi by the Britons, and Ex by the Saxons, whence the Names Jfea and Exan-cefler. The Jf'eljb call it to
this Day Cat'ifc. It was made a Bi/hop's See by Ed-.varH the ConfcJ/or, in 104.". Leofric a Burrundian was the firft Bifhop. Here are fifteen
Churches. The Organ in the Cathedral ii the largeft in England, the greateft Pipe being fifteen Indies Diameter. The City is about a Mile and half in

(3) Durham being almoft furrounded with the River Were, was called by the Saxons, Durdjohne, Dun fignifying a Hill (the City being feated on one) and
Holme, that is, a River Illand j it was built about the Year 99 c.

(4.) See Ciraldus Cambrenfis de Jure & Statu Meneveniis Ecclefi^, p. 518, &c. Anglia Sacra P. II. Marca de Concord, &c. 1. 1. c. -.
Ann. 9S3.

(;) Egelnoth, who was Archbifhop feventeen Years, refilled to Crown King Harold, teliing him he was enjoined by Canute his Father to fet the
Crown upon none but the IlTue of OJieen Emma. Then laying; the Crown on tfu' Altar, he denounced an Imprecation againft any BifVp that fhould:
venture to perform the Ceremony. Hatpsfeld. llifi. Eccl. Sec. X. c. io. This, if true, is another Argument againft Canute's Will. Set p- 12-.
Not. (4).

(6) Edfius crowned or anointed King Edzvard the ConfcJJor, on E.iJ!:r-Day, and then preached upon the Occafion. Sax. Ann. MLXII. This is the firft
Coronatr.n-Sermon we meet with.

(7) fiat Canterbury. Ger-vas. Ait. Pontif. p. 1650. The Archbifhops formerly had a Chorepifcopus, orAfiiftant: but this Ofnce was extinguided by

Lanfranc. Coll. Eccl. Hift. p. 2I 3 .

(8) Malmfbury fays, he procured a Pall five Years after from Sennet the Antipofe. De Gift. Pcntf. I. 3. He was imprifoncd at Wmbefter by William I,
where he died. Malmjb. ibid.

(9) He was buried at St- Mary's in Worcefter, which he built. Stubbs.

(10) Chaplain to Edward the Confiffbr : Stubbs fays, he ordained one Magfues Bifhop of Glafccr.; ard John his SuccefTor, and teceived an Acknowledg-
ment of his Metropolitical Jurifdiction in writing, which wai loft with many other Inftrument~i when Tori was fet on Fire by ^e Ntmuxt fooa after the
Conqueft. Stubbs, Ail. Pontif. Eborac. p. 1700.

N'VIII. Vol. I. O o this



Vol. I.


this is not very material. The greateft part of thefe Mif-
fionaries were martyr'd by the Pagans, to whom 'they
preached ( i ).

I have fpoken clfcwhere, though in a very general man-
ner, of the divifion of the Kingdom into Pariflies. But
fincc I am arrived at the end of the Saxon Empire, it
will not he foreign to the purpofe to conclude what I ha\e
to fay of the Anglo-Saxon Church, with a more particular
account of this matter.
TbcDimJim Augujlin, the firft Bifhop of the Saxons, receiving from
tfParilha the King of Kent fome Lands, for the maintenance of
Co\lir.d"'' himfelf and the Monks he brought with him, difpofed of
the Profits of thefe Lands, and the offerings of Chriftians
as he thought fit. But becaufe he wanted InftrucStions in
this matter, he confulted Gregory I, who told him, it was
the cuftom in the Church of Rome, to divide the Offerings
into four Portions, and di (Tribute one of them for the
maintenance of the inferior Clergy. However, as Augujlin
and his Companions were Monks of the fame Order, the
Pope exhorted them to live together as Brethren. Thus
alfo lived Aldan and Ft nan Bifhops of the Northumbrians,
who were Monks as well as Au/lin, though of a different
Order. But it cannot be inferred from hence, that in
all the Churches, the Bifhop and his Clergy lived in
common, as fome pretend. On the contrary, it feems to
follow, from the Bifhop's being obliged to diftribute the
fourth part of the Church's Revenues among the Clerey,
that they did not live in common. Be this as it will,
the Bifhop and Clergy were maintained as well out of the
profits of the Lands given to the Church, as by the daily
offerings of the People.

The number of Chriftians encreafing every day, and
there being at firft in each Diocefe, which contained a
whole Kingdom, but one Church, it could not but be
very incommodious to many of the new Converts to refort
thither. It was necefTary therefore that others fhould be
built, and Priefts fent to officiate in them. Thefe Priefts
were not however fixed upon any particular Church, but
kept with the Bifhop, who fent out fometimes one, fome-
times another, to minifter in the remote Churches, after
which they returned to him. In proportion therefore as
Chriftians encreas'd, new Churches were erefted for the
conveniency of thofe who lived at a diftance from the
Cathedral. Thefe Churches were no more than Chapels

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 60 of 360)